Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(62 words)

, title of sūra lxxviii., taken from the opening verses: “Concerning what do the unbelievers ask questions of one another? Concerning the great news”. According to the commentaries the great news alluded to is the resurrection, the subject of lively discussions among the Meccans. Bibliography The commentaries and translations of the Ḳurʾān Nöldeke-Schwally, Geschichte des Qorāns, i., Leipzig 1909, p. 104.


(1,579 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, an Arab people who lived in ancient times in Arabia Petraea. — As early as the seventh century B. C. the Nabayāti are mentioned by Assurbanipal ( Keilinschr. Bibl., ii. 216 sqq.). Whether the Nebayōt̲h̲ of the Old Testament are to be identified with them is uncertain (against the identification: Nöldeke in Schenkel’s Bibellexicon, s. v. Nabatäer; for it amongst others: Musil, Arabia Deserta, New York 1927, p. 492). The Nabataeans were never completely subjected either by the Assyrians, or the Medes, Persians or the Macedonian kings (Diodor. ii. 48). In 312 b.c. Antigonos sent two expe…


(555 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
(a.), prophet, borrowed from Hebr. nābi or Aram. nebīʾā, is found in the Ḳurʾān from the second Meccan period in the singular and plural nabīyūn; in the Medīna period we find also the broken plural anbiyāʾ. Lists of the nabīyūn are given in Sūra vi. 83 sqq.; iii. 34; iv. 161 sqq.; further information about them is given in several passages of Sūra xix. and in xvii. 57. The list consists exclusively of names from the Old and New Testaments (if we leave out Idrīs in Sūra xix. 57, whose name Muḥammad had however also learned from a Christian source; see above ii., p. 442-450; Horovitz, Koran. Unters., p…


(460 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Yūsuf, an Ottoman poet; Yūsuf Nābī came from Urfa (Ruhā, hence Ruhāwī, not Rūḥānī as one often finds). From there he came in the reign of Muḥammad IV to Stambul and became a favourite of the grandvizier Ḳara Muṣṭafā. He held a post as kiaya, made the pilgrimage after Ḳara Muṣṭafā’s death and later settled in Aleppo. When the governor there, Muḥammad Balṭad̲j̲i [q. v.], became grandvizier, he took Nābī to Stambul and gave him the post of superintendent of the department of the Anatolian chief accountant ( Anadolu müḥāsebed̲j̲isi). Later he gave up this office for another and died ag…


(501 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), a comprehensive designation for intoxicating drinks, several kinds of which were produced in early Arabia, such as mizr (from barley), bitʿ (from honey: Buk̲h̲ārī, Mag̲h̲āzī, bāb 60; As̲h̲riba, bāb 4; Adab, bāb 80; or from spelt: Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, iv. 402), faḍīk̲h̲ (from different kinds of dates: Buk̲h̲ārī, As̲h̲riba, bāb 3, 21). Grapes being scarce in Arabia, it is said that in al-Madīna “wine” was usually prepared from kinds of dates, exceptionally from grapes (Buk̲h̲ārī, As̲h̲riba, bāb 2, 3; Muslim, As̲h̲riba, trad. 3, 6). This may be true. Yet even these traditions…

Nābig̲h̲a al-Ḏh̲ubyānī

(1,744 words)

Author(s): Chemoul, Maurice
, a famous poet of the pre-Muḥammadan period. His real name was Ziyād b. Muʿāwiya and he belonged to the tribe of Ḏh̲ubyān. He probably flourished in the second half of the century which preceded Muḥammad and died shortly before the beginning of Islām. Caussin de Perceval ( Histoire des Arabes, 2nd ed., ii. 502) puts the date of his birth in 535 a. d. and Father Cheikho ( Poètes arabes chrétiens, p. 640) dates his death in 604 a. d. These dates however can only be conjectural. The surname Nābig̲h̲a has been variously interpreted by Arab writers. According to some, our poet was so c…


(1,118 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a town in central Palestine, the name of which is derived from that of Flavia Neapolis built in honour of Vespanian. Its Old Testament predecessor was S h e c h e m, which however lay more to the east, on the site of the present village of Balāṭa (the name is explained by S. Klein, in Z. D. P. V., xxxv. 38 sq.; cf. R. Hartmann, ibid., xxxiii. 175 sq., as “platanus”, from the evidence of the pilgrim of Bordeaux and the Midras̲h̲ Gen. rb., c. 81, § 3). According to Eusebius, the place where the old town stood was pointed out in a suburb of Neapolis. The correctness of this identi…


(5 words)

[See ʿAbd al-G̲h̲anī.]


(378 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a., plural nud̲h̲ur; Sūra liii. 57), used as a nomen agentis from n-d̲h̲-r iv., with the meaning of warner; sometimes also as an infinitive, e.g. Sūra Ixvii. 17. The plural nud̲h̲ur is also found in the sense of an infinitive, e. g. Sūra lxxvii. 6. The term occurs frequently in the Ḳurʾān; it is even said to be synonymous with rasūl; its opposite is bas̲h̲īr, mubas̲h̲s̲h̲ir. Nad̲h̲īr as well as bas̲h̲īr are applied to the prophets, the former when they are represented as warners, the latter as announcers of good tidings (cf. Sūra xvii. 106; xxv. 58; xxxiii. 44; xlviii. 8: mubas̲h̲s̲h̲iran wa-n…


(1,683 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, Johs.
, vow, was taken over into Islām from the pre-Muḥammadan Arabs and underwent modification by the new religion. The idea of dedication is associated with the root n-d̲h̲-r which is also found in South Arabic, Hebrew and Aramaic and to some extent in Assyrian. An animal could ¶ be the object of dedication among the Arabs. For example, they dedicated by nad̲h̲r certain of their sheep etc., for the ʿatīra feast in Rad̲j̲ab ( Lisān al-ʿArab and Ḏj̲awharī, s.v.); the dedication which was expressed in solemn formulae signified that the animals were removed from the mundane sp…


