Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(298 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲aʿfar (d. 348 = 1959), author of the “History of Buk̲h̲ārā”, the original Arabic version of which he presented to the Sāmānid Nūḥ b. Naṣr in 332 (943—944). In 522 (1128—1129) the book was translated into Persian by Abū Naṣr Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Ḳubāwī who omitted several “tedious” passages. Then in 574 (1178—1179) Muḥammad b. Ẓufar prepared a new abbreviated edition of the book which he presented to Ṣadr ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Burhān al-Dīn, governor of Buk̲h̲ārā. Finally an unknow…


(457 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(often Nisā), the name of several places in Persia: in Ḵh̲urāsān, Fārs, Kirmān and Hamad̲h̲ān; cf. Yāḳūt, iv. 778. (According to Bartholomae, nisāya means “settlement”). 1. Nasā in Ḵh̲urāsān was situated in the cultivated zone which lies north of the range separating Ḵh̲urāsān from the Turkoman steppes. It corresponds to the Νίσαια, Νίσαιον πεδίον of the classical authors, celebrated for its breed of horses (Herodotos, iii. 106; cf. Strabo, xi., ch. xiv., §7). Alexander the Great is said to have built an Alexandropolis …


(4 words)

[See Nak̲h̲s̲h̲ab.]


(411 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, nisba [cf. nasaf] of several eminent persons of whom the following may be mentioned: I. Abu ’l-Muʿīn Maimūn b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad ... b. Makḥūl ... al-Ḥanafī al-Makḥūlī (d. 508 = 1114), one of the mutakallimūn [q. v.] whose scholastic position is between that of the early period as represented by ʿAbd al-Ḳāhir al-Bag̲h̲dādī [q. v.], who is still endeavouring to find a convenient arrangement and an adequate formulation of the contents of kalām, and the younger mutakallims who have at hand the necessary formulas for ready use. Of his works the following are known to me: 1. Tamhīd li-Ḳawāʿid…


(714 words)

Author(s): Heffening
, Ḥāfihẓ al-Dīn Abu ’l-Barakāt ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad b. Maḥmūd, an important Ḥanafī legist and theologian, born in Nasaf in Sogdiana, was a pupil of S̲h̲ams al-Aʾimma al-Kardarī (d. 642 = 1244—1245), Ḥamīd al-Dīn al-Ḍarīr (d. 666 = 1267—1268) and Badr al-Dīn Ḵh̲wāherzāde (d. 651 = 1253). He taught in the Madrasa al-Ḳuṭbīya al-Sulṭānīya in Kirmān, came in 710 to Bag̲h̲dād and died in Rabīʿ I 710 (August 1310; according to Ḳuras̲h̲ī and Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī: ¶ 701) apparently on his way back to Īd̲j̲ad̲j̲ (in Ḵh̲ūzistān), where he was buried. His pupils were Muẓaffar al-Dīn Ib…


(286 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Aḥmad b. S̲h̲uʿaib b. ʿAlī b. Baḥr b. Sinān, author of one of the six canonical collections of traditions [cf. ḥadīt̲h̲], d. 303 (915). Very little is known about him. He is said to have made extensive travels in order to hear traditions, to have settled in Egypt, afterwards in Damascus, and to have died in consequence of ill-treatment to which he was exposed at Damascus or, according to others, at Ramla, in consequence of his feelings in favour of ʿAlī and against the Umaiyads. On account of this u…


(6,896 words)

Author(s): Tritton, A. S. | Kramers, J. H.
Christians, more especially the adherents of the Oriental churches living under Muslim rule (differentiated from Rūm “Greek Christians”, Ifrand̲j̲ “Western Christians”). The word is derived from the Syriac Naṣrāyā (Horovitz, Koran. Untersuchungen, p. 144 sqq.); the Arabic singular is Naṣrānī. A. Before Islām. A complete investigation of the materials for the history of Christianity in Arabia and among the Arabs before the rise of Islām has not yet been made, and only the principal facts can be summarily given here. Christianity naturally spread into Arabia from Syria and al…


(791 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad, an Arabic historian, biographer of the last Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āh Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Mängübirti [q. v.], was born in Ḵh̲arandiz (Yāḳūt, ii. 415), an estate in the district of Nasā [q. v.] in Ḵh̲urāsān where his family was reputed to have been already settled in the pre-Muḥammadan period ( Hist., ed. Houdas, p. 53). During his father’s lifetime he represented him when the vizier Niẓām al-Mulk, dismissed from office by Sulṭān Muḥammad, visited the family estates on his journey to Ḵh̲wārizm and was received by him ( ibid., p. 30). He only mentions incidental…


(297 words)

Author(s): Berthels, E.
Mīrzā ʿAbd al-Wahhāb of Iṣfahān, one of the best Persian poets and stylists of the period of the early Ḳād̲j̲ārs. He was a physician in S̲h̲īrāz and in his native city, devoting his leisure hours to poetry in which he displayed a great facility. He wrote verse in Arabic, Persian and Turkish and was further celebrated for his great skill in s̲h̲ikasta. Rumours of his poetical gifts induced the Kād̲j̲ār Fatḥ ʿAlī S̲h̲āh (1797—1834) to invite him to Ṭeherān as court poet. There Nas̲h̲āṭ soon rose to great honour and in 1809 was appointed Muns̲h̲ī al-Mamālik …


(561 words)

