Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Nahrawān

(41 words)

, or, according to the popular pronunciation, Nihrawān (Yāḳūt, iv. 846 sqq.), name of a large territory between Bag̲h̲dād [q. v.] and Wāsiṭ [q. v.], known through the battle between ʿAlī and the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites [q. v.] in 38 (658).

Naḥw

(983 words)

Author(s): Lichtenstädter, Ilse
(a.), lit. direction, path, also intention, but gradually acquired the special meaning of grammar. The Arab philologists divide it into two branches: accidence, ʿilm al-ṣarf or taṣrīf, comprising the theory of verbal stems and their conjugation, the formation of nouns and adjectives, the formation of the plural and of the feminine, etc., i. e. with individual word-forms only, and syntax, ʿilm al-naḥw in the narrower sense. The fundamental grammatical conceptions of the Arab philologists are taken from Aristotelian logic, which came via Syrian scholars to …

Nāʾib

(711 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H. A. R. | Davies, C. Collin
(a.), literally “substitute, delegate” (nomen agentis from n-w-b “to take the place of another”), the term applied generally to any person appointed as deputy of another in an official position, and more especially, in the Mamlūk and Dihlī Sulṭānates, to designate a. the deputy or lieutenant of the Sulṭān and b. the governors of the chief provinces (see also the article egypt, above, vol. ii., p. 16a). In the Mamlūk system the former, entitled nāʾ ib al-salṭana al-muʿaẓẓama wa-kāfil al-maniālik al-s̲h̲arīfa al-islāmīya, was the Vice-Sulṭān proper, who administered all the te…

Nāʾilī

(1,055 words)

Author(s): Menzel
, properly Yeni-Zāde Muṣṭafā Čelebi, called after his father Pīrī Ḵh̲alīfa also Pīrī-Zāde, a celebrated Ottoman poet. He is usually described as Nāʾilī-i Ḳadīm, “old Nāʾilī”, to distinguish him from Yeni Nāʾilī, young Nāʾilī, the poet and mewlewl Nāʾilī Ṣāliḥ Efendi of Monastir, author of several Ṣūfī works who died in 1293 (1876) in Cairo. Nāʾilī was one of the greatest Ottoman poets of the post-classical period, the period of the weak sulṭāns (Murād IV, Ibrāhīm and Meḥmed IV, 1058-1115 = 1648-1703), of rule by women and eunuchs (Kösem Sulṭān, Bekt…

Naʿīmā

(502 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Muṣṭafā, a Turkish historian. Muṣṭafā Naʿīm known as Naʿīmā was born in 1065 (1655) in Aleppo. After becoming a teberdār (halberdier) in 1100 (beg. Oct. 26, 1688) in the imperial palace, he was promoted to be a secretary in the Dīwān under the grand vizier Ḳalāʾiliḳoz Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a. On the 28th Ḏj̲umādā I 1116 (Nov. 28, 1704) he became chief accountant of Anatolia and in 1121 (1709) succeeded Niʿmetī as master of ceremonies and imperial historian ( weḳāʾiʿ nuwīs; q. v.). He later filled several other offices (cf. F. Babinger, G.O.W., p. 245) and during the campaign in the Morea was …

Nak̲h̲čuwān

(914 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Nak̲h̲ičewān), a t own to the north of the Araxes. The town Ναξουάνα is mentioned in Ptolemy, v., ch. 12. The Armenians explain the name of Nak̲h̲čawan (Nak̲h̲čuan) by a popular etymology as nak̲h̲-id̲j̲ewan “(Noah’s) first stopping-place” (although the name is apparently compounded with -awan “place”) and locate the town in the province of Waspurakan (cf. Yāḳūt, i. 122), or in that of Siunikh. According to Moses of Chorene, i. ch. 30, Nak̲h̲ičewan was in the area peopled by Median prisoners ( mar) in whom we should see the ancestors of the Kurds of this region (cf. Balād̲h̲urī, p. 200; nahr …

Nak̲h̲s̲h̲ab

(451 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a town in Buk̲h̲āra, also called Nasaf by the Arab geographers (cf. the similar evolution of Nashāwa from Nak̲h̲čawan). The town lay in the valley of the Kas̲h̲ka-Daryā, cf. Ibn Ḥawḳal, p. 376: Kas̲h̲k-rūd̲h̲, which runs southwards parallel to the Zarafs̲h̲ān (river of Samarḳand) and runs towards the Amū-Daryā [q. v.] but before joining it disappears in the sands. Nak̲h̲s̲h̲ab lay on the road joining Buk̲h̲ārā to Balk̲h̲ 4 days’ journey from the former and eight from the latter (cf. Muḳaddasī, p. 344). In the time of Iṣṭak̲h̲rī (p. 325) the town consisted only of one quarter ( rabaḍ) and a …

Nak̲h̲s̲h̲abī

(796 words)