(438 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Aḥmad, an Ottoman poet, born in Stambul, the son of a judge named Muḥammad Bey who had come from Merzifun, His grandfather (according to Gibb, H. O. P., iv. 30) was a military judge named Muṣṭafā. Aḥmad Rafīḳ mentions as his great-grandfather Ḳara-Čelebi-zāde [q. v.] Maḥmūd Efendi who also was a military judge. The genealogy given by Aḥmad Rafīḳ is however wrong because he confuses Ḳaramānī Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a [q. v.] with Rūm Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a. The statement that Aḥmad Nadīm is descended from Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn is therefore simply the result of confusion. Little is known of his life. He was a müderr…


(1,638 words)

Author(s): Fück, Johann
, Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ Muḥammad b. Abī Yaʿḳūb Isḥāḳ al-Warrāḳ al-Nadīm al-Bag̲h̲dādī, Arabic bibliographer, compiled the Fihrist in 377 (987—988). Little is known about his life. According to a statement which goes back to Ibn al-Nad̲j̲d̲j̲ār’s (d. 643 = 1245) Ḏh̲ail Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād (see Flügel’s edition, p. xii., note 2), he died in 385, according to another statement (see Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar al-ʿAsḳalānī, Lisān al-Mīzān, v. 72) probably 388 (? the figure is damaged in the Ḥaidarābād edition). Both dates are in contradiction to the fact that in the Fihrist events of 392 (p. 87, 6) and “a…


(94 words)

Author(s): Hartner, Willy
(Nahẓīr al-Samt or al-Nahẓīr κατ’ ἐξοχήν), the bottom, the pole of the horizon (invisible) under the observer in the direction of the vertical, also the deepest (lowest) point in the sphere of heaven. The nadir is the opposite pole to the zenith [q. v.]. The word naẓīr (from naẓara, “to see”, “to observe”) originally (and generally) means the ¶ point diametrically opposite a point on the circumference of a circle or the surface of a sphere; we find muḳābal as a synonym of naẓīr in this general meaning [cf. also muḳābala]. (Willy Hartner)


(617 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
(Banu ’l-), one of the two main Jewish tribes of Madīna, settled in Yat̲h̲rib from Palestine at an unknown date, as a consequence of Roman pressure after the Jewish wars. Al-Yaʿḳūbī (ii. 49) says they were a section of the Ḏj̲ud̲h̲ām Arabs, converted to Judaism and first settled on Mount al-Naḍīr, whence their name; according to the Sīra Ḥalabīya (Cairo, iii. 2) they were a truly Jewish tribe, connected with the Jews of Ḵh̲aibar. This seems the more probable, but a certain admixture of Arab blood is possible; like the other Jews of Madīna they bore Ara…

Nādir S̲h̲āh

(5,130 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, king of Persia (1147—1160 = 1736—1747). Origins. Nādir b. Imām-ḳuli b. Nad̲h̲r-ḳuli belonged to the Ḳi̊ri̊ḳlu clan of the Turkoman tribe of the Afs̲h̲ārs, of which a section had settled in northern Ḵh̲urāsān, and was born on the 28th Muḥarram 1100 (Oct. 22, 1688) at Kūbkān. Entering the service of Tahmāsp II, he was called Tahmāsp-ḳuli Ḵh̲ān but after his coronation his original name was improved to Nādir, “the rare one”. At an early date Nādir distinguished himself in the incessant fighting with the Turkomans of Nasā, the Čamis̲h̲…


(1,170 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(Mas̲h̲had ʿAlī), a town and place of pilgrimage in the ʿIrāḳ 6 miles west of al-Kūfa. It lies on the edge of the desert on a flat barren eminence from which the name al-Nad̲j̲af has been transferred to it (A. Musil, The Middle Euphrates, p. 35). According to the usual tradition, the Imām al-Muʾminīn ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib [q. v.] was buried near Kūfa, not far from the dam which protected the city from flooding by the Euphrates at the place where the town of al-Nad̲j̲af later arose (Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, iv. 760), also called Nad̲j̲af al-Kūfa (Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī, Lexicon geographicum, ed. …


(324 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Ḳais b. ʿAmr al-Ḥārit̲h̲ī, an Arab poet of the seventh century a. d., lived at first in Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.] and quarrelled with ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, son of Ḥassān b. T̲h̲ābit [q. v.], because the latter had addressed in song a married female relative of Nad̲j̲ās̲h̲ī in Medīna. After an exchange of lampoons with his opponent from his native place, he met him at the annual fair at Ḏh̲u ’l-Mad̲j̲āz and again in Mecca when ʿAbd al-Raḥmān not only proved inferior as a poet but suffered bodily injury, so that his aged …


(584 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, designation in Arabic of the king of Abyssinia. It is a loanword from Aethiopic “king, prince” etc. In Arabic it is sometimes used as a proper noun, sometimes as a nomen appellativum. The word is also genuine Arabic, but as such it has the meaning of driver of game. It does not occur in the Ḳurʾān. In Ḥadīt̲h̲ it is the designation of the king of Abyssinia, just as Ḳaiṣar [q. v.], Kisrā [q. v.] and al-Muḳawḳas [q. v.] are the designations of the rulers of Rūm, Fāris and Miṣr. In their totality they represen…

Nad̲j̲ātī Bey

(916 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, properly ʿÎsā (Nūḥ, also given, is not certain), the first great Turkish lyric poet of the pre-classical period, one of the founders of the classical Ottoman poetry. Born in Adrianople (Amasia and Ḳasṭamūnī are also given), the son of a slave, obviously a Christian prisoner of war for which reason he is called ʿAbd Allāh, the name given to every one, he was adopted by a well-to-do lady of Adrianople, received a good education and was trained by the poet Sāʾilī. In spite of the fact that his non-…


(573 words)

Author(s): Nyberg, H. S.
, al-Ḥusain b. Muḥammad Abū ʿAbd Allāh, a Murd̲j̲ī and Ḏj̲abarī theologian of the period of al-Maʾmūn, a pupil of Bis̲h̲r al-Marīsī whose views were combatted by Abu ’l-Hud̲h̲ail al-ʿAllāf and al-Naẓẓām. He probably lived in Bamm where he was a weaver. According to him, the divine attributes are identical with the essence and express its negative aspects. Vision of God is only possible through a divine act which transforms the eye into the heart by giving it the power of recognition. The word of God i…


