Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(407 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. Nawfal b. Asad al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī, a cousin of Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a, who encouraged and possibly influenced Muḥammad in the first years of his mission. ¶ All we know concerning him has the colour of legend: he is classed with the (artificial?) group of Meccans known to tradition as the ḥanīfs, who, abandoning paganism, resolved to seek for the true religion of Abraham. Waraḳa became a Christian; he was abstemious, knew Hebrew, studied the Bible, and had written down the Gospels in Hebrew (in the Hebrew alphabet?). In his relations with Muḥammad he is endowed with supernatural powers, like …


(1,088 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(or Warām, cf. Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, iv. 918), a town about 40 miles (Yāḳūt, c. 30 mīl) S.S.W. of Ṭeherān, now the capital of the district of Ḵh̲wār-wa-Warāmīn. The plain of Warāmīn watered by canals trom the Ḏj̲ād̲j̲arūd is regarded as the granary of Ṭeherān. The town lies to the south of the great road from Raiy to Ḵh̲urāsān passing via Ḵh̲wār (near Ḳis̲h̲lāḳ?) and Simnān (cf. Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih, p. 22; only in the Mongol period did the road from Sulṭānīya to Ḵh̲urasān run via Raiy-Warāmīn-Ḵh̲wār: Nuzhat al-Ḳulūb, p. 173). On the other hand in the ninth and tenth centuries, Raiy wa…


(1,260 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Ouargla), an oasis in the Algerian Sahara 100 miles S. of Tuggūrt in 31° 58′ N. Lat. and 5° 30′ East Long. (Greenw.) at a height of 320 feet above sea-level. Wargla occupies a depression above a sheet of underground water fed by the subterranean course of the wed Myia which can easily be reached by sinking wells 60 to 150 feet deep. This has enabled palmgroves to be planted there, numbering 500,000 trees all in full productivity and an almost equal number of trees which are dying but might be r…


(1,325 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
, a ruined site in southern ʿIrāḳ, in 45° 25′ N. Lat. and 31° 19′ East Long. (Greenw.). Yāḳūt ( Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, iv. 922) knows al-Warkāʾ as a place which belonged to the district of Kaskar and the circle of Zawābī in the area of the two south Babylonian Euphrates canals called Zāb (cf. Streck, Babylonien nach den arab. Geograph., i., Leyden 1900, p. 32; G. Le ¶ Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, Cambridge 1905, p. 37, 73). According to a Muslim tradition, Ibrāhīm, the Abraham of the Bible, was born in al-Warkāʾ (see Yāḳūt, iv. 922, 14 sq. and cf. also Loftus, op. cit., p. 161 sq.). …


(230 words)

Author(s): Massignon, Louis
, Abū ʿĪsā Muḥammad b. Hārūn, an independent thinker, who finally was accused of zandaḳa, was like his friend and pupil, Ibn al-Rāwandī [cf. al-rāwandī], at one time a theologian of the Muʿtazila school. Victims of the same persecution, both died in exile in Ahwāz in 297 (909). His theological vocabulary only makes mild concessions to Hellenistic philosophy, but his dialectic is powerful; and his documentation of an objectivity and exactness unknown in this period enabled him to write a manual of the history of religions, the Kitāb al-Maḳālāt, the only source (unfortunately lost) o…

Was̲h̲mgīr b. Ziyār

(827 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Abū Ṭālib (and according to his coins Ẓahīr al-Dawla) or better Wus̲h̲mgīr, if the name means „catcher of quails” (cf. al-Masʿūdī, Murād̲j̲, ix. 30, note), second ruler of the Ziyārid dynasty, reigned 935—965. He only left his native land Ḏj̲īlān, after his brother Mardāwīd̲j̲ [q. v.] had come to power, and had lived until that time the primitive mountaineer life of his people (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, viii. 182). Under Mardāwīd̲j̲ he conquered Iṣfahān and drove from there ʿAlī b. Būye, who had taken that town when he was i…