Author(s): Berthels, E.
, S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn (d. 751 = 1350), a famous Persian author (not to be confused with the famous Ṣūfī S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abū Turāb Nak̲h̲s̲h̲abī, d. 245 = 860). Very little is known of his career. His nisba suggests that he came from Nak̲h̲s̲h̲ab [q. v.] but he went to India where he became a murīd of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Farīd, a descendant of the celebrated S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḥamīd al-Dīn Nāgūrī. The Ak̲h̲bār al-Ak̲h̲yār of ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ Dihlawī (Dihlī 1309, p. 104—107) says that he died in Badāʾūn after a long and contemplative life and that his tomb is there. Nak̲h̲s̲h̲abī was a …

Naḳs̲h̲band

(618 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad Bahāʾ al-Dīn al-Buk̲h̲ārī (717—791 = 1317—1389), founder of the Naḳs̲h̲bandī Order. His name, which signifies “painter” is interpreted as “drawing incomparable pictures of the Divine Science” (J. P. Brown, The Darvishes, 2nd ed., p. 142) or more mystically as “holding the form of real perfection in the heart” ( Miftāḥ al-Maʿīya quoted by Ahlwardt, Berlin Catalogue, N°. 2188). The title al-S̲h̲āh which is given him in a dirge cited in the Ras̲h̲aḥāt means “spiritual leader”. The nisba al-Uwaisī implies that his system resembled that of Uwais al-Ḳaranī. His Acta we…

NāḲūs

(170 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.), pl. nawāḳīs, a kind of rattle used and in some places still used by Christians in the east to summon the community to divine service. It is a board pierced with holes which is beaten with a rod. The name, which comes from the Syriac nāḳūs̲h̲ā is not infrequently found with the verbs ḍaraba or ṣakka in the old Arabic poets, especially when early morning is to be indicated, e. g. ʿAntara, app.; Labīd, N°. 19, 6; Z.D.M.G., xxxiii. 215; Mutalammis, ed. Vollers, p. 178, v. 6; al-Aʿs̲h̲ā in Nöldeke’s Delectus, p. 26; Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, xix. 92. According to tradition, Muḥammad hesitated b…

al-Namāra

(371 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, 1. a place in Syria. It is situated in the ḥarra of al-Ṣafāʾ on an eminence in the Wādi ’l-S̲h̲ām, which runs from the Ḏj̲ebel al-Drūz (Ḏj̲ebel al-Ḥawrān) to the plain of Ruḥba, at the spot where it joins the Wādi ’l-Saʾūṭ. It ¶ corresponds to the Roman military post of Namara (Waddington, Inscriptions, N°. 2270). Less than a mile S. E. of al-Namāra, Dussaud found the Nabataean-Arab tomb inscription of the “King of all the Arabs”, Maiu ’l-Ḳais bar ʿAmru, i. e. the Lak̲h̲mid Imru ’l-Ḳais b. ʿAmru, of the 7th Keslūl 223 of the era of Boṣrāʾ = Dec. 7,. 328 a. d. (cf. vol. i., p. 382a). Bibliography R. Duss…

Nāmi̊ḳ Kamāl Bey

(8 words)

[See Kemāl Meḥmed Nāmi̊ḳ.]

al-Naml

(89 words)

Author(s): Chemoul, Maurice
, the Ants, the title of Sūra xxvii. of the Ḳurʾān, the whole of which was revealed at Mecca. Nöldeke puts it among the Sūras of the second period. It contains 95 verses. Its title is taken from verse 18: “When the armies reached the valley of the Ants one of them said: ʿO ye ants, return to your homes lest Solomon and his armies crush you without noticing it’”. It contains one verse that was abrogated (verse 94 annulled by ix. 5). (Maurice Chemoul) Bibliography cf. al-nahl.

Namrūd

(1,571 words)

Author(s): Heller, Bernard
, also Namrūd̲h̲, Nimrūd, the Nimrod of the Bible, is associated in Muslim legend, as in Haggada, with the story of the childhood of Abraham. The Ḳurʾān, it is true, does not mention him but probably, as in many other cases, only from dislike of mentioning names. That Muḥammad was acquainted with the legend ¶ of Namrūd is evident from the following verses. “Do you not see how he disputed with Ibrāhīm about the Lord who had granted him dominion? When Ibrāhīm said: It is my Lord who gives life and death, the other replied: I give life and I slay. Whe…

Nāmūs

(2,361 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
(a.) is a word of many meanings. In St. John’s Gospel xv. 26, the coming of the paraclete is announced. In the preceding verse a passage from the Psalms referring to the haters is quoted and ἐν τῷ νόμῷ αὐτῶν given as source. The verses in the Gospel from 23 on were already known to Ibn Isḥāḳ in an Arabic version which came from a Syriac one as the reproduction of “paraclete” by al-manaḥmānā shows. In the same source the word νόμοΣ was left untranslated: for we find it in Ibn His̲h̲ām in the form nāmūs. Biographical tradition makes Waraḳa b. Nawfal expressly assert the identification of Mu…

Nār

(4 words)

[See Ḏj̲ahannam.]
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