(649 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), impure, opp. ṭāhir, cf. ṭahāra. According to the S̲h̲āfiʿī doctrine, as systematised by al-Nawawī ( Minhād̲j̲, i. 36 sqq.; cf. G̲h̲azālī, al-Wad̲j̲īz, i. 6 sq.), the following are the things impure in themselves ( nad̲j̲āsāt): wine and other spirituous drinks, dogs, swine, maita, blood and excrements; milk of animals whose flesh is not eaten. Regarding these groups the following may be remarked. On wine and other spirituous drinks cf. the artt. k̲h̲amr and nabīd̲h̲. — Dogs are not declared impure in the Ḳurʾān; on the contrary, in the description of the sleepers…

Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn Kubrā

(1,155 words)

Author(s): Berthels, E.
, the founder of the order of the Kubrawīya or Ḏh̲ahabīya, is one of the most striking personalities among the Persian Ṣūfīs of the xiith—xiiith century a. d. A large number of popular legends are associated with his name, many of which are not yet forgotten at the present day in Central Asia. His importance for the development of Ṣūfism is very considerable and in the long series of his pupils we find many distinguished representatives of Ṣūfī ¶ teaching. Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn, whose full name was Aḥmad b, ʿUmar Abu ’l-Ḏj̲annāb Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn al-Kubrā al-Ḵh̲īwaḳī al-Ḵh̲wārizmī with the honorifi…


(1,963 words)

Author(s): Moberg, A.
, a district (Wādī) and town in northern Yaman, according to others (Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih, B. G. A., vi. 133, 248) in southern Nad̲j̲d or in the Ḥid̲j̲āz (Bakrī, Muʿd̲j̲am, p. 575). The position and course of the Wādī has not been exactly ascertained. It rises on the eastern slopes of the Yaman highlands, probably between 43° ¶ and 44° East Long., and runs, perhaps turning north at first, mainly in a southeasterly direction behind 18° and 17° N. Lat. finally disappearing in the great sand desert. The distance from Ṣanʿāʾ [q. v.] is put at 6—7 days’ journey (E. Glaser, Skizze der Geschichte und G…


(5 words)

[See Nikāḥ Ṭalāḳ.]

Nāfiʿ b. al-Azraḳ

(363 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
al-Ḥanafī al-Ḥanhẓalī, Abū Rās̲h̲id, according to some sources, the son of a freed blacksmith of Greek origin (Balād̲h̲urī, ed. de Goeje, p. 56), chief of the extreme Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites [q. v.], who after him are called Azraḳites [q. v.]. At first, after his secession to Ahwāz, Nāfiʿ joined ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubair [q. v.] in Makka. Soon, however, he and his followers turned their backs on the holy city and arrived before Baṣra, where they spread terror among the inhabitants, who left the town in mult…


(734 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), plur. nawāfil, part. art. fem. I from n-f-l, supererogatory work. 1. The word occurs in the Ḳurʾān in two places. Sūra xxi. 72 runs: “And we bestowed on him [viz. Ibrāhīm] Isaac and Jacob as additional gift” ( nāfilat an). In Sūra xvii. 81 it is used in combination with the vigils, thus: “And perform vigils during a part of the night, reciting the Ḳurʾān, as a nāfila for thee”. In ḥadīt̲h̲ it is frequently used in this sense. “Forgiveness of sins past and future was granted him [Muḥammad] and his works were to him as supererogatory works” (Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, vi. 250). —…


(3,929 words)

Author(s): Calverley, E. E.
1 (a.), soul. Nafs, in the early Arabic poetry, meant the self or person, while rūḥ meant breath and wind. Beginning with the Ḳurʾān nafs also means soul, and rūḥ means a special angel messenger and a special divine quality. Only in post-Ḳurʾānic literature are nafs and rūḥ equated and both applied to the human spirit, angels and d̲j̲inn. I. The Ḳurʾānic uses. A. Nafs and its plurals anfus and nufūs have five uses: 1. In most cases they mean the human self or person, e. g., iii. 54: “Let us call … ourselves and yourselves”; also xii. 54; li. 20, 21. 2. In six verses nafs refers to Allāh: v. 116 b: “Thou […


(2,951 words)

Author(s): Béguinot, F.
, in Berber Infūsen, name of a Berber tribe. According to the common genealogical scheme (cf. Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, Kitāb al-ʿIbar, i. 107—117 of the text), the Nafūsa are one of the four branches of the large body of the Botr, whose name derives from their chief Mādg̲h̲īs al-Abtar. At present the dwelling place of the Nafūsa is south-west of Tripoli, on the plateau of the same name which from the frontier between Tunisia and Tripolitania tends eastward, and, if taken in the largest sense, comprises the regions of Nālūt, …


(637 words)

Author(s): Béguinot, F.
Abū Sahl al-Fārisī, Ibāḍite scholar of the Rustamid family, who lived in Tāhert in the iiird (ixth) century. Some say that he was one of those who by their learning and religious zeal helped to make that town famous. He was a complete master of Berber and served as interpreter under the imām Aflaḥ b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb in the first half of the third century a. h., or even till 258 (871—872), and under Abū Ḥātim Yūsuf b. Muḥammad who, with a short interruption, was imām from 281—294 (894—907). This shows that the Rustamid princes of Tāhert spoke Arabic, as was to be expected from the…


(913 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a city, taḥṣīl, district, and division of the Central Provinces of British India. The modern Central Provinces and Berār, which formed part of the eighteenth century Bhonsla kingdom of Nāgpur, lie between 17° 47′ and 24° 27′ N. and 75° 37′ and 84° 24′ E., with an area of 113,285 square miles, and a total population of 17,951,147. Nāgpur division contains a population of 3,595,578; Nāgpur district 933,168; and the city 215,003 (1931 Census Report). The history of this area, which roughly corresponds to Gondwāna, has been profoundly influenced by the long range of the S…