(183 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abu ’l-Ṭaiyib Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Isḥāḳ b. Yaḥyā, Arabie philologist and bel esprit, pupil of Mubarrad and of T̲h̲aʿlab, who earned his living as a teacher in an elementary school, but in the most important of his works that has survived to us, the Kitāb al-Muwas̲h̲s̲h̲ā (ed. R. E. Brünnow, Leyden 1886, reprinted as Kitāb al-Ẓarf wa ’l-Ẓurafāʾ, Cairo 1324), prepared a handbook of rules of good society for the aristocrats of Bag̲h̲dād. In addition there survives by him a letter-writer: Tafrīd̲j̲ al-Muḥād̲j̲ wa-Sabab al-Wuṣūl ila ’l-Farad̲j̲ or Surūr al-Muḥād̲j̲ wa ’l-Albāb fī Rasāʾ…

Wāsiʿ ʿAlīsi

(377 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
or ʿAlī, an Ottoman author, scholar and poet, stylist and calligrapher of Philippopolis. His full name is: ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī Čelebi b. Ṣāliḥ or Ṣāliḥ-zāde al-Rūmī, known as ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ ʿAlīsi or Wāsiʿ ʿAlīsi (from the müderris Mewlānā ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ whose assistant [ mülāzim] he had been). He was müderris in various medreses in Brussa, Adrianopl and Constantinople, then ḳāḍī. He died in Brussa in 950. His fame is mainly based on the elegant and pompous translation, surpassing even the Persian original, of the Anwār-i Suhailī of Ḥusain Wāʿiẓ Kās̲h̲ifī [cf. Kās̲h̲īfī] which in turn is …


(585 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Aḥmad, official historian of the Ottoman empire, belonged to Bag̲h̲dād, early entered the service of high Ottoman dignitaries, for example Kel Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a and Abāza Meḥemmed Pas̲h̲a, for whom he acted as librarian. He was captured by the Russians and his fortune was made when he was sent with letters from Catherine the Great to the grand vizier. He finally acted as secretary ( waḳʿa nuwīs; q. v.) at the peace of Bucharest (1772). In Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1197 (Oct. 1783) he was appointed imperial historian ( waḳāʾi ʿ nuwīs; q. v.) in place of Enwerī [q. v.] Efendi. Five years late…

Wāṣil b. ʿAṭāʾ

(757 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, Abū Ḥud̲h̲aifa al-G̲h̲azzāl, the chief of the Muʿtazila [q. v.]. Biographical facts concerning this personality are meagre, especially from early sources, yet without considerable divergencies. Born in Madīna in 80 (699-700), where he was a client of the Banū Ḍabba, or of the Banū Mak̲h̲zūm, he migrated to Baṣra, where he belonged to the circle of Ḥasan al-Baṣrī [cf. al-ḥasan b. abi ’l-ḥasan al-baṣrī], and entered into friendly relations with notable personalities such as Ḏj̲ahm b. Ṣafwān [q. v.] and Bas̲h̲s̲h̲ār b. Burd [q. v.]. With none of these three m…


(4,302 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
, once one of the most important cities of the ʿIrāḳ in the centre of which it stood. The city was a creation of al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ b. Yūsuf [q. v.]. As to the date of its foundation, the statements of the Arab writers vary between 83 (702) to 84 (703). Yāḳūt is probably right in saying that the building of it occupied the years 83—86 (702—705). Al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ was certainly living in his new city by the year 84. On the date of its foundation cf. Streck, op. cit. (see Bibl.), p. 324—325; Périer, op. cit., p. 208; Masʿūdī, B. G. A., viii. 360. On the immediate reasons which led to the building…


(1,567 words)

Author(s): Schacht, Joseph
(a.), commission; as a technical term, last will, testament, legacy; waṣī, the person empowered, particularly the executor of a will. 1. The waṣīya of the pre-Islāmic Arabs was less concerned with the distribution of the estate than with orders and instructions to the survivors; it is the spiritual testament of the dying man sanctified by religion which is to hand on obligations and secure the continuity of tradition. In this sense, according to the S̲h̲īʿa, ʿAlī is the waṣī of the Prophet and every imām the waṣī of his predecessor, i. e. the continuer of his religious ta…


