Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(2,208 words)

Author(s): Tkatsch, J.
, a district and tribe of the earliest period, in the southern half of Arabia. Al-Bakrī, Muʿd̲j̲am, p. 835 and Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, iv. 896 give the vocalisation Wabāri and compare the form with Ḥad̲h̲āmi and Ḳaṭāmi. The Wabār are mentioned by the historians along with the ʿĀd, T̲h̲amūd and other extinct tribes as one of the original peoples of Arabia, all of whom are included (as al-ʿArab al-bāʾida) by some genealogists among the “true, original Arabs” ( al-ʿArab al-ʿarbāʾ or al-ʿĀriba). Al-Suyūṭī, for example, with whose estimate of the ʿArbāʾ Ibn Duraid in the Ḏj̲amhara and others agree …


(2,516 words)

Author(s): Delafosse, Maurice
Wadāʾi or Waddāʾi, also called Bergu or Borgu and Dār-Ṣāliḥ, lies to the west of Dār-Fūr from which it is separated by the provinces of Tama, Mara, Masalit and Sila, which have in the past been politically dependent sometimes on Dār-Fūr and sometimes on Wadāʾi according to the fortune of war. The boundaries of Wadāʾi in other directions are not very precise; the kingdom at its greatest extent at the height of its power did not stretch beyond Kuti on the south, Fitri on the west, Ennedi and the …


(1,499 words)

Author(s): Spies, Otto
(a.), deposit, custody, is a contract ( ʿaḳd) by which the depositor( mūdiʿ, mustawdiʿ) hands over to the depositary ( mūda ʿ mustawdaʿ) a thing to be kept and returned intact at a later date. Wadīʿa means not only the thing to be kept but also the agreement regarding the transaction. The custody is therefore based on a special agreement and is therefore dealt with in legal works as a branch of the law of contract, while in the case of amāna “entrusted goods” there is no agreement but only a general obligation to keep faith, without a binding agreement; under amāna therefore come such things as…

Wādī Ḥalfa

(439 words)

Author(s): Walker, J.
or simply Ḥalfa, a modern town in the Anglo-Egyptian Sūdān, 21° 55′ N. 31° 19′ E., on the right bank of the Nile, c. 770 miles south of Cairo and 5 miles north of the Second Cataract, is the chief town of the province or mudīrīya of that name. It includes the village of Tawfīḳīya, a new suburb with fine bazaars, and its inhabitants, inclusive of the Nubian villagers of Dabarōsa, number almost 3,000. Besides the Muslim places of worship there are the churches of the Copts, Greeks and English. The Government offices and hospital, and the off…

Wādi ’l-Ḳurā

(724 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, Adolf
, the valley between el-ʿElāʾ and al-Medīna on the old trading route from South Arabia to Syria, usually called Wādī Deidibbān. It is the dry bed of two wādīs which join in the centre, the Wādī al-Ḏj̲izel from the north and the Wādī el-Ḥamḍ from the south which comes down from near Medīna above the village of Henakīya and runs between the Ḏj̲ebel Ḥamzī or Uḥud (Eḥad) and the city of the Prophet. Halfway between el-ʿElāʾ and al-Medīna it is joined on the right by the Wādī el-Tubd̲j̲ or Wādī el-Silsila, which connects it with Ḵh̲aibar. The most important place in the Wādi ’l-Ḳurāʾ is el-ʿElā…

Wādī Nūn

(1,899 words)

Author(s): de la Chapelle, F.
, older form Wādī Nūl. This is not the name of a river but of a great plain in S.W. Morocco between the western Anti-Atlas and its Saharan outliers twenty miles from the sea. The plain is formed by the silt from a number of water-courses, of which the chief are the Wādī Ṣaiyād and the Wādī Umm al-ʿAs̲h̲ar, which unite to form the Wādī Āsāka; the latter river joins the sea through a defile which has given it its name. We find in the Wādī Nūn a certain number of oases with large villages (Awgelmīm or Gleimīm, Ḳṣābī, Tīlīwīn, Fask, Dubiyān, Tig̲h̲mart, Asrīr, Waʿrūn, Abbūda etc…


