Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(571 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a mythical king of Persia, of the Kayānid dynasty. Son of Siyāwak̲h̲s̲h̲, who had left his father Kai-Kāʾūs and taken refuge in Tūrān where he had married the daughter of king Afrāsiyāb [q. v.], he was born after his father’s death and brought up in this country among the shepherds of the mountains of Ḳalū (a valley near Bāmiyān), in ignorance of his illustrious origin; but this was soon revealed. At seven years old he was making bows and at ten he feared neither lions nor tigers. Then Pīrān, …


(407 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, Muʿizz al-Dīn, king of Dihlī, was the son of Nāṣir al-Dīn Bug̲h̲rā, king of Bengal and second son of G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Balbān [v. balban] of Dihlī. On the death of his eldest son, Muḥammad Ḵh̲ān, who was slain by the Mug̲h̲uls, Balbān made his second son, Bug̲h̲rā Ḵh̲ān, who was governor of Bengal, his heir, but the prince could not endure the restraint of his father’s court, and was absent in Bengal when, in 1287, the throne became vacant, and the amīrs made his son, Kaiḳobād, king. Kaiḳobād, who was barely eighteen years of age at the time of his accession, had been most…


(1,442 words)

, the name of three Seld̲j̲ūḳ Sulṭāns in Asia Minor. Kaiḳobād I, ʿAlāʾ al-Dunyā wa ’l-Dīn Abū ’l-Fatḥ K. b. Kaik̲h̲usraw. How he had been taken prisoner in the reign of his brother has already been told under kaikāʾūs I. The death of this brother in 616 (1219) opened to him not only the gates of the fortress of Gud̲h̲arpert, where he was then interned, but also placed him on the Seld̲j̲ūḳ throne. All the Turkish emīrs do not seem to have been quite agreed about this, as they declared for another brother, Kaiferīdūn, but Kaiḳobād suc…


(418 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a mythical king of Persia, of the Kayānid dynasty. The Avesta knows his name in the form Kavi Kavāta, but nothing more of him; tradition only preserves of him the fact that he was grateful to the Yazatas for having made his empire glorious and for having reestablished the legitimate line of kings of Īrān. The only source to consult is the S̲h̲āh-nāma of Firdawsī. To defend Īrānian soil against the invasions ¶ of the Tūrānian Afrāsiyāb, the Sace Zāl, father of Rustam, after ripe reflection and consultation with the mōbed̲h̲’s decided on Kai-Ḳobād, who was living in the mountains of A…


(370 words)

Author(s): von Zambaur, E.
(a.), the most general term for measure. The word next has the special meaning of measure for dry goods such as grain and cereals of all kinds and finally (like kaila) means ¶ contents (or weight of the contents) of a definite measure of capacity. Another series of meanings is: measure, correct measure, tested, adjusted or official measure (or weight). In this meaning it is found on the Egyptian glass weights (e. g. dirham kail) and in the papyri as kail al-dīmūs (μέτρον δημόσιον) — a well known official measure for corn in general use for the levying of taxes, to be distinguished from ḳanḳal, whi…


(112 words)

Author(s): Zambaur, E. v.
, a measure of capacity in local use and varying very much, whose size varies between ½ and 2 l. (or kg. = ¾ to 3½ pints). The term existed as early as the 3rd century a. h. (E. v. Zambaur) Bibliography (for the preceding article also): Sauvaire, Matériaux, im Journ. As., Series 8, viii. (1886), 126 sq. S. Lane Poole, Arabic Glass Weights in the British Museum, N°. 47, 51 Becker, Papyri Schott-Reinhardt, i. 31 and 72 al-Ṭabarī (ed. de Goeje), Glossarium, p. cdxxxiv and cdlxii Behrnauer, Institutions de Police chez les Arabes in the Journ. As., Series 5, xvi. (1860), 131 al-Ḵh̲wārizmī, Mafātīḥ al-ʿ…


(347 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
bi-ʿAmri ’llāh, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar ʿAbd-Allāh, ʿAbbāsid Caliph. He is said to have been born in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 391 (Nov. 1001); his father was the Caliph al-Ḳādir [q. v.], who had homage paid to him as his successor shortly before his death; his mother was an Armenian or Greek slave. When he ascended the throne (Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 422 = Nov.-Dec. 1031), the Caliphate had almost entirely lost its secular power and anarchy reigned practically supreme in the capital. To make himself obeyed, he ordered in 426 (1034/35) tnat a^ judicial offices should temporarily suspend their activiti…


(48 words)

(a.), “standing upright”, “perpendicular”. Hence ḳāʾim-maḳām “standing in place (of another)”, “deputy”; Ḳāʾim al-Zamān [q. v.]; zāwiya ḳāʾima “right angle”. Also: “existing” for example in ḳāʾim bi-nafsihi (or bi-d̲h̲ātihi) “selfexistent” (said of God). Ḳāʾim bi-also means “executing anything”; hence al-ḳāʾim bi-amri’liāh “He who executes God’s command”.