(198 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian historian, properly Waṣṣāf al-Ḥaḍrat “panegyrist of the court”, the name by which S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAbd Allāh b. Faḍl Allāh of S̲h̲īrāz is known. Employed as a taxcollector under the Mongols, he became the protégé of the minister and historian Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, who presented him to Ūld̲j̲āitū (712 = 1312), when the Īlk̲h̲ān was in Sulṭānīya. His history Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Waṣṣāf is the continuation of the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Ḏj̲ahān-gus̲h̲ā of ʿAṭā Malik Ḏj̲uwainī; it is called Tad̲j̲ziyat al-Amṣār wa-Tazd̲j̲iyat al-Aʿṣār “division of the towns and propulsion of the centuries” …

Watad or Watid

(64 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, “a peg”, means in prosody I. a group of two vocalised consonants followed by a quiescent consonant ( watad mad̲j̲mūʿ); 2. a group of two vocalised consonants, separated by a quiescent consonant ( watad mafrūḳ). Each foot ought of necessity to have a watad followed or preceded by one or two sabab [q. v.]. (Moh. Ben Cheneb) Bibliography See the article ʿArūḍ.

al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ Bi ’llāh

(656 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Hārūn b. al-Muʿtaṣim, ʿAbbāsid Caliph. He was given the name Hārūn after his grandfather Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd; his mother was a Greek slave. On the day that his father al-Muʿtaṣim bi ’llāh [q. v.] died (18th Rabīʿ I 227= Jan. 5, 842), al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ was proclaimed as his successor. Before al-Muʿtaṣim’s death an alleged descendant of the Umaiyads, named Abū Ḥarb, usually called al-Mubarḳaʿ “the veiled” from the veil which he always wore, had provoked a dangerous rising in Palestine, and Rad̲j̲āʾ b. Aiyūb al-Ḥaḍārī whom al-Mu…


(1,236 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(Banū Waṭṭās), a Moroccan dynasty of the xvth and xvith centuries. The Banū Wattāṣ were a collateral line of the great family of the Banū Marīn, to which also belonged the Banū ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ, founders of the dynasty generally known as the Marīnid dynasty [q. v.]. After leading a nomadic life on the edge of the Sahara and the high plateaus of the Central Mag̲h̲rib the Banū Waṭṭās settled in the xiiith century in eastern Morocco and soon established themselves in the Rīf, of which they were became practically independent rulers, when their relatives the Banū Marīn had…


(382 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, a Persian poet, a native of Balk̲h̲, whose proper name was Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲alīl al-ʿUmarī (descendant of the Caliph ʿUmar); he was called Waṭwāṭ (the swallow or martin) from his diminutive stature and insignificant appearance. He flourished under the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sulṭān Sand̲j̲ar and the Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āh Atsiz (d. 551 = 1156—1157) and was secretary and court poet to Atsiz. While Sand̲j̲ar was besieging the latter in the fortress of Hazārasp in Ḵh̲wārizm (k̲h̲ānate of Ḵh̲īwa) in 542 (1147) he commissioned the poet Anwarl to write insulting verses …


(144 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, 27th or 26th (when it precedes hāʾ; this is the sequence in some dictionaries), letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value of 6. For its palaeographical pedigree, see ababia, plate i. — It belongs to the group of the labials ( al-ḥurūf al-s̲h̲afawīya) as well as to that of the soft letters ( ḥurūf al-līn). It is pronounced like English w. In the north-Semitic languages and sometimes in Ethiopie, its place at the beginning of words is taken by y. In a few cases it corresponds with m (cf. urd̲j̲uwān “purple” with Aramaic and Hebrew ). (A. J. Wensinck) Bibliography W. Wright, Comparativ…
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