(296 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī Ḥusainī, a Persian poet of the xviiith century, belonged to a family of saiyids of Ḳumm, who had charge of the mausoleum of Fāṭima, daughter of the Imām Mūsā Kāẓim [cf. ḳumm]. He went to India at the end of the reign of Nādir S̲h̲āh, stayed there nearly 30 years, returned home in 1180 (1766), made the pilgrimage to Mecca and died in Persia in 1194 (1780). The Asiatic Society of Bengal possesses a short mat̲h̲nawī entitled Luʾluʾ-i manẓūm “Pearls arranged in Order” by him; his Dīwān is in the India Office Library. Other poets have had the same tak̲h̲alluṣ: 1. Wafāʾ of Ferāhā…


(143 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, the name of the fourth metre in Arab prosody. It consists in theory of three ¶ mufāʿalatun to the hemistich, but in practice the third foot becomes mufāʿal (= faʿūlun). It has two ʿarūḍ and three ḍarb. The first ʿarūḍ has one ḍarb and the second has two: The alterations that may be undergone by the feet are as follows: 1. the fairly frequent disappearance of the vowel of the lām in mufāʿalatun (mufāʿaltun = mafāʿīlun); 2. the rather rare disappearance of the lām and its vowel ( mufāʿatun = mafāʿilun); 3. the excessively rare disappearance of the vowel of the lām and of the nūn (mufāʿaltu = mafāʿīlu).…


(1,559 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, plur. Awfāḳ, magic square, i.e. a square divided up like a chessboard, each square of which is inscribed with numerals, letters or words; it is worn as a talisman against illness and for all sorts of other purposes, or can be used for all kinds of magic. The simplest form of a magic square is the nine compartmented square with numbers as shown in fig. 1. Under the name lǒ-shū, it is mentioned in Chinese literature: The legendary Emperor Yü (2200 b. c.) is said to have seen it on the back of a turtle which arose out of the Hoang-Ho. In Arabic literature, the square is first f…


(509 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
or al-Ifrānī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh, called al-Ṣag̲h̲īr, a Moroccan biographer and historian, born in Marrākus̲h̲ in 1080 (1669—1670); he belonged to the Berber ¶ tribe of the Ifrān or Ūfrān (Wafrān) which was settled in the south of Morocco in the valley of the Wādī Darʿa. We know very few details of his life. He studied in his native town, then at Fās and spent his life in one or other of the chief towns of Morocco or at the zāwiya of the S̲h̲arḳāwa [q.v.] of Abu ’l-Ḏj̲aʿd (Bujad). Towards the end of his life he was imām and preacher ( k̲h̲āṭib) at the Masd̲…


(276 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(pl. al-Wāḥāt), the name of a group of oases to the west of Egypt. There are three of them: the first is opposite the Faiyūm and reaches to the level of Aswān; it is the largest of the oases and contains several villages; its palms give the best dates in Egypt. The second is smaller and less populous. The third is the smallest and contains a village named Santaria. This is the information given by Yāḳūt. Maḳrīzī makes four oases which he calls outer ¶ and inner; in his time Santaria was a little town of about 600 inhabitants of Berber stock called Sīwa who spoke a dialect resem…

Wahb b. Munabbih

(1,615 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh, a South Arabian story-teller ( ḳāṣṣ ak̲h̲bārī: Ḏh̲ahabī, in Z. D. M. G., xliv. 483) of Persian descent who was born in Ḏh̲imār, two days’ journey from Ṣanʿāʾ in 34 a. h. (no credence need be given to statements that he adopted Islām in 10 a. h.). Wahb is celebrated as an authority on the traditions of the Ahl al-Kitāb and like his brothers Hammām, G̲h̲ailān and Maʿḳil is classed among the tābiʿūn. The earliest sources know nothing of the story that before his conversion to Islām he belonged to the Ahl al-Kitāb (Fihrist, p. 22) or more precisely was a Jew (Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, ed.…