(156 words)

Author(s): Massignon, Louis
, nisba from the pre-Islāmic divine name Nahīk noted by Wellhausen and Nöldeke among the Tamīm, the Nak̲h̲aʿ (of Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲) and in Mecca before Islām. — In Kūfa and Sāmarrā it was the name of the Āl Nahīk, a family of S̲h̲īʿī scholars of the tribe of Nak̲h̲aʿ: descendants of Nahīk, grandfather of Kumail b. Ziyād, a partisan of ʿAlī, also celebrated as the founder of the Kumailīya sect (or Kāmilīya: Ibn Saʿd, vi. 124; ḳaṣīda of Miʿdān Samīṭī in Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, Ḥayawān, ii. 98). Two of its members settled in Sāmarrā (Ṭūsī, Fihrist, p. 203; cf. p. 179, 196): the first ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad (…


(142 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, an administrative district in the Ottoman empire which corresponds somewhat to the Swiss canton or French commune. It is a subdivision of the ḳaḍā (ḳazā, q. v.), which may be compared with the French arrondissement and is governed by a ḳāʾim-maḳām [q. v.] while the nāḥiye is under a mudīr. This official who used to be appointed by the wālī, the governor of the province, received his instructions from the ḳāʾim-maḳām, to whom he was subordinate. The subdivisions of the nāḥiye are called ḳarye, i. e. village. The term nāḥiye for an administrative district is of recent origin. For the…


(163 words)

Author(s): Chemoul, Maurice
, “the Bee”, Sūra xvi. of the Ḳurʾān. The title is taken from verse 70: “Thy Lord has made this revelation to the Bee”. Ḵh̲āzin (iii. 105) says that it was also called “Sūra of the Herds” because there are references in several passages to cattle. As to its date, it is reckoned among the later Meccan Sūras and includes several verses of Medīnese origin; the commentators however are not agreed on this point. The Sūra of the “Bee” contains four abrogated verses: verse 69 is annulled by v. 92; verse 84 by ix. 5; verse 108, part 1, annulled by the end of the same verse and by ix. 5. (Maurice Chemoul) Bibliogra…


(858 words)

Author(s): Hartner, W.
, the constellation of the River (Eridanus). It corresponds to the ΠοταμόΣ, Flumen, Amnis of the ancients (cf. Aratos, Φαινόμενα, l. 358; Geminus, Εἰσαγωγή; Ptolemy, Almagest). Aratos observes (l. 360) — probably one of the first to do so, — that the river of heaven represents Eridanus (’ΗριδανόΣ, river of the morning? or river of darkness, of the west?) turned into stars, into which Phaeton, son of Helios, fell, struck by the thunderbolt of Zeus, after his unsuccessful attempt to ride to heaven. [The opinions of the Gr…


(839 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
(Nahrawānī), Arab historian. Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Aḥmad b. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Ḳāḍī Ḵh̲ān Maḥmūd al-Makkī al-Ḳādirī al-Ḵh̲arḳānī al-Ḥanafī was born in 917 (1511) in Mecca, to which his father, a member of a scholarly Indian family, had migrated from Nahrawāla in Gud̲j̲arāt. To complete his studies which had been ¶ begun under his father, he went in 943 (1536) to Cairo, where he was taught by al-Suyūṭī’s pupils, and to Stambul. On his return home he received a teaching appointment in the Madrasa al-As̲h̲rafīya. In 965 (1557) …


(41 words)

, or, according to the popular pronunciation, Nihrawān (Yāḳūt, iv. 846 sqq.), name of a large territory between Bag̲h̲dād [q. v.] and Wāsiṭ [q. v.], known through the battle between ʿAlī and the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites [q. v.] in 38 (658).


(983 words)

Author(s): Lichtenstädter, Ilse
(a.), lit. direction, path, also intention, but gradually acquired the special meaning of grammar. The Arab philologists divide it into two branches: accidence, ʿilm al-ṣarf or taṣrīf, comprising the theory of verbal stems and their conjugation, the formation of nouns and adjectives, the formation of the plural and of the feminine, etc., i. e. with individual word-forms only, and syntax, ʿilm al-naḥw in the narrower sense. The fundamental grammatical conceptions of the Arab philologists are taken from Aristotelian logic, which came via Syrian scholars to …


(711 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H. A. R. | Davies, C. Collin
(a.), literally “substitute, delegate” (nomen agentis from n-w-b “to take the place of another”), the term applied generally to any person appointed as deputy of another in an official position, and more especially, in the Mamlūk and Dihlī Sulṭānates, to designate a. the deputy or lieutenant of the Sulṭān and b. the governors of the chief provinces (see also the article egypt, above, vol. ii., p. 16a). In the Mamlūk system the former, entitled nāʾ ib al-salṭana al-muʿaẓẓama wa-kāfil al-maniālik al-s̲h̲arīfa al-islāmīya, was the Vice-Sulṭān proper, who administered all the te…


(1,055 words)

Author(s): Menzel
, properly Yeni-Zāde Muṣṭafā Čelebi, called after his father Pīrī Ḵh̲alīfa also Pīrī-Zāde, a celebrated Ottoman poet. He is usually described as Nāʾilī-i Ḳadīm, “old Nāʾilī”, to distinguish him from Yeni Nāʾilī, young Nāʾilī, the poet and mewlewl Nāʾilī Ṣāliḥ Efendi of Monastir, author of several Ṣūfī works who died in 1293 (1876) in Cairo. Nāʾilī was one of the greatest Ottoman poets of the post-classical period, the period of the weak sulṭāns (Murād IV, Ibrāhīm and Meḥmed IV, 1058-1115 = 1648-1703), of rule by women and eunuchs (Kösem Sulṭān, Bekt…


