Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(99 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, 28th and last letter of the Arabic alphabet with the numerical value of 10. For palaeographical details, see arabia, i. 382b, 383b, 384a and plate i. It belongs to the soft letters ( ḥurūf al-līn); its pronunciation is that of English y. (A. J. Wensinck) Bibliography W. Wright, Arabic Grammar, 3rd ed., i. 2, 5, 7 do., Comparative Grammar of the Sem. Languages, p. 69 sqq. Brockelmann, Grundriss der vergl. Grammatik der sem. Sprachen, i. 138—150 do., Précis de linguistiqus sém., transl. W. Marçais and M. Cohen, Paris 1910, p. 75 A. Schaade, Sībawaihi’s Lautlehre, Leyden 1911, index.

Yād̲j̲ūd̲j̲ wa-Mād̲j̲ūd̲j̲

(931 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(the forms Yaʾd̲j̲ūd̲j̲ and Maʾd̲j̲ūd̲j̲ occur also), Gog and Magog (cf. Gen. x. 2; Ez. xxxviii., xxxix), two peoples who belong to the outstanding figures of Biblical and Muslim eschatology. Magog in Gen. x. is reckoned among the offspring of Japheth; this notion is also found in Arabic sources (e. g. Baiḍāwī on sūra xviii. 93, where also different traditions are mentioned); this much only may be said here, that the Bible as well the Arabic sources connect these peoples with the North-East of the ancient world, the dwelling-p…


(1,408 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
or Yāfa, Joppa, Jaffa, a town on the Mediterranean, the port of Jerusalem. It occurs in the form Y-pw as early as the xvith century b. c. in the list of towns in Palestine taken by Thutmosis III (W. Max Müller, in M. V. A. G., xii., 1907, i., p. 21, N°. 62). In the Amarna tablets and among the Assyrians it was called Yapū or Yappū, in Phoenician inscriptions , in the Bible Yāfō and by the Greeks ’Ιόπη or ’Ιόππη. Yāfā is already the port of Jerusalem in the Bible, to which king Hiram sent in floats the wood destined for the building of the temple. Before the conquest by Sennacherib (701 b. c.) it was subject …


(1,046 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, ʿAbd Allāh b. Asʿad b. ʿAlī b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Falāḥ al-S̲h̲āfiʿī ʿAfīf al-Dīn Abu ’l-Saʿāda Abu ’l-Barakāt, a Ṣūfī and author, was born one or two years before 700 (1300 —1301) in the Yaman though the place of his birth does not appear to be known. He studied first under the tuition of Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Dihānī al-Baṣṣāl and Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-Ḥarāzī, Ḳāḍī of ʿAdan. These studies comprised probably only the Ḳurʾān and theology, but his ascetic inclinations must have been developed early and have guided his whole…


(381 words)

Author(s): Heller, Bernhard
, the Japheth of the Bible, is not mentioned in the Ḳurʾān; but the exegesis of the Ḳurʾān and legend are familiar with the names of the sons of Nūḥ: Sām, Ḥām, Yāfit̲h̲ (exceptionally Yāfit: Ṭabarī, i. 222). The Biblical story (Gen. ix. 20—27) of Ḥām’s sin and punishment and the blessing given to Sām and Yāfit̲h̲ is known in Muslim legend but it is silent about Noah’s planting the vine and becoming intoxicated. Al-Kisāʾī completely transforms it: in the Ark Nūḥ could not sleep from anxiety; when…


(372 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, R.
b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (also al-Raḥīm) b. Kuraib al-Ḥiwālī (on the disputed vocalisation cf. the poem in van Arendonk [see Bibl.], p. 232, note 3), founder of the dynasty of Yaʿfurids or Ḥiwālids who claimed to be descended from the Tubbaʿs, the ancient Ḥimyarite kings. Their ancestral home S̲h̲ibām, called S̲h̲ibām Aḳyān or S̲h̲ibām Kawkabān to distinguish it from other places of the same name, is described by geographers as a well cultivated hilly country. In the caliphate of al-Muʿtaṣim, i. e. before 227 (842), Yaʿf…

Yag̲h̲mā Ḏj̲andaḳī

(814 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V
, pseudonym of the Persian poet Abu ’l-Ḥasan Raḥīm b. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ibrāhīm Ḳulī. He was born about 1196 (1782) in the village of Ḵh̲ūr in the oasis of Ḏj̲andaḳ or Biyābānak in the middle of the central desert of Persia. He began his life as a camel-herd but by the age of 7 his natural gifts had been noticed by the owner of the oasis, Ismāʿīl Ḵh̲ān ʿArab-i ʿĀmirī whose secretary ( muns̲h̲ī-bās̲h̲ī) he ultimately became. His first nom de plume was Mad̲j̲nūn. In 1216 (1802) Ismāʿīl Ḵh̲ān after a rising against the government had to flee to Ḵh̲urāsān, while Ḏj̲andaḳ was …


(2,349 words)

Author(s): Speyer, Heinrich
, the Jews. The message which Muḥammad as an “admonisher” brought to his people was believed by him to come from the same source of revelation as the Tora and the Gospel. If the “Arabic version” of the new scriptures was only a confirmation of what preceding “scriptures” taught, the new Prophet was referred for instruction to the Jews and Christians. The idea of the “day of judgment” which continually recurs in the early Meccan period, makes him speak of the 19 guardians of hell in order to conv…


(730 words)

Author(s): Carra de Vaux, B.
, John the Baptist. This prophet plays a fairly prominent part in the Ḳurʾān, which mentions him with Jesus, Elijah and other prophets among the just persons who serve as arguments for the oneness of God (Sūra vi. 83). The history in the Gospels of his miraculous birth is twice given (iii. 33—36 and xix. 1 sq.): God gives him to his parents Zacharias and Elisabeth in spite of their years. There is a kind of annunciation to Zacharias: “O Zacharias, we announce a son to thee; his name shall be Yaḥyā; no one has borne this name before him” (xix. 7). Yaḥ…