(713 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, a Turkish poet, usually called Saiyid Wahbī to distinguish him from Sünbülzāde Wahbī [q. v.]. He was a contemporary of Nedīm and like him a native of Stambul. His father Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Aḥmed, the kiaya of Imāmzāde, Ḳāḍī of Yenis̲h̲ehir, claimed to be descended from the Prophet through a certain Ḥusām al-Dīn. After the latter, his son Ḥusain, our poet, was at first given the nisba Ḥusāmī but then, on the suggestion of Aḥmed Nailī, the man of letters, given instead the nisba Wahbī, since it was a gift of God ( wehb) that he combined in himself descent from the Prophet ( saiyidlik) with the gift of p…


(4,799 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Islāmic community founded by Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb (1115-1201 = 1703-1787). This name was given to the community by its opponents in the founder’s lifetime, and is used by Europeans; it is not used by its members in Arabia, who call themselves Muwaḥḥidūn “unitarians” and their system ( ṭarīḳa) “Muḥammadan”; they regard themselves as Sunnīs, following the school of Ibn Ḥanbal, as interpreted by Ibn Taimīya, who attacked the cult of saints in many of his writings, especially in a Risāla condemning the visitation of tombs (in his Rasāʾil, Cairo 1323). § 1. Life of the Founder. He w…


(630 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the nameof a dynasty in South Arabia, which rules over three sultanates, those of Bīr ʿAlī ʿAmaḳīn, Bāl Ḥāf ʿIzzān and Ḥabbān. H. v. Maltzan (p. 222) after investigation divided the whole territory belonging to this ruling house into two groups: Lower Wāḥidī on the coast from 48° to 48° 30′ East Long. (Greenwich) in the 14° N. Lat. reaching barely two hours journey into the interior, and Upper Wāḥidī from 47° to 47° 40′ East Long. (Greenwich) and from 14° 20′ to 14° 58′ N. Lat. C. v. Landberg …

Waḥs̲h̲ī Bāfḳī

(130 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian poet, born at Bāfḳ, in Kirmān, died in 991 (1583) or 992 (1584) and spent most of his life in Yazd. He wrote panegyrics in honour of S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp I and his court, began a poem ( Ferhād u-S̲h̲īrīn) which he did not complete; it was finished long afterwards by Wiṣāl in 1265 (1848—1849). He wrote two other poems, Ḵh̲uld-i Barīn and Nāẓiru-Manẓūr, g̲h̲azal’s and ḳiṭaʿ’s. Ferhād u-S̲h̲īrīn has been lithographed in Persia and several times in India. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Luṭf ʿAlī Beg, Ātes̲h̲ Kede, Bombay 1277, p. 111—120 Riḍā Ḳuli Ḵh̲ān, Mad̲j̲ma ʿ al-Fuṣaḥāʾ, ii. 51—54 Rieu, Pers.…


(2,979 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), revelation [cf. also ḳorʾān, muḥammad]. As to the etymology of the word, cf. Jewish-Aramaic “to hasten”, Aethiopic “to go round, to recognise”, and the nonreligious meaning ilhām bi-surʿa, given by the Dictionary of Technical Terms; on the use of the verb by the poets, cf. Lisān, s. v. As a religious technical term it is distinguished from inspiration ( ilhām, q. v.) of saints, artists and others, from tanzīl, which chiefly denotes the object of revelation and from inzāl which denotes the sending down of revelation from heaven and from its heavenly archetype [see umm al-kitāb], in so…


(627 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, properly Uwhis b. Meḥmed, known under his mak̲h̲laṣ of Waisī, a famous Ottoman scholar and poet. Born in 969 (1561—62) in Mas̲h̲ehir, the son of a ḳāḍī named Meḥmed Efendi, he also adopted a legal career. After completing his training in Constantinople with the ʿulemāʾ Ṣāliḥ Efendi and Aḥmad Efendi, he filled a series of important posts in all parts of the Ottoman empire (in Rosetta, Cairo, Aḳ Ḥiṣār, Tire, Alas̲h̲ehir, Seres, Rodosto, Üsküb, Gümüld̲j̲ina) and died in 1037 (1628) in Üsküb, where he filled the office of ḳāḍī seven times, a…