(437 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
al-Zamān (a.) i. e. “Lord of the Age”, a S̲h̲īʿa term. The phrase includes the two theological meanings of “representative of God on earth” and “Deputy” of the Prophet. Among the earlier S̲h̲īʿīs for example the Imām is called “the ḳāʾim”, “our ḳāʾim” or “the ḳāʾim of his age”, synonymous with ḥud̲j̲d̲j̲a or k̲h̲alīfa. The political application of the word brought in the meaning of “rebellious”, current among all the seceding sects, c. g. also among the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲īs. Through chiliasm the name is given to the Mahdi as “resurrected” from (apparent) death who is active in the “age” through the na…


(547 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim
bi-Amr Allāh, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, the second ruler of the Fāṭimid [q. v.] dynasty, born in 280 (893), succeeded his father ʿUbaid Allāh al-Mahdī in 322 (934) on the throne, assumed the praenomen Muḥammad and at his proclamation took the name of al-Ḳāʾim bi-Amr Allāh. His father had designated him his successor as early as 298 (911), when after the death of al-S̲h̲īʿī [q. v.] he thought his own rule sufficiently secure, and had had his (viz. the prince’s) name mentioned in the Friday prayer; …


(409 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
(t. originally a.; cf. Ḳāʾim), the name for paper-money in Turkey, an abbreviation for Sehim ḳāʾimesi (“revenue bonds”); the word was originally used of drawings and documents which were written on large, long leaves in such a way that the lines ran parallel to the narrower side, as was the case with the first issues of Turkish paper-money; later the term ewrāḳi̊ naḳdīya took its place. The first ḳāʾime appeared in 1840 and were manuscript. They bore interest at the rate of 12%, were to be accepted as money at the public banks and to be current throughout the ki…


(212 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
(a.), “deputy”; pronounced and written ḳaimaḳam in Turkish, the name of a rank and office in Turkey. In the period before the tanẓīmāt reforms the word meant the officer ( rikiābi̊ humāyūn or āsitāne ḳaimaḳami̊), temporarily commissioned to act as deputy at the court or in the capital in the absence of the Grand ¶ Vizier, the so-called ḳaimaḳam pas̲h̲a. The case is an isolated one in which the Grand Vizier appointed an ordu ḳaimaḳami̊ to represent him in the camp (Luṭfī, Taʾrīk̲h̲, iv. 19); we also find ḳaimaḳams for the Serʿaskers and the Ḳapudan Pas̲h̲a ( Ḏj̲azāʾir Ḳaimaḳami̊ for the eyālet o…


(1,805 words)

Author(s): Fischer, A.
(b. Ḏj̲asr), usually Banu ’l-Ḳain or, with ellipsis of the syllable nu, Balḳain, nisba Ḳainī, an Arab tribe. The official Arabic genealogy gives as its true name al-Noʿmān b. Ḏj̲asr (see Wüstenfeld, Geneal. Tabellen, Ṭab. 2, 20; Ibn Duraid, al-Is̲h̲tiḳāḳ, ed. Wüstenfeld, p. 317; Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs, s. v. ḳyn; lbn Ḵh̲allikān, Wafayāt al-Aʿyān, éd. de Slane, Article Wat̲h̲īma b. Mūsā, about the middle; etc.); it therefore interpreted as originally a nickname — and probably rightly — al-Ḳain, which means, as a name, “smith”, “metal worker”, “swordmaker” etc. (cf. Aram. ḳēnāʾā, ḳaināyā, “sm…


(665 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(Banū), one of the three Jewish tribes of Yat̲h̲rib. The name differs from the usual forms of Arabic proper names but at the same time has nothing Hebrew about its type. Nothing certain is known regarding their immigration into Yat̲h̲rib. They possessed no land there but lived by trading. That their personal names known to us are for the most part Arabic says as little regarding their origin as the occurrence of Biblical names among them. But there seem to be no valid reasons for doubting their Jewish origin. In Yat̲h̲rib they lived in the south-west part of the town, near the Muṣallā and close …


(3,382 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(French Kairouan) a town in Tunisia, 112 miles south of Tunis and 40 west of Susa to which it is joined by a railway; it lies in 35° 40′ N. Lat. and 10° 2′ E. Long. (Greenwich). The population in 1910 was 22,000 including 800 foreigners of whom 300 were French. Kairwan lies 250 feet above sea-level in the middle of a great plain traversed by the Wādī Zerūd and the Wādī Merguellil, which ultimately disappear in sebk̲h̲as or salt lakes. These rivers are subject to sudden floods, which sometimes ¶ transform the environs of the town into a lake extending up to the foot of the walls. When…


(542 words)

Author(s): Kowalski, T.
b. al-Ḵh̲aṭīm b. ʿAdī, with Ḥassān b. T̲h̲ābit [q. v.] the most important poet of pre-Muḥammadan Yat̲h̲rib, the latter Medīna. He belonged to the Banū Ẓafar, a family of the Nabīt of al-Aws [q. v.]. In the desperate fighting between the two tribes of al-Aws and al-Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲, he championed the former with tongue and sword. Very little is known of the facts of his life, if we except the later, very doubtful stories. The account of the revenge he took on the murderers of his father and grandfather i…


(1,188 words)

Author(s): Fischer, A.
, apparently an ancient Arab idol. He must have early disappeared as a deity, for His̲h̲ām b. al-Kalbī does not mention him in his Kitāb al-Aṣnām and he is not given in the various passages in Arabic literature that give lists of the gods of the Ḏj̲āhilīya. But that he was at one time worshipped as a gcd may be deduced with considerable certainty from the tribal name ʿAbd al-Ḳais [q. v.] and from the well-known personal and tribal name Imruʾ al-Ḳais [q. v.]; cf. the Arabic names Imruʾ Manāt, ΑμρισαμσοΣ and ΜυρουλλαΣ in Wellhausen, Reste arabischen Heidentums 2, p. 5 sq. and (= Imraʾallāhi) and (== Im…


(2,171 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
, a little island in the Persian Gulf, in that part of it which the mediaeval Arab geographers call the “sea of ʿOmān”, in 54° E. Long. (Greenw.) and 26° 30′ N. Lat. Ḳais, which next to Kis̲h̲m [q. v.] may now very well be considered the most important of the Persian islands of the Gulf, is about 10 miles long and five broad; it is separated from the mainland by a strait about 12 miles wide, which affords a very secure passage. Apart from a few rocky places, the island is quite flat; it is bette…
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