Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(181 words)

Author(s): Arnold, T. W.
(Lubbay) (Tamil, ilappai, said to be a corruption of ʿarabī), a class of Indian Musalmans, also known as Ḏj̲onakas (Skt. vavana, “Greek, western”), supposed to be descended from Arab immigrants who intermarried with native women, but now having nothing to distinguish them from the aboriginal people, except their mode of dress and manner of shaving the head and trimming the beard. In 1911 they numbered 401,703, found chiefly on the E. coast of Southern India. Most of them are Sunnls, of the S̲h̲āfiʿī mad̲h̲hab, and their head-quarters are at Nagore, the burial place of their pa…


(1,497 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
b. Rabīʿa Abū ʿAḳīl, an Arab poet of the pagan period, who lived into the days of Islām ( muḥaḍram), belonged to the family of Banū Ḏj̲aʿfar, a branch of the Kilāb, who belonged to the Banū ʿĀmir and therefore to the Ḳaisī Hawāzin. According to Ibn Saʿd, vi. 21, he died in 40 (660/661) in the night on which Muʿāwiya arrived in al-Nuk̲h̲aila to conclude peace with Ḥasan b. ʿAlī. Others, like Ibn Had̲j̲ar, iii. 657, whom Nöldeke ( Fünf Moʿallaqāt, ii. 51) thinks ought to be followed, give. 41 a. h., others again 42. He is said to have reached an unusually great age (al-Sid̲j̲istānī, K. al-Muʿammarīn, ed…


(254 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
( Lais̲h̲a divi, “the hundred thousand isles”), a group of coral atolls lying off the Malabār Coast between 8° and 14° N. and 71° 40′ and 74° E. There are thirteen islands in all, but only eight are inhabited, and these are divided into two groups — the northern, including the inhabited islands of Amini, Kardamat, Kiltan and Cetlat, and the southern, including the inhabited islands of Agatti, Kavaratti, Androth and Kalpeni. The northern group, for administrative purposes, forms part of the south K…


(336 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(Lādīḳ, Greek Λαοδίκεια), the name of several towns in Asia Minor. 1. The ancient Λαοδίκεια κατακεκαυμένη ( Lādīḳ Sūk̲h̲ta). It probably derived this name from the smelting furnaces which it had around it as the centre of the quicksilver mining area. It was in Ḳaramān north of Ḳūniya on the great military road which ran through Asia Minor. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa already knows it by its modern name of Yorgān Lādīḳ or Lād̲h̲iḳīya in Ḳaramān. Bibliography Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, Ḏj̲ihān-Numā, p. 611 sqq. Ibn Bībī, ed. Houtsma in Recueil de textes relat. à. L’hist. des Siljoucides, iii. 23, 25 …


(489 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, in French usually Lattaquié or Lattakié, became the capital of the autonomous “gouvernement de Lattaquié (État des Alaouites)”, created on Aug. 31, 1920 by the French mandatory administration; its constitution was promulgated on May 14, 1930 by the Haut-Commissaire. Since that date the town, which under Turkish rule before the World War looked ruined and filthy, has developed into a clean and flourishing town. It has about 25,000 inhabitants including about 18,000 Sunnī Muslims, 400 Orthodox G…


(1,616 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a sea-port in Northern Syria, the ancient Λαοδίκεια ἡ ἐπὶ θαλάσσῃ. It was founded by Seleucus I, who called it after his mother Laodike, and towards the end of the Seleucid empire it was a member of the alliance of the four most important Syrian cities, the πόλειΣ ἀδελΦαί, Antiocheia, Apameia, Seleuceia and Laodiceia. In the reign of Justinian I it was made the capital of the newly founded province of Theodorias. When the Arabs under the governor of Ḥimṣ, ʿUbāda b. al-Ṣāmit al-Anṣārī, advanced on the town, the inhabitants made a determined resistance. ʿUbāda encamp…


(1,001 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, al-Ag̲h̲wāt, a town andoasis in Southern Algeria, 250 miles south of Algiers in 2° 55’ East. Lat., 33° 48’ N. Lat., at 2,400 feet above sea-level. In 1911 it had 5,598 inhabitants of whom 595 were Europeans. Laghuat which forms part of the “Territoire” of Ghardaïa is the capital of a mixed commune and a native commune of 6,650 square miles with 19,810 inhabitants. The town and the oasis lie on the right bank of the Wēd Mzi, which comes from the Ḏj̲ebel Amūr and finally under the name of Wēd Ḏj̲edi enters the S̲h̲oṭṭ Melg̲h̲ir in the south of the province of…