(1,462 words)

Author(s): Spies, Otto
(also Wikāla), mandate, authorisation, is a contract ( ʿaḳd) by which one contracting party, the muwakkil, commissions the other, the mandatary ( wakīl), to perform some service for him. I. In the Ḳurʾān we find forms derived from wakala in the meaning of “to rely upon, to trust in Allāh” (fifth form) or associated with the idea that Allāh, is the wakīl, one of the 99 names of Allāh, which according to the commentators ¶ has the meaning of ḥafīẓ (Sūra xii. 66; ix. 52; lxxiii. 9; xxviii. 28). The word is therefore not found as a technical term. Nevertheless at the basis of …

Waḳʿa Nuwīs, Waḳāʾiʿ Nuwīs

(246 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
Waḳāʾi ʿ nuwīs is the officially appointed Ottoman historian while waḳʿa nuwīs means keeper of records; the distinction between the two terms was already pointed out by von Hammer, G. O. R., vii. 465. The first official historian of the Ottomans is usually said to have been ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ʿAbdī Pas̲h̲a (cf. F. Babinger, G. O. W., p. 227 sq.). The list of official Ottoman historians is not yet complete and accurate. There are gaps and errors in the list given by J. v. Hammer, G. O. R., viii. 591 sq. (cf. thereon P. Wittek in M. O. G., i. 152 and 243 sq. and also F. Babinger, G. O W., p. 227, note 3 and p…


(221 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
(Mal., Jav., the form, or with slight modifications, taken by waḳf [q. v.] among the Muslim peoples of the east Indian Archipelago). The institution is well known; estates made wakap are however of isolated occurrence only: they always …


(787 words)

Author(s): Büchner, C. F.
, Mīrzā Aḥmad S̲h̲īrāzī with the tak̲h̲alluṣ Waḳār (Browne vocalises it Wiḳār), a Persian poet, the eldest of the six sons of the poet Wiṣāl. His five brothers also attained fame as poets. Specimens of the poetry of the father Wiṣāl are given in the Mad̲j̲ma ʿ al-Fuṣaḥāʾ of Riḍā Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān, ii. 528 sqq. and in Browne, Persian Literature in Modern Times, p. 318; in the last named work on p. 301, 319 sqq. and 323 sqq. are also specimens of the work of Dāwarī and Farhang, two brothers of Waḳār. In the Mad̲j̲maʿ, ii. 103 sqq. are two further poems of Wiṣāl’s second son Maḥmūd Ḥakīm and in ii. 3…


(7,773 words)

Author(s): Heffening
or Ḥabs (a.) is properly an Arabic maṣdar meaning “to prevent, restrain”. In Muslim legal terminology it means primarily “to protect a thing, to prevent it from becoming the property of a third person ( tamlīk)” (Sarak̲h̲sī. Mabsūṭ, xii. 27). By it is meant I. state land, which on being conquered passed to the Muslim community either by force or by treaty and remained in possession of the previous owners on payment of the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ and could neither be sold nor pled…


(942 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(in Arabie Wak̲h̲k̲h̲ān), a district to the south of the Pāmīr [q. v.]. Wak̲h̲ān is a long and narrow valley which runs from east to west and is watered by the upper course of the Oxus (Pand̲j̲a) and by the river Wak̲h̲ān-daryā, which is the most southern source of the Oxus [cf. amū-daryā]. The length of Wak̲h̲ān along the Oxus is 67 miles and of the Wak̲h̲ān-daryā (from Langar-kis̲h̲ to the Wak̲h̲d̲j̲īr pass) 113 miles, Afg̲h̲an sources put the distance from Is̲h̲kās̲h̲im to Sarḥadd at 66 kurōh = 22 farsak̲h̲s. To the south of Wak̲h̲ān rises the wall of the Hindū-Kus̲h̲ through whic…