(502 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Muṣṭafā, a Turkish historian. Muṣṭafā Naʿīm known as Naʿīmā was born in 1065 (1655) in Aleppo. After becoming a teberdār (halberdier) in 1100 (beg. Oct. 26, 1688) in the imperial palace, he was promoted to be a secretary in the Dīwān under the grand vizier Ḳalāʾiliḳoz Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a. On the 28th Ḏj̲umādā I 1116 (Nov. 28, 1704) he became chief accountant of Anatolia and in 1121 (1709) succeeded Niʿmetī as master of ceremonies and imperial historian ( weḳāʾiʿ nuwīs; q. v.). He later filled several other offices (cf. F. Babinger, G.O.W., p. 245) and during the campaign in the Morea was …


(914 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Nak̲h̲ičewān), a t own to the north of the Araxes. The town Ναξουάνα is mentioned in Ptolemy, v., ch. 12. The Armenians explain the name of Nak̲h̲čawan (Nak̲h̲čuan) by a popular etymology as nak̲h̲-id̲j̲ewan “(Noah’s) first stopping-place” (although the name is apparently compounded with -awan “place”) and locate the town in the province of Waspurakan (cf. Yāḳūt, i. 122), or in that of Siunikh. According to Moses of Chorene, i. ch. 30, Nak̲h̲ičewan was in the area peopled by Median prisoners ( mar) in whom we should see the ancestors of the Kurds of this region (cf. Balād̲h̲urī, p. 200; nahr …


(451 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a town in Buk̲h̲āra, also called Nasaf by the Arab geographers (cf. the similar evolution of Nashāwa from Nak̲h̲čawan). The town lay in the valley of the Kas̲h̲ka-Daryā, cf. Ibn Ḥawḳal, p. 376: Kas̲h̲k-rūd̲h̲, which runs southwards parallel to the Zarafs̲h̲ān (river of Samarḳand) and runs towards the Amū-Daryā [q. v.] but before joining it disappears in the sands. Nak̲h̲s̲h̲ab lay on the road joining Buk̲h̲ārā to Balk̲h̲ 4 days’ journey from the former and eight from the latter (cf. Muḳaddasī, p. 344). In the time of Iṣṭak̲h̲rī (p. 325) the town consisted only of one quarter ( rabaḍ) and a …


(796 words)

Author(s): Berthels, E.
, S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn (d. 751 = 1350), a famous Persian author (not to be confused with the famous Ṣūfī S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abū Turāb Nak̲h̲s̲h̲abī, d. 245 = 860). Very little is known of his career. His nisba suggests that he came from Nak̲h̲s̲h̲ab [q. v.] but he went to India where he became a murīd of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Farīd, a descendant of the celebrated S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḥamīd al-Dīn Nāgūrī. The Ak̲h̲bār al-Ak̲h̲yār of ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ Dihlawī (Dihlī 1309, p. 104—107) says that he died in Badāʾūn after a long and contemplative life and that his tomb is there. Nak̲h̲s̲h̲abī was a …


(618 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad Bahāʾ al-Dīn al-Buk̲h̲ārī (717—791 = 1317—1389), founder of the Naḳs̲h̲bandī Order. His name, which signifies “painter” is interpreted as “drawing incomparable pictures of the Divine Science” (J. P. Brown, The Darvishes, 2nd ed., p. 142) or more mystically as “holding the form of real perfection in the heart” ( Miftāḥ al-Maʿīya quoted by Ahlwardt, Berlin Catalogue, N°. 2188). The title al-S̲h̲āh which is given him in a dirge cited in the Ras̲h̲aḥāt means “spiritual leader”. The nisba al-Uwaisī implies that his system resembled that of Uwais al-Ḳaranī. His Acta we…


(170 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.), pl. nawāḳīs, a kind of rattle used and in some places still used by Christians in the east to summon the community to divine service. It is a board pierced with holes which is beaten with a rod. The name, which comes from the Syriac nāḳūs̲h̲ā is not infrequently found with the verbs ḍaraba or ṣakka in the old Arabic poets, especially when early morning is to be indicated, e. g. ʿAntara, app.; Labīd, N°. 19, 6; Z.D.M.G., xxxiii. 215; Mutalammis, ed. Vollers, p. 178, v. 6; al-Aʿs̲h̲ā in Nöldeke’s Delectus, p. 26; Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, xix. 92. According to tradition, Muḥammad hesitated b…


(371 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, 1. a place in Syria. It is situated in the ḥarra of al-Ṣafāʾ on an eminence in the Wādi ’l-S̲h̲ām, which runs from the Ḏj̲ebel al-Drūz (Ḏj̲ebel al-Ḥawrān) to the plain of Ruḥba, at the spot where it joins the Wādi ’l-Saʾūṭ. It ¶ corresponds to the Roman military post of Namara (Waddington, Inscriptions, N°. 2270). Less than a mile S. E. of al-Namāra, Dussaud found the Nabataean-Arab tomb inscription of the “King of all the Arabs”, Maiu ’l-Ḳais bar ʿAmru, i. e. the Lak̲h̲mid Imru ’l-Ḳais b. ʿAmru, of the 7th Keslūl 223 of the era of Boṣrāʾ = Dec. 7,. 328 a. d. (cf. vol. i., p. 382a). Bibliography R. Duss…

Nāmi̊ḳ Kamāl Bey

(8 words)

[See Kemāl Meḥmed Nāmi̊ḳ.]


(89 words)

Author(s): Chemoul, Maurice
, the Ants, the title of Sūra xxvii. of the Ḳurʾān, the whole of which was revealed at Mecca. Nöldeke puts it among the Sūras of the second period. It contains 95 verses. Its title is taken from verse 18: “When the armies reached the valley of the Ants one of them said: ʿO ye ants, return to your homes lest Solomon and his armies crush you without noticing it’”. It contains one verse that was abrogated (verse 94 annulled by ix. 5). (Maurice Chemoul) Bibliography cf. al-nahl.


