Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(1,515 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of two Aiyūbids. I. al-Malik al-Nāṣir Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Dāwūd b. al-Malik al-Muʿahẓhẓam, born in Ḏj̲umādā 1603 (Dec. 1205) in Damascus. After the death of his father at the end of Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 624 (Nov. 1227) Dāwūd succeeded him on the throne of Damascus and the Mamlūk ʿIzz al-Dīn Aibak acted as regent. Dāwūd’s uncles however, covetous of territory, did not leave him long in peace. Al-Malik al-Kāmil [q. v.] first of all claimed the fortress of al-S̲h̲awbak [q. v.] and when it was refused him he occupie…


(4 words)

[See Uṭrūs̲h̲.]


(913 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
li-Dīn Allāh, official name of several Zaidī imāms. I. Among the Caspian Zaidīs this title was borne by 1. al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr al-Uṭrūs̲h̲ [q. v.] and his great-grandson 2. al-Nāṣir al-Ṣag̲h̲īr al-Ḥūsain b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī. The latter gained for himself a dominion beginning in Hawsam, where he could find associations with the earlier period of Zaidī rule. He laid great emphasis on the religious character of Zaidism; he gave out of the state treasury funds to support people who learned the Ḳurʾān by heart. He was also a …


(867 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, Nazareth, the home of Jesus, lies in a depression sloping to the south surrounded by hills in a fertile district. While the hills to the north and northeast are not very high, in the northwest the Ḏj̲ebel al-Sīk̲h̲, rises to 1,600 feet above sea-level. The name of the town, which does not occur in the Old Testament, is found in the New and in the Greek fathers of the Church in the varying forms Ναζαρα Ναζαρετ and Nαζαρεϧ with ζ, but according to Jerome it had in Hebrew a ṣade, which is confirmed by the Syriac Nāṣrat and the Arabic Nāṣira as well as by the Taimudic derivative form , pl. while the Christ…

Nāṣir ʿAlī

(227 words)

Author(s): Berthels, E.
of Sarhind (d. in Dihlī on the 6th Ramaḍān 1108 = March 29, 1697), one of the best of the Persian poets of India, who were by this time very numerous; their productions however are for the most part of little artistic value. Of his life we know only that he travelled a great deal but finally settled in Sarhind were he enjoyed the favour of the governor Saif Ḵh̲ān Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ī and of the Āmir al-Umarāʾ Ḏh̲u ’l-Fiḳār Ḵh̲ān. His principal work is a version of the love story of Madhumalat and Manūhar in P…

Nāṣir al-Dawla

(1,394 words)

Author(s): Bowen, Harold
Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. ʿAbd Allāh, a prince of the Ḥamdānid dynasty [q. v.]. From the year 308 (920—921) he acted as lieutenant to his father, Abu ’l-Haid̲j̲āʾ ʿAbd Allāh [q. v.], in the governorship of al-Mawṣil, and on the latter’s death in 317 (929) succeeded to the leadership of the Ḥamdānid family. Owing to the part played by Abu ’l-Haid̲j̲āʾ in the second temporary deposition of the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Muḳtadir [q. v.], the latter, on his restoration, attempted to put an end to the Ḥamdānids’ …

Nāṣir al-Dīn

(12 words)

[See Maḥmūd I, Maḥmūd II, Maḥmūd , Maḥmūd II]

Nāṣir Dīn Allāh

(8 words)

[See Masʿūd b. Saʿīd.]

Nāṣir-i K̲h̲usraw

(1,061 words)

Author(s): Berthels, E.
whose full name was Abū Muʿīn Nāṣir b. Ḵh̲usraw b. Ḥārit̲h̲., one of the most important Persian poets of the xith century. Life. Nāṣir was born in 394 (1003) in Ḳubādiyān in the district of Balk̲h̲, The Persian historians usually call him ʿAlawī which in this case can hardly mean descent from the caliph ʿAlī but simply indicates his adherence to the S̲h̲īʿa. His father was probably a small landowner in the vicinity of Balk̲h̲. Nāṣir received a good education and was early acquainted with almost all branches of the learning of his day. In the forties of the xith century we find him as an offic…


(21 words)

(a.), infin. I from n-s-k̲h̲, with the technical sense of “abrogation (of a sacred text)”. See ḳurʾān , 3.


(230 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, the vulture. It gets its name from the fact that it tears the dead animals on which it feeds to pieces with its beak and devours them. It eats till it can no longer fly. It is said to attain the age of 1,000 years. Its eyes are so sharp that it can see its prey at a distance of 400 farsak̲h̲; its sense of smell is equally sharp but fragrant scents are so deadly to it that they destroy it. It shows great endurance in flying and follows armies and pilgrim caravans in order to fall upon the corps…


(154 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the title of Sūra ex., taken from its first verse. The word means “help, assistance” and is often used of God’s help in war and then with the meaning of “victory”. Sūra lxi. 13 is also associated with al-fatḥ, cf. xlviii. 13. The Sūra clearly belongs to a later period and verse 2 in particular recalls the year 9, the Year of the Embassies. It is therefore natural to refer al-fatḥ (verse 1) in keeping with the frequent use of the word to the capture of Mecca, except that it is not mentioned as a fact (as Weil, Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 933 translates it) but is represented as an assumption, which is a…

Naṣr Allāh b. Muḥammad

(179 words)

Author(s): Berthels, E.
b. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Abu ’l-Maʿālī of S̲h̲īrāz, a Persian author and statesman, vizier of the G̲h̲aznawid Ḵh̲usraw Malik (1160—1186) by whose orders he was arrested and executed. Naṣr was the first Persian to succeed in giving a satisfactory Persian version of the celebrated Ḵh̲alīla u-Dimna. His version is based on the Arabic of ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḳaffaʿ and was completed about 538—539 (1144), i. e. in the time of Bahrāms̲h̲āh (1118— 1152). For a long time his translation was regarded as a model of elegant Persian style which could not be surpa…

Naṣr b. Aḥmad b. Ismāʿīl

(1,562 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
called al-Saʿīd, a Sāmānid. After the murder of his father in Ḏj̲umādā II, 301 (Jan. 914) the eight year old Naṣr was put on the throne and the able vizier Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Ḏj̲aihānī given the regency. Soon afterwards the people of Sīstān rebelled against the Sāmānids and placed themselves under the rule of the governor Badr al-Kabīr appointed by the caliph al-Muḳtadir. At the same time the caliph’s generals al-Faḍl b. Ḥumaid and Ḵh̲ālid b. Muḥammad al-Marwazī occupied the to…
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