(185 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
(a.), the name of Sūra lvi. The title “the befalling, suddenly happening” which is the subject of the first verse is generally taken to refer to the ḳiyāma (q. v. where the word is translated “the event”) or sāʿa, both periphrases for the Day of Judgment. The content of the Sūra is in keeping with this. Opinions differ as to the date of its origin. Nöldeke and Schwally put it in the first Meccan period but add that Ḥasan al-Baṣrī regards it as Medlnese. That some verses are Medlnese seems to be generally acknowledged in tradition wh…


(1,564 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿUmar, an Arab historian born in 130 in Medīna; according to Ag̲h̲ānī, vii. 189, his mother was a great-grand-daughter of Ṣāʾib who introduced music into Medīna. Al-Wāḳidī was so called after his grandfather al-Wāḳid, al-Aslamī as a mawlā of ʿAbd Allāh b. Buraida who belonged to the Medīnese family of Aslam. On the occasion of Hārūn’s pilgrimage in 170 (see Ṭabarī, iii. 605) he was recommended to him as the best authority on the holy places of his native town and acted as guide to the caliph and his vizier Yaḥyā when they visited the sacred places. He used the connections he had then formed with the court in 180 (see Ibn Saʿd, VII/ii. 77) when he met with financial difficulties and went to Bag̲h̲dād and thence to Raḳḳa where Hārūn was then holding his court (see Ṭabarī, iii. 645). He was kindly received by Yaḥyā and presented to the caliph who recalled with pleasure his visit to Medīna and gave him rich gifts. He himself left a full acc…


(23 words)

(a.), mandatary, solicitor, agent, vicegerent, see wakāla ; also one of the names of Allāh, “the Guardian”, see allāh , ii. ¶

Waḳwāḳ or Wāḳwāḳ

(4,141 words)

Author(s): Ferrand, Gabriel
, in Arabic orthography …


(2,438 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
(a.) 1. From the Arabie root wala, to be near, and waliya, to govern, to rule, to protect someone. In ordinary use this word means protector, benefactor, companion, friend and is applied also to near relatives, especially in Turkish [cf. the art. ʿaṣaban wilāya]. When used in a religious connection walī corresponds very much to our title “saint”; but the idea behind it has given rise to a regular theory and in practice has attained sufficient importance for it to be necessary to explain the use of the term. In the Ḳurʾān this theory does not yet exist; the term walī is found there with several…


(631 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Mug̲h̲īra b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿOmar b. Mak̲h̲zūm, an opponent of Muḥammad. Little is known of his life but it is certain that he was one of the most powerful men in Mecca and one of the most ardent opponents of ¶ he Prophet. As head of the numerous and prominent family of the Mak̲h̲zūm he naturally represented the aristocratic interests in the city of Muḥammad’s birth and that he was himself very prosperous is evident from the fact that, according to traditionists, he owned a garden in Ṭāʾif which he planted for pleasure only and nev…


(607 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
b. Yazīd, Umaiyad Caliph. He was about 35 (Feb. 743) when he succeeded his uncle, the Caliph His̲h̲ām b. ʿAbd al-Malik. “If only for his personal courage, liberality, love of letters and patronage and practice of poetry, Walīd was bound to shine in the first rank among the Umaiyads”. Such is the judgment of the Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī (vi. 101) the author of which could not be suspected of partiality for the Umaiyads. An artistic and remarkably cultivated young man, which none of his predecessors had been, the son of the hysterical caliph Yazīd II, he was …


(694 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
b. ʿAbd al-Malik, Umaiyad Caliph (88—98 = 705—715). On the death of his father, the caliph ʿAbd al-Malik (Oct. 705), al-Walīd, his successor, was over 30. A prince of only average culture, he brought to the throne an aristocratic outlook and a display of religious fervour unknown among his predecessors. In the history of the Umaiyads he ranks as the great builder of the dynasty. One of his first cares was to give his capital Damascus a magnificent mosque. Walīd cast his eyes on the basilica of St.…

