Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Nad̲j̲ātī Bey

(916 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, properly ʿÎsā (Nūḥ, also given, is not certain), the first great Turkish lyric poet of the pre-classical period, one of the founders of the classical Ottoman poetry. Born in Adrianople (Amasia and Ḳasṭamūnī are also given), the son of a slave, obviously a Christian prisoner of war for which reason he is called ʿAbd Allāh, the name given to every one, he was adopted by a well-to-do lady of Adrianople, received a good education and was trained by the poet Sāʾilī. In spite of the fact that his non-…

al-Nad̲j̲d̲j̲ār

(573 words)

Author(s): Nyberg, H. S.
, al-Ḥusain b. Muḥammad Abū ʿAbd Allāh, a Murd̲j̲ī and Ḏj̲abarī theologian of the period of al-Maʾmūn, a pupil of Bis̲h̲r al-Marīsī whose views were combatted by Abu ’l-Hud̲h̲ail al-ʿAllāf and al-Naẓẓām. He probably lived in Bamm where he was a weaver. According to him, the divine attributes are identical with the essence and express its negative aspects. Vision of God is only possible through a divine act which transforms the eye into the heart by giving it the power of recognition. The word of God i…

Nad̲j̲is

(649 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), impure, opp. ṭāhir, cf. ṭahāra. According to the S̲h̲āfiʿī doctrine, as systematised by al-Nawawī ( Minhād̲j̲, i. 36 sqq.; cf. G̲h̲azālī, al-Wad̲j̲īz, i. 6 sq.), the following are the things impure in themselves ( nad̲j̲āsāt): wine and other spirituous drinks, dogs, swine, maita, blood and excrements; milk of animals whose flesh is not eaten. Regarding these groups the following may be remarked. On wine and other spirituous drinks cf. the artt. k̲h̲amr and nabīd̲h̲. — Dogs are not declared impure in the Ḳurʾān; on the contrary, in the description of the sleepers…

Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn Kubrā

(1,155 words)

Author(s): Berthels, E.
, the founder of the order of the Kubrawīya or Ḏh̲ahabīya, is one of the most striking personalities among the Persian Ṣūfīs of the xiith—xiiith century a. d. A large number of popular legends are associated with his name, many of which are not yet forgotten at the present day in Central Asia. His importance for the development of Ṣūfism is very considerable and in the long series of his pupils we find many distinguished representatives of Ṣūfī ¶ teaching. Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn, whose full name was Aḥmad b, ʿUmar Abu ’l-Ḏj̲annāb Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn al-Kubrā al-Ḵh̲īwaḳī al-Ḵh̲wārizmī with the honorifi…

Nad̲j̲rān

(1,963 words)

Author(s): Moberg, A.
, a district (Wādī) and town in northern Yaman, according to others (Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih, B. G. A., vi. 133, 248) in southern Nad̲j̲d or in the Ḥid̲j̲āz (Bakrī, Muʿd̲j̲am, p. 575). The position and course of the Wādī has not been exactly ascertained. It rises on the eastern slopes of the Yaman highlands, probably between 43° ¶ and 44° East Long., and runs, perhaps turning north at first, mainly in a southeasterly direction behind 18° and 17° N. Lat. finally disappearing in the great sand desert. The distance from Ṣanʿāʾ [q. v.] is put at 6—7 days’ journey (E. Glaser, Skizze der Geschichte und G…

Nafaḳa

(5 words)

[See Nikāḥ Ṭalāḳ.]

Nāfiʿ b. al-Azraḳ

(363 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
al-Ḥanafī al-Ḥanhẓalī, Abū Rās̲h̲id, according to some sources, the son of a freed blacksmith of Greek origin (Balād̲h̲urī, ed. de Goeje, p. 56), chief of the extreme Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites [q. v.], who after him are called Azraḳites [q. v.]. At first, after his secession to Ahwāz, Nāfiʿ joined ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubair [q. v.] in Makka. Soon, however, he and his followers turned their backs on the holy city and arrived before Baṣra, where they spread terror among the inhabitants, who left the town in mult…

Nāfila

(734 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), plur. nawāfil, part. art. fem. I from n-f-l, supererogatory work. 1. The word occurs in the Ḳurʾān in two places. Sūra xxi. 72 runs: “And we bestowed on him [viz. Ibrāhīm] Isaac and Jacob as additional gift” ( nāfilat an). In Sūra xvii. 81 it is used in combination with the vigils, thus: “And perform vigils during a part of the night, reciting the Ḳurʾān, as a nāfila for thee”. In ḥadīt̲h̲ it is frequently used in this sense. “Forgiveness of sins past and future was granted him [Muḥammad] and his works were to him as supererogatory works” (Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, vi. 250). —…

Nafs

(3,929 words)

Author(s): Calverley, E. E.
1 (a.), soul. Nafs, in the early Arabic poetry, meant the self or person, while rūḥ meant breath and wind. Beginning with the Ḳurʾān nafs also means soul, and rūḥ means a special angel messenger and a special divine quality. Only in post-Ḳurʾānic literature are nafs and rūḥ equated and both applied to the human spirit, angels and d̲j̲inn. I. The Ḳurʾānic uses. A. Nafs and its plurals anfus and nufūs have five uses: 1. In most cases they mean the human self or person, e. g., iii. 54: “Let us call … ourselves and yourselves”; also xii. 54; li. 20, 21. 2. In six verses nafs refers to Allāh: v. 116 b: “Thou […

al-Nafūsa

(2,951 words)