(1,571 words)

Author(s): Heller, Bernard
, also Namrūd̲h̲, Nimrūd, the Nimrod of the Bible, is associated in Muslim legend, as in Haggada, with the story of the childhood of Abraham. The Ḳurʾān, it is true, does not mention him but probably, as in many other cases, only from dislike of mentioning names. That Muḥammad was acquainted with the legend ¶ of Namrūd is evident from the following verses. “Do you not see how he disputed with Ibrāhīm about the Lord who had granted him dominion? When Ibrāhīm said: It is my Lord who gives life and death, the other replied: I give life and I slay. Whe…


(2,361 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
(a.) is a word of many meanings. In St. John’s Gospel xv. 26, the coming of the paraclete is announced. In the preceding verse a passage from the Psalms referring to the haters is quoted and ἐν τῷ νόμῷ αὐτῶν given as source. The verses in the Gospel from 23 on were already known to Ibn Isḥāḳ in an Arabic version which came from a Syriac one as the reproduction of “paraclete” by al-manaḥmānā shows. In the same source the word νόμοΣ was left untranslated: for we find it in Ibn His̲h̲ām in the form nāmūs. Biographical tradition makes Waraḳa b. Nawfal expressly assert the identification of Mu…


(4 words)

[See Ḏj̲ahannam.]


(298 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲aʿfar (d. 348 = 1959), author of the “History of Buk̲h̲ārā”, the original Arabic version of which he presented to the Sāmānid Nūḥ b. Naṣr in 332 (943—944). In 522 (1128—1129) the book was translated into Persian by Abū Naṣr Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Ḳubāwī who omitted several “tedious” passages. Then in 574 (1178—1179) Muḥammad b. Ẓufar prepared a new abbreviated edition of the book which he presented to Ṣadr ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Burhān al-Dīn, governor of Buk̲h̲ārā. Finally an unknow…


(457 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(often Nisā), the name of several places in Persia: in Ḵh̲urāsān, Fārs, Kirmān and Hamad̲h̲ān; cf. Yāḳūt, iv. 778. (According to Bartholomae, nisāya means “settlement”). 1. Nasā in Ḵh̲urāsān was situated in the cultivated zone which lies north of the range separating Ḵh̲urāsān from the Turkoman steppes. It corresponds to the Νίσαια, Νίσαιον πεδίον of the classical authors, celebrated for its breed of horses (Herodotos, iii. 106; cf. Strabo, xi., ch. xiv., §7). Alexander the Great is said to have built an Alexandropolis …


(4 words)

[See Nak̲h̲s̲h̲ab.]


(411 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, nisba [cf. nasaf] of several eminent persons of whom the following may be mentioned: I. Abu ’l-Muʿīn Maimūn b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad ... b. Makḥūl ... al-Ḥanafī al-Makḥūlī (d. 508 = 1114), one of the mutakallimūn [q. v.] whose scholastic position is between that of the early period as represented by ʿAbd al-Ḳāhir al-Bag̲h̲dādī [q. v.], who is still endeavouring to find a convenient arrangement and an adequate formulation of the contents of kalām, and the younger mutakallims who have at hand the necessary formulas for ready use. Of his works the following are known to me: 1. Tamhīd li-Ḳawāʿid…


(714 words)

Author(s): Heffening
, Ḥāfihẓ al-Dīn Abu ’l-Barakāt ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad b. Maḥmūd, an important Ḥanafī legist and theologian, born in Nasaf in Sogdiana, was a pupil of S̲h̲ams al-Aʾimma al-Kardarī (d. 642 = 1244—1245), Ḥamīd al-Dīn al-Ḍarīr (d. 666 = 1267—1268) and Badr al-Dīn Ḵh̲wāherzāde (d. 651 = 1253). He taught in the Madrasa al-Ḳuṭbīya al-Sulṭānīya in Kirmān, came in 710 to Bag̲h̲dād and died in Rabīʿ I 710 (August 1310; according to Ḳuras̲h̲ī and Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī: ¶ 701) apparently on his way back to Īd̲j̲ad̲j̲ (in Ḵh̲ūzistān), where he was buried. His pupils were Muẓaffar al-Dīn Ib…


(286 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Aḥmad b. S̲h̲uʿaib b. ʿAlī b. Baḥr b. Sinān, author of one of the six canonical collections of traditions [cf. ḥadīt̲h̲], d. 303 (915). Very little is known about him. He is said to have made extensive travels in order to hear traditions, to have settled in Egypt, afterwards in Damascus, and to have died in consequence of ill-treatment to which he was exposed at Damascus or, according to others, at Ramla, in consequence of his feelings in favour of ʿAlī and against the Umaiyads. On account of this u…


(6,896 words)

Author(s): Tritton, A. S. | Kramers, J. H.
Christians, more especially the adherents of the Oriental churches living under Muslim rule (differentiated from Rūm “Greek Christians”, Ifrand̲j̲ “Western Christians”). The word is derived from the Syriac Naṣrāyā (Horovitz, Koran. Untersuchungen, p. 144 sqq.); the Arabic singular is Naṣrānī. A. Before Islām. A complete investigation of the materials for the history of Christianity in Arabia and among the Arabs before the rise of Islām has not yet been made, and only the principal facts can be summarily given here. Christianity naturally spread into Arabia from Syria and al…


(791 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad, an Arabic historian, biographer of the last Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āh Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Mängübirti [q. v.], was born in Ḵh̲arandiz (Yāḳūt, ii. 415), an estate in the district of Nasā [q. v.] in Ḵh̲urāsān where his family was reputed to have been already settled in the pre-Muḥammadan period ( Hist., ed. Houdas, p. 53). During his father’s lifetime he represented him when the vizier Niẓām al-Mulk, dismissed from office by Sulṭān Muḥammad, visited the family estates on his journey to Ḵh̲wārizm and was received by him ( ibid., p. 30). He only mentions incidental…


(297 words)

Author(s): Berthels, E.
Mīrzā ʿAbd al-Wahhāb of Iṣfahān, one of the best Persian poets and stylists of the period of the early Ḳād̲j̲ārs. He was a physician in S̲h̲īrāz and in his native city, devoting his leisure hours to poetry in which he displayed a great facility. He wrote verse in Arabic, Persian and Turkish and was further celebrated for his great skill in s̲h̲ikasta. Rumours of his poetical gifts induced the Kād̲j̲ār Fatḥ ʿAlī S̲h̲āh (1797—1834) to invite him to Ṭeherān as court poet. There Nas̲h̲āṭ soon rose to great honour and in 1809 was appointed Muns̲h̲ī al-Mamālik …