Wālide Sulṭān

(6,333 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(a.) Turkish pronunciation vālide or valde sulṭān; the two words are in apposition, according to Turkish syntax), “the sulṭān Valide” or “sulṭāna mother”, a title borne in the old Ottoman empire by the mother of the reigning sulṭān and only for the duration of her son’s reign. The political history of the Wālide Sulṭān is fairly well known from the Turkish historians, at least as far as those are concerned who took part openly in the government of the country, for example Nūr Bānū, Ṣafīye, Māh-Peiker Kösem and Turk̲h̲an Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲e. We are by no means so well informed about the condi…


(161 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, the name of two Ottoman poets of the xth (xvith) century: 1. Wālihī Kurd-zāde of Adrianople (an alleged Wālihī from Gisr Erkene or Ergene Köprü is the same man). On the conclusion of his studies he came as a ḳāḍī to Cairo and was admitted into the Güls̲h̲anī o…

Wāmiḳ Wa-ʿad̲h̲rā

(373 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian romance alleged to come from a Pahlawī original. It is said to have been presented in Nīs̲h̲āpūr to the emīr ʿAbd Allāh b. Ṭāhir (d. in 230 = 844) in the form of an old book dedicated to Ḵh̲usraw I Anūs̲h̲arwān (531—579 a. d.…


(2,087 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a town in Turkey on the Armenian plateau on the eastern shore of Lake Wān. The name Wān is not found in the Arabic sources which deal with the Muslim conquest. Lake Wān is usually named by the Arabs after the towns on the northern shore, Ard̲j̲īs̲h̲ and Ak̲h̲lāṭ. Ibn Ḥawḳal alone (p. 250) mentions the Artsrunid Ibn Dairānī, lord of Zawazān, of Wān and Wosṭān. Yāḳūt, iv. 895, mentions a fortress of Wān but makes it a dependency of Erzerum and locates it between Ak̲h̲lāṭ and Tiflis (?). For the Muslim conquest of Armenia see that article. The important fact is the campaign of Bug̲h̲ā…


(590 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, nisba from the land of Wans̲h̲arīs, a mountainous area in western Algeria to the south of the Wādī S̲h̲alaf (Chélif) known to modern geographers in the corrupt transcription Ouarsenis. 1. Abu ’l-ʿabbās aḥmad b. yaḥyā b. Muḥammad b. ʿabd al-wāḥid b. ʿalī al-tilimsānī al-wans̲h̲arīsī, a famous Mālikī jurist of the Mag̲h̲rib, born at Tlemsen, studied under celebrated teachers, like Ibn Marzūḳ al-Kafīf and Abu ’l-Faḍl ¶ Ḳāsim al-ʿUḳbānī. In 874 (1469) after some trouble with the government of Tlemsen of which we do not know the details, he left his native town t…


(407 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. Nawfal b. Asad al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī, a cousin of Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a, who encouraged and possibly influenced Muḥammad in the first years of his mission. ¶ All we know concerning him has the colour of legend: he is classed with the (artificial?) group of Meccans known to tradition as the ḥanīfs, who, abandoning paganism, resolved to seek for the true religion of Abraham. Waraḳa became a Christian; he was abstemious, knew Hebrew, studied the Bible, and had written down the Gospels in Hebrew (in the Hebrew alphabet?). In his relations with Muḥammad he is endowed with supernatural powers, like …


(1,088 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(or Warām, cf. Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, iv. 918), a town about 40 miles (Yāḳūt, c. 30 mīl) S.S.W. of Ṭeherān, now the capital of the district of Ḵh̲wār-wa-Warāmīn. The plain of Warāmīn watered by canals trom the Ḏj̲ād̲j̲arūd is regarded as the granary of Ṭeherān. The town lies to the south of the great road from Raiy to Ḵh̲urāsān passing via Ḵh̲wār (near Ḳis̲h̲lāḳ?) and Simnān (cf. Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih, p. 22; only in the Mongol period did the road from Sulṭānīya to Ḵh̲urasān run via Raiy-Warāmīn-Ḵh̲wār: Nuzhat al-Ḳulūb, p. 173). On the other hand in the ninth and tenth centuries, Raiy wa…