Author(s): Lichtenstädter, Ilse
b. Saʿīd b. Nas̲h̲wān al-Ḥimyarī al-Yamanī, an Arab philologist. The notices of this individual and his career are exceedingly scanty. In Yāḳūt’s Irs̲h̲ād and in Suyūṭī’s Bug̲h̲ya he is described in laudatory terms in the usual phrases as a great scholar, authority on fiḳh, philology and naḥw; he was also distinguished as a historian and poet and was equally versed “in the other branches of adab”. He compiled a dictionary entitled S̲h̲ams al-ʿUlūm wa-Dawāʾ al-ʿArab min al-Kulūm in eight (according to others eighteen) volumes which his son later revised and condensed int…


(992 words)

Author(s): Moberg, A.
(a.), intercalary month, intercalation, or man on whose authority an intercalation is undertaken, a word of uncertain meaning in Sūra ix. 37 and in Muḥammad’s sermon at the farewell pilgrimage (Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 968; cf. the article ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲). Nasīy, nasy and nasʾ are variants and the word is connected with nasaʾa to “postpone” or “add” or with nasiya to “forget”. In any case, it is given in Muslim tradition a meaning which brings it into connection with the method of reckoning time among the pagan Arabs. The Ḳurʾānic verse describes nasīʾ as “a further expression of unbelief” and i…


(1,371 words)

Author(s): Lichtenstädter, Ilse
(a.), the introductory lines of the Arabic ḳaṣīda [q. v.] which are devoted to recalling the memory of a woman whom the poet loved long years before. The nasīb is, so far as we know, the only kind of love-poem which has survived to us from the Arabic literature of the preand early Muḥammadan period and is almost the only place where women are the subject in the poetry of the Arabs. The essential feature is that the subject of the nasīb is always the lament of a man for a lost beloved. Even in the earliest ḳaṣīdas that have survived the nasīb is already ¶ in the stereotyped form. It treats its subje…


(3,240 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a town in Mesopotamia. The name is certainly of Semitic origin and to be derived (with Fhilon Byblios in Steph. Byz.; Müller, F. H. G., Hi. 571, frg. 8) from ΝάσιβιΣ = στήλαι; ( naṣīb). The idol of Naṣībīn is said to have been called Abnīl (Assemani, Bibl. Orient., i., Rome 1719,p. 27), i.e. “stone of El” (according to W. Robertson Smith, Religion of the Semites, London 1927, p. 210, note 1). On coins the usual form of the place-name is neσibi (Uranios in Steph. Byz.: ΝέσιβιΣ; Pliny, Nat. hist., vi. 42: Nesebis); in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae and elsewhere we find the forms Nitibi(n…


(1,426 words)

Author(s): Taeschner, F.
li-Dīn Allāh, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. al-Mustaḍīʾ bi-Amr Allāh, the 34th ʿAbbāsid caliph (575—622 = 1180—1225), was ¶ the son of a Turkish slave-girl named Zumurrud. He was the only caliph of the later period of the caliphate who was able to pursue a consistent policy. This was entirely directed towards restoring the temporal power of the caliphate. The caliph was assisted by the fact that the Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire which had previously held the secular power had begun to collapse. In the confusion which brought about its final…


(965 words)

Author(s): Marçais, Georges
ibn ʿAlennās (the last name is also written ʿAlnās, ʿAnnās and even G̲h̲ilnās by Ibn ʿId̲h̲ārī), fifth ruler of the Ḥammadīd dynasty, succeeded his cousin Bulukkīn b. Muḥammad in 454 (1062). His reign marks the apogee of the little Berber kingdom founded by Ḥammād [q. v.]. The ephemeral rise of the Ḥammādids was the mmediate result of the downfall of their relations and neighbours, the Zīrids of Ifrīḳiya, the first victims of the Hilālī invasion. On his accession, al-Nāṣir, who lived in the Ḳalʿa…


(322 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, honorific of the fourth sovereign of the Mag̲h̲ribī dynasty of the Muʾminids or Almohads [q. v.], Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Yaʿḳūb al-Manṣūr b. Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Muʾmin. He was proclaimed on the death of his father on the 22nd Rabīʿ I 595 (Jan. 25, 1199). The beginning of his reign was marked by the suppression of a rising led by an agitator in the mountainous country of the G̲h̲umāra and a long stay at Fās during which he rebuilt a part of the wall of the ḳaṣaba of this city. Hearing of the rising of Yaḥyā b. Isḥāḳ Ibn G̲h̲āniya in Ifrīḳiya, he set out for the eastern part of hi…


(2,952 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of two Mamlūk sulṭāns. I. al-Malik al-Nāṣir Nāṣir al-Dīn Muḥammad, ¶ the ninth sulṭān of the Baḥrī Mamlūks, son of Sulṭān Ḳalāʾūn [q. v.] and a Mongol princess named Aslūn (As̲h̲lūn) Ḵh̲ātūn. Born in the middle of Muḥarram 684 (Dec. 1285), he received homage as sulṭān after the assassination of his brother al-Malik al-As̲h̲raf Ḵh̲alīl in Muḥarram 693 (Dec. 1293). After the two emīrs Zain al-Dīn Ketbog̲h̲a al-Manṣūrī and ʿAlam al-Dīn Sand̲j̲ar al-S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿī had agreed that the former should hold the office of administrator of the government ( niyābat al-salṭana) and the lat…
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