(561 words)

Author(s): Lichtenstädter, Ilse
b. Saʿīd b. Nas̲h̲wān al-Ḥimyarī al-Yamanī, an Arab philologist. The notices of this individual and his career are exceedingly scanty. In Yāḳūt’s Irs̲h̲ād and in Suyūṭī’s Bug̲h̲ya he is described in laudatory terms in the usual phrases as a great scholar, authority on fiḳh, philology and naḥw; he was also distinguished as a historian and poet and was equally versed “in the other branches of adab”. He compiled a dictionary entitled S̲h̲ams al-ʿUlūm wa-Dawāʾ al-ʿArab min al-Kulūm in eight (according to others eighteen) volumes which his son later revised and condensed int…


(992 words)

Author(s): Moberg, A.
(a.), intercalary month, intercalation, or man on whose authority an intercalation is undertaken, a word of uncertain meaning in Sūra ix. 37 and in Muḥammad’s sermon at the farewell pilgrimage (Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 968; cf. the article ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲). Nasīy, nasy and nasʾ are variants and the word is connected with nasaʾa to “postpone” or “add” or with nasiya to “forget”. In any case, it is given in Muslim tradition a meaning which brings it into connection with the method of reckoning time among the pagan Arabs. The Ḳurʾānic verse describes nasīʾ as “a further expression of unbelief” and i…


(1,371 words)

Author(s): Lichtenstädter, Ilse
(a.), the introductory lines of the Arabic ḳaṣīda [q. v.] which are devoted to recalling the memory of a woman whom the poet loved long years before. The nasīb is, so far as we know, the only kind of love-poem which has survived to us from the Arabic literature of the preand early Muḥammadan period and is almost the only place where women are the subject in the poetry of the Arabs. The essential feature is that the subject of the nasīb is always the lament of a man for a lost beloved. Even in the earliest ḳaṣīdas that have survived the nasīb is already ¶ in the stereotyped form. It treats its subje…


(3,240 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a town in Mesopotamia. The name is certainly of Semitic origin and to be derived (with Fhilon Byblios in Steph. Byz.; Müller, F. H. G., Hi. 571, frg. 8) from ΝάσιβιΣ = στήλαι; ( naṣīb). The idol of Naṣībīn is said to have been called Abnīl (Assemani, Bibl. Orient., i., Rome 1719,p. 27), i.e. “stone of El” (according to W. Robertson Smith, Religion of the Semites, London 1927, p. 210, note 1). On coins the usual form of the place-name is neσibi (Uranios in Steph. Byz.: ΝέσιβιΣ; Pliny, Nat. hist., vi. 42: Nesebis); in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae and elsewhere we find the forms Nitibi(n…


(1,426 words)

Author(s): Taeschner, F.
li-Dīn Allāh, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. al-Mustaḍīʾ bi-Amr Allāh, the 34th ʿAbbāsid caliph (575—622 = 1180—1225), was ¶ the son of a Turkish slave-girl named Zumurrud. He was the only caliph of the later period of the caliphate who was able to pursue a consistent policy. This was entirely directed towards restoring the temporal power of the caliphate. The caliph was assisted by the fact that the Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire which had previously held the secular power had begun to collapse. In the confusion which brought about its final…


(965 words)

Author(s): Marçais, Georges
ibn ʿAlennās (the last name is also written ʿAlnās, ʿAnnās and even G̲h̲ilnās by Ibn ʿId̲h̲ārī), fifth ruler of the Ḥammadīd dynasty, succeeded his cousin Bulukkīn b. Muḥammad in 454 (1062). His reign marks the apogee of the little Berber kingdom founded by Ḥammād [q. v.]. The ephemeral rise of the Ḥammādids was the mmediate result of the downfall of their relations and neighbours, the Zīrids of Ifrīḳiya, the first victims of the Hilālī invasion. On his accession, al-Nāṣir, who lived in the Ḳalʿa…


(322 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, honorific of the fourth sovereign of the Mag̲h̲ribī dynasty of the Muʾminids or Almohads [q. v.], Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Yaʿḳūb al-Manṣūr b. Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Muʾmin. He was proclaimed on the death of his father on the 22nd Rabīʿ I 595 (Jan. 25, 1199). The beginning of his reign was marked by the suppression of a rising led by an agitator in the mountainous country of the G̲h̲umāra and a long stay at Fās during which he rebuilt a part of the wall of the ḳaṣaba of this city. Hearing of the rising of Yaḥyā b. Isḥāḳ Ibn G̲h̲āniya in Ifrīḳiya, he set out for the eastern part of hi…


(2,952 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of two Mamlūk sulṭāns. I. al-Malik al-Nāṣir Nāṣir al-Dīn Muḥammad, ¶ the ninth sulṭān of the Baḥrī Mamlūks, son of Sulṭān Ḳalāʾūn [q. v.] and a Mongol princess named Aslūn (As̲h̲lūn) Ḵh̲ātūn. Born in the middle of Muḥarram 684 (Dec. 1285), he received homage as sulṭān after the assassination of his brother al-Malik al-As̲h̲raf Ḵh̲alīl in Muḥarram 693 (Dec. 1293). After the two emīrs Zain al-Dīn Ketbog̲h̲a al-Manṣūrī and ʿAlam al-Dīn Sand̲j̲ar al-S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿī had agreed that the former should hold the office of administrator of the government ( niyābat al-salṭana) and the lat…


(1,515 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of two Aiyūbids. I. al-Malik al-Nāṣir Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Dāwūd b. al-Malik al-Muʿahẓhẓam, born in Ḏj̲umādā 1603 (Dec. 1205) in Damascus. After the death of his father at the end of Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 624 (Nov. 1227) Dāwūd succeeded him on the throne of Damascus and the Mamlūk ʿIzz al-Dīn Aibak acted as regent. Dāwūd’s uncles however, covetous of territory, did not leave him long in peace. Al-Malik al-Kāmil [q. v.] first of all claimed the fortress of al-S̲h̲awbak [q. v.] and when it was refused him he occupie…


(4 words)

[See Uṭrūs̲h̲.]