Author(s): Béguinot, F.
, in Berber Infūsen, name of a Berber tribe. According to the common genealogical scheme (cf. Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, Kitāb al-ʿIbar, i. 107—117 of the text), the Nafūsa are one of the four branches of the large body of the Botr, whose name derives from their chief Mādg̲h̲īs al-Abtar. At present the dwelling place of the Nafūsa is south-west of Tripoli, on the plateau of the same name which from the frontier between Tunisia and Tripolitania tends eastward, and, if taken in the largest sense, comprises the regions of Nālūt, …

al-Nafūsī

(637 words)

Author(s): Béguinot, F.
Abū Sahl al-Fārisī, Ibāḍite scholar of the Rustamid family, who lived in Tāhert in the iiird (ixth) century. Some say that he was one of those who by their learning and religious zeal helped to make that town famous. He was a complete master of Berber and served as interpreter under the imām Aflaḥ b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb in the first half of the third century a. h., or even till 258 (871—872), and under Abū Ḥātim Yūsuf b. Muḥammad who, with a short interruption, was imām from 281—294 (894—907). This shows that the Rustamid princes of Tāhert spoke Arabic, as was to be expected from the…

Nāgpur

(913 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a city, taḥṣīl, district, and division of the Central Provinces of British India. The modern Central Provinces and Berār, which formed part of the eighteenth century Bhonsla kingdom of Nāgpur, lie between 17° 47′ and 24° 27′ N. and 75° 37′ and 84° 24′ E., with an area of 113,285 square miles, and a total population of 17,951,147. Nāgpur division contains a population of 3,595,578; Nāgpur district 933,168; and the city 215,003 (1931 Census Report). The history of this area, which roughly corresponds to Gondwāna, has been profoundly influenced by the long range of the S…

Nahīkī

(156 words)

Author(s): Massignon, Louis
, nisba from the pre-Islāmic divine name Nahīk noted by Wellhausen and Nöldeke among the Tamīm, the Nak̲h̲aʿ (of Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲) and in Mecca before Islām. — In Kūfa and Sāmarrā it was the name of the Āl Nahīk, a family of S̲h̲īʿī scholars of the tribe of Nak̲h̲aʿ: descendants of Nahīk, grandfather of Kumail b. Ziyād, a partisan of ʿAlī, also celebrated as the founder of the Kumailīya sect (or Kāmilīya: Ibn Saʿd, vi. 124; ḳaṣīda of Miʿdān Samīṭī in Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, Ḥayawān, ii. 98). Two of its members settled in Sāmarrā (Ṭūsī, Fihrist, p. 203; cf. p. 179, 196): the first ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad (…

Nāḥiye

(142 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, an administrative district in the Ottoman empire which corresponds somewhat to the Swiss canton or French commune. It is a subdivision of the ḳaḍā (ḳazā, q. v.), which may be compared with the French arrondissement and is governed by a ḳāʾim-maḳām [q. v.] while the nāḥiye is under a mudīr. This official who used to be appointed by the wālī, the governor of the province, received his instructions from the ḳāʾim-maḳām, to whom he was subordinate. The subdivisions of the nāḥiye are called ḳarye, i. e. village. The term nāḥiye for an administrative district is of recent origin. For the…

al-Naḥl

(163 words)

Author(s): Chemoul, Maurice
, “the Bee”, Sūra xvi. of the Ḳurʾān. The title is taken from verse 70: “Thy Lord has made this revelation to the Bee”. Ḵh̲āzin (iii. 105) says that it was also called “Sūra of the Herds” because there are references in several passages to cattle. As to its date, it is reckoned among the later Meccan Sūras and includes several verses of Medīnese origin; the commentators however are not agreed on this point. The Sūra of the “Bee” contains four abrogated verses: verse 69 is annulled by v. 92; verse 84 by ix. 5; verse 108, part 1, annulled by the end of the same verse and by ix. 5. (Maurice Chemoul) Bibliogra…

al-Nahr

(858 words)

Author(s): Hartner, W.
, the constellation of the River (Eridanus). It corresponds to the ΠοταμόΣ, Flumen, Amnis of the ancients (cf. Aratos, Φαινόμενα, l. 358; Geminus, Εἰσαγωγή; Ptolemy, Almagest). Aratos observes (l. 360) — probably one of the first to do so, — that the river of heaven represents Eridanus (’ΗριδανόΣ, river of the morning? or river of darkness, of the west?) turned into stars, into which Phaeton, son of Helios, fell, struck by the thunderbolt of Zeus, after his unsuccessful attempt to ride to heaven. [The opinions of the Gr…

al-Nahrawālī

(839 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
(Nahrawānī), Arab historian. Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Aḥmad b. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Ḳāḍī Ḵh̲ān Maḥmūd al-Makkī al-Ḳādirī al-Ḵh̲arḳānī al-Ḥanafī was born in 917 (1511) in Mecca, to which his father, a member of a scholarly Indian family, had migrated from Nahrawāla in Gud̲j̲arāt. To complete his studies which had been ¶ begun under his father, he went in 943 (1536) to Cairo, where he was taught by al-Suyūṭī’s pupils, and to Stambul. On his return home he received a teaching appointment in the Madrasa al-As̲h̲rafīya. In 965 (1557) …
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