(2,712 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
a sultanate in South Arabia with its capital of the same name north-west of ʿAden, bounded by the Ḥaws̲h̲abī territory on the north, the Faḍlī territory on the east, the ʿAḳrabī land in the south and the Ṣubaiḥī territory in the west. The capital, called Laḥid̲j̲ or el-Ḥōṭa lies at a height of 350 feet above sea-level between the two arms of the Wādī Tuban, the Wādī Ṣag̲h̲īr and the Wādī Kabīr, in a fertile oasis which, occupying a wide valley, owes its existence to its irrigation by canals led…


(1,279 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
1. A town in Gīlan to the east of the Safīd-Rūd and north of the mountain Dulfāk (cf. the ancient name of a people Δέρβικαι) on the river Čom-k̲h̲ala (Purdesar) which 8 miles higher up flows through Langarūd, the present capital of the district of Rān-i Kūh. Lāhīd̲j̲ān although unknown to the early Arab geographers is certainly one of the oldest towns in Gīlān. Its foundation is attributed to the legendary Lāhīd̲j̲ b. Sām b. Nūḥ. The river Safīd-Rūd divides Gīlān into two parts. In ancient times the river formed the frontier between the Amar…


(1,011 words)

Author(s): Whitehead, R. B.
, capital of the province of the Pand̲j̲āb, British India, situated on the river Rāwī, at 31° 35′ north latitude, 74° 20′ east longitude. Population in 1911, 228,687, of whom 129,301 were Muḥammadans. The foundation of Lāhōr is traditionally attributed to a mythical Lava or Loh, son of Rāma, after whom it was named Lohāwar. It is not mentioned in the chronicles of the invasion of Alexander the Great, nor is the town described either by Strabo or Pliny; but it may be the Labokla of Ptolemy, which Sir Alexander Cunningham (in his Ancient Geography of India) explains as Lavālaka, “the abode o…


(11 words)

(a.), night, Lailat al-barāʾa, Lailat al-Ḳadr, see Ramaḍān .

Lailā K̲h̲ani̊m

(381 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, with Fitnet Ḵh̲ani̊m, the greatest Turkish poetess of the older school, at the end of the romantic and beginning of the modern period. Bom in Constantinople, the daughter of the Ḳāḍī-ʿAsker Moreli-zāde Ḥāmid Efendi, she received an excellent education. ʿIzzet Mollā [q. v.] contributed most to her poetical development; she was related to him and always retained a grateful memory of him as is shown by her elegy full of deep feeling on his death. In her case the lack of information about her is c…

Laila ’l-Ak̲h̲yalīya

(228 words)

Author(s): Bräu, H. H.
, an Arab poetess, daughter of ʿAbdallāh b. al-Raḥḥāl(a) b. Kaʿb b. Muʿāwiya of the tribe of ʿUḳail b. Kaʿb. She got her name from the fact that her father — according to other traditions one of her ancestors Kaʿb or Muʿāwiya — was known as al-Ak̲h̲yal (= “the falcon”); perhaps it was a common name in her family and the phrase naḥnu ’l-ak̲h̲āʾilu in her verses glorifying her family may refer to this ( Ag̲h̲ānī, x. 80; Ḥamāsa, p. 711). Laila is usually mentioned in connection with her fellow-tribesman Tawöa b. Ḥumaiyir al-Ḵh̲afād̲j̲ī; fragments of her laments for him are preserved in the Kitāb al-A…


(983 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, 1. the most southern group of Kurd tribes in Persia. According to Zain al-ʿĀbidīn their name (Lāk, often Lākk) is explained by the Persian word läk (100,000) which is said to have been the original number of families of Lak. The group is of importance as the Zand dynasty arose from it. The Lak now living in Northern Lūristān are sometimes confused with the Lūr (Zain al-ʿĀbidīn), whom they resemble from the somatic and ethnical point of view. The facts of history however show that the Lak have immigrated to their presen…


(639 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
(Banū). With the exception of the Lak̲h̲mid clan in the ʿIrāḳ, so frequently celebrated in the old Arab poetry, the pre-lslāmic history of this family is not well known and is full of legend. Their traditional genealogical tree is given in the article d̲j̲ud̲h̲ām. According to it Lak̲h̲m was of Yemen origin and was the brother of Ḏj̲ud̲h̲ām and ʿĀmila. These genealogical tables may be taken for what they are worth for Ḏj̲ud̲h̲ām. As to Lak̲h̲m, Yemenīs and Maʿaddīs claim descent from the powerful Lak̲h̲mid dynasty of the ʿIrāḳ. As to the…


(756 words)

Author(s): Whitehead, R. B.
, former capital of the province of Oudh (Awad̲h̲), now secondary capital of the United Provinces of Āgrah and Oudh in British India; situated on the river Gumtī, at 26° 52′ N. L., 80° 56′ E. L. Population at the 1911 census, 19,782, of whom 4,461 were Muhammadans. Nothing is known of its history prior to the Muḥammadan invasion; even the derivation of the name is uncertain, though the first syllable is a contraction of Lačman or Lakhman. The oldest part is the Lačman Tila, which was colonised b…
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