(913 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
li-Dīn Allāh, official name of several Zaidī imāms. I. Among the Caspian Zaidīs this title was borne by 1. al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr al-Uṭrūs̲h̲ [q. v.] and his great-grandson 2. al-Nāṣir al-Ṣag̲h̲īr al-Ḥūsain b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī. The latter gained for himself a dominion beginning in Hawsam, where he could find associations with the earlier period of Zaidī rule. He laid great emphasis on the religious character of Zaidism; he gave out of the state treasury funds to support people who learned the Ḳurʾān by heart. He was also a …


(867 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, Nazareth, the home of Jesus, lies in a depression sloping to the south surrounded by hills in a fertile district. While the hills to the north and northeast are not very high, in the northwest the Ḏj̲ebel al-Sīk̲h̲, rises to 1,600 feet above sea-level. The name of the town, which does not occur in the Old Testament, is found in the New and in the Greek fathers of the Church in the varying forms Ναζαρα Ναζαρετ and Nαζαρεϧ with ζ, but according to Jerome it had in Hebrew a ṣade, which is confirmed by the Syriac Nāṣrat and the Arabic Nāṣira as well as by the Taimudic derivative form , pl. while the Christ…

Nāṣir ʿAlī

(227 words)

Author(s): Berthels, E.
of Sarhind (d. in Dihlī on the 6th Ramaḍān 1108 = March 29, 1697), one of the best of the Persian poets of India, who were by this time very numerous; their productions however are for the most part of little artistic value. Of his life we know only that he travelled a great deal but finally settled in Sarhind were he enjoyed the favour of the governor Saif Ḵh̲ān Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ī and of the Āmir al-Umarāʾ Ḏh̲u ’l-Fiḳār Ḵh̲ān. His principal work is a version of the love story of Madhumalat and Manūhar in P…

Nāṣir al-Dawla

(1,394 words)

Author(s): Bowen, Harold
Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. ʿAbd Allāh, a prince of the Ḥamdānid dynasty [q. v.]. From the year 308 (920—921) he acted as lieutenant to his father, Abu ’l-Haid̲j̲āʾ ʿAbd Allāh [q. v.], in the governorship of al-Mawṣil, and on the latter’s death in 317 (929) succeeded to the leadership of the Ḥamdānid family. Owing to the part played by Abu ’l-Haid̲j̲āʾ in the second temporary deposition of the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Muḳtadir [q. v.], the latter, on his restoration, attempted to put an end to the Ḥamdānids’ …

Nāṣir al-Dīn

(12 words)

[See Maḥmūd I, Maḥmūd II, Maḥmūd , Maḥmūd II]

Nāṣir Dīn Allāh

(8 words)

[See Masʿūd b. Saʿīd.]

Nāṣir-i K̲h̲usraw

(1,061 words)

Author(s): Berthels, E.
whose full name was Abū Muʿīn Nāṣir b. Ḵh̲usraw b. Ḥārit̲h̲., one of the most important Persian poets of the xith century. Life. Nāṣir was born in 394 (1003) in Ḳubādiyān in the district of Balk̲h̲, The Persian historians usually call him ʿAlawī which in this case can hardly mean descent from the caliph ʿAlī but simply indicates his adherence to the S̲h̲īʿa. His father was probably a small landowner in the vicinity of Balk̲h̲. Nāṣir received a good education and was early acquainted with almost all branches of the learning of his day. In the forties of the xith century we find him as an offic…


(21 words)

(a.), infin. I from n-s-k̲h̲, with the technical sense of “abrogation (of a sacred text)”. See ḳurʾān , 3.


(230 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, the vulture. It gets its name from the fact that it tears the dead animals on which it feeds to pieces with its beak and devours them. It eats till it can no longer fly. It is said to attain the age of 1,000 years. Its eyes are so sharp that it can see its prey at a distance of 400 farsak̲h̲; its sense of smell is equally sharp but fragrant scents are so deadly to it that they destroy it. It shows great endurance in flying and follows armies and pilgrim caravans in order to fall upon the corps…


(154 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the title of Sūra ex., taken from its first verse. The word means “help, assistance” and is often used of God’s help in war and then with the meaning of “victory”. Sūra lxi. 13 is also associated with al-fatḥ, cf. xlviii. 13. The Sūra clearly belongs to a later period and verse 2 in particular recalls the year 9, the Year of the Embassies. It is therefore natural to refer al-fatḥ (verse 1) in keeping with the frequent use of the word to the capture of Mecca, except that it is not mentioned as a fact (as Weil, Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 933 translates it) but is represented as an assumption, which is a…

Naṣr Allāh b. Muḥammad

(179 words)

Author(s): Berthels, E.
b. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Abu ’l-Maʿālī of S̲h̲īrāz, a Persian author and statesman, vizier of the G̲h̲aznawid Ḵh̲usraw Malik (1160—1186) by whose orders he was arrested and executed. Naṣr was the first Persian to succeed in giving a satisfactory Persian version of the celebrated Ḵh̲alīla u-Dimna. His version is based on the Arabic of ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḳaffaʿ and was completed about 538—539 (1144), i. e. in the time of Bahrāms̲h̲āh (1118— 1152). For a long time his translation was regarded as a model of elegant Persian style which could not be surpa…

Naṣr b. Aḥmad b. Ismāʿīl

(1,562 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
called al-Saʿīd, a Sāmānid. After the murder of his father in Ḏj̲umādā II, 301 (Jan. 914) the eight year old Naṣr was put on the throne and the able vizier Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Ḏj̲aihānī given the regency. Soon afterwards the people of Sīstān rebelled against the Sāmānids and placed themselves under the rule of the governor Badr al-Kabīr appointed by the caliph al-Muḳtadir. At the same time the caliph’s generals al-Faḍl b. Ḥumaid and Ḵh̲ālid b. Muḥammad al-Marwazī occupied the to…
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