(911 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, a Turkish poet of Albanian origin of the time of Soliman. A scion of the noble north Albanian family of Dukagin, to which also belonged the Turkish poet Dukagin-zāde Aḥmad Bey, Yaḥyā was taken under the dews̲h̲irme for the Janissaries and brought to Stambul. He himself speaks in his Gend̲j̲īne-i Rāz of his being conscripted in this way, a thing that was only to bring him good and when an old man he still recalls his Albanian origin. In Stambul he was put in the corps of ʿAd̲j̲emi-Og̲h̲lan, in which officers for the Janissaries and Spahis were …

Yaḥyā b. Ādam

(543 words)

Author(s): Schacht, Joseph
b. Sulaimān, a Muslim student of religion. His full name was Abū Zakarīyāʾ; as mawlā of a descendant of ʿUḳba b. Abī Muʿaiṭ he bore the nisba’s al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī and al-Umawī (al-Mak̲h̲zūmī in al-Nawawī is a mistake); his other nisba al-Kūfī shows that he belonged to or lived in Kūfa. His father is mentioned among the traditionists of Kūfa (Ibn Saʿd, vi. 133; al-Nawawī). Nothing is known of his career except the statement that he never studied under his father. To judge from the dates of death of his oldest s̲h̲aik̲h̲s he must have been …

Yaḥyā b. ʿAlī

(610 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H. G.
b. Yaḥyā b. Abī Manṣūr al-Munad̲j̲d̲j̲im, Abū Aḥmad, was one of the best known theorists of music of the old Arabian (classical) school. He belonged to a learned family who were authors, several of whom wrote on, or were interested in music. His grandfather (d. c. 831) was the famous astronomer at the court of al-Maʾmūn [q. v.]. His father (d. 888) had “particular skill in music ( g̲h̲ināʾ)” says Ibn Ḵh̲allikān, having been taught by the …

Yaḥyā b. K̲h̲ālid

(475 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, a Barmakid. In the ʿAbbāsid caliphate we find Yaḥyā already prominent in the reign of al-Manṣūr, who in 158 (774—775) appointed him governor of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān or, according to another account, Armenia. Three years later, the caliph al-Mahdī appointed him tutor to his son, the young Hārūn, and in 163 (779—780) the latter was appointed governor of the western half of the empire, i. e. of all the provinces west of the Euphrates, with the addition of Armenia and Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān, and Yaḥyā was put at the head of his chancellery. According to al-Mahdī’s original arrangements, his older son Mūsā was to succeed him on the throne and Hārūn only to be considered in the second line of succession. Shortly before his death however, he decided to make a change in favour of Hārūn. Mūsā however was not satisfied; after the death of al-Mahdī in 169 (Aug. 785), Yaḥyā gave his protégé Hārūn the wise advice to retire voluntarily and pay homage to his brother whereupon Mūsā was acknowledged as caliph with the name al-Hādī. Nevertheless relations between the latter and Yaḥyā were very strained. The new caliph was thinking of cutting Hārūn completely out of the succession and having homage paid to his own son Ḏj̲aʿfar as the successor designate. This plan however met with vigorous opposition from Yaḥyā which went so far that al-Hādī had him imprisoned. According to the usual story, he was kept in prison until the caliph died in Rabīʿ I, 170 (Sept. 786). When Hārūn had ascended the throne, he appointed Yaḥyā as vizier with unlimited power in all branches of the government. Yaḥyā’s period of office lasted seventeen years, then the catastrophe — probably long planned — came like a flash of lightning from a clear sky. At the end of Muḥarram or in the first night of Ṣafar 187 (Jan. 23, 803) (or according to another statement, probably due to a copyist’s error, 188), the caliph had his till then practically all-powerful favourite Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Yaḥyā suddenly executed without legal proceedings. Soon afterwards Yaḥyā and his other sons were arrested and their property confiscated. Yaḥyā was kept in prison till …

Yaḥyā b. Zaid al-Ḥusainī

(793 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
, son of Zaid b. ʿAlī [q. v.]. After his father had fallen in the rising (122 = 740) into which he had been dragged by the S̲h̲īʿa of Kūfa, the young Yaḥyā was no longer safe in Kūfa. The reports differ as to whether he at o…


(135 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(East. Turk, yailaḳ, from yai “summer” and the suffix laḳ) “summer encampment”, usually situated in the mountains, to which people resort to in order to avoid the heat of summer; opp.


(339 words)

Author(s): Heller, Bernhard
, the patriarch, the son of Isaac in the Bible, is in the early Meccan Sūras (vi. 84; xix. 50; xxi. 72; xxix. 26) the brother of Isḥāḳ, son of Ibrāhīm; the genealogy: Ibrāhīm, Ismāʿīl, Isḥāḳ, Yaʿḳūb, the (12) tribes (ii. 130, 134), is more true to the Bible. Yaʿḳūb is numbered among the Prophets (xix. 50). He is once or twice mentioned in the Yūsuf Sūra: Yaʿḳūb orders his sons not to go through a door (xii. 93); he becomes blind through sorrow and regains his sight when Joseph’s coat touches his eye (xii. 93, 94). Post-Ḳurʾānic legend relates that Yaʿḳūb and Esau fought already in their mother’s womb, that Yaʿḳūb was to be born first but to spare his mother took second place: Yaʿḳūb was really entitled to the rights of the first-born (Ṭabarī, i. 350). Yaʿḳūb’s journey to Haran and his stay with Laban are told as in the Bible but in several versions …
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