(1,260 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Ouargla), an oasis in the Algerian Sahara 100 miles S. of Tuggūrt in 31° 58′ N. Lat. and 5° 30′ East Long. (Greenw.) at a height of 320 feet above sea-level. Wargla occupies a depression above a sheet of underground water fed by the subterranean course of the wed Myia which can easily be reached by sinking wells 60 to 150 feet deep. This has enabled palmgroves to be planted there, numbering 500,000 trees all in full productivity and an almost equal number of trees which are dying but might be r…


(1,325 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
, a ruined site in southern ʿIrāḳ, in 45° 25′ N. Lat. and 31° 19′ East Long. (Greenw.). Yāḳūt ( Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, iv. 922) knows al-Warkāʾ as a place which belonged to the district of Kaskar and the circle of Zawābī in the area of the two south Babylonian Euphrates canals called Zāb (cf. Streck, Babylonien nach den arab. Geograph., i., Leyden 1900, p. 32; G. Le ¶ Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, Cambridge 1905, p. 37, 73). According to a Muslim tradition, Ibrāhīm, the Abraham of the Bible, was born in al-Warkāʾ (see Yāḳūt, iv. 922, 14 sq. and cf. also Loftus, op. cit., p. 161 sq.). …


(230 words)

Author(s): Massignon, Louis
, Abū ʿĪsā Muḥammad b. Hārūn, an independent thinker, who finally was accused of zandaḳa, was like his friend and pupil, Ibn al-Rāwandī [cf. al-rāwandī], at one time a theologian of the Muʿtazila school. Victims of the same persecution, both died in exile in Ahwāz in 297 (909). His theological vocabulary only makes mild concessions to Hellenistic philosophy, but his dialectic is powerful; and his documentation of an objectivity and exactness unknown in this period enabled him to write a manual of the history of religions, the Kitāb al-Maḳālāt, the only source (unfortunately lost) o…

Was̲h̲mgīr b. Ziyār

(827 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Abū Ṭālib (and according to his coins Ẓahīr al-Dawla) or better Wus̲h̲mgīr, if the name means „catcher of quails” (cf. al-Masʿūdī, Murād̲j̲, ix. 30, note), second ruler of the Ziyārid dynasty, reigned 935—965. He only left his native land Ḏj̲īlān, after his brother Mardāwīd̲j̲ [q. v.] had come to power, and had lived until that time the primitive mountaineer life of his people (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, viii. 182). Under Mardāwīd̲j̲ he conquered Iṣfahān and drove from there ʿAlī b. Būye, who had taken that town when he was i…


(183 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abu ’l-Ṭaiyib Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Isḥāḳ b. Yaḥyā, Arabie philologist and bel esprit, pupil of Mubarrad and of T̲h̲aʿlab, who earned his living as a teacher in an elementary school, but in the most important of his works that has survived to us, the Kitāb al-Muwas̲h̲s̲h̲ā (ed. R. E. Brünnow, Leyden 1886, reprinted as Kitāb al-Ẓarf wa ’l-Ẓurafāʾ, Cairo 1324), prepared a handbook of rules of good society for the aristocrats of Bag̲h̲dād. In addition there survives by him a letter-writer: Tafrīd̲j̲ al-Muḥād̲j̲ wa-Sabab al-Wuṣūl ila ’l-Farad̲j̲ or Surūr al-Muḥād̲j̲ wa ’l-Albāb fī Rasāʾ…

Wāsiʿ ʿAlīsi

(377 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
or ʿAlī, an Ottoman author, scholar and poet, stylist and calligrapher of Philippopolis. His full name is: ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī Čelebi b. Ṣāliḥ or Ṣāliḥ-zāde al-Rūmī, known as ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ ʿAlīsi or Wāsiʿ ʿAlīsi (from the müderris Mewlānā ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ whose assistant [ mülāzim] he had been). He was müderris in various medreses in Brussa, Adrianopl and Constantinople, then ḳāḍī. He died in Brussa in 950. His fame is mainly based on the elegant and pompous translation, surpassing even the Persian original, of the Anwār-i Suhailī of Ḥusain Wāʿiẓ Kās̲h̲ifī [cf. Kās̲h̲īfī] which in turn is …
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