Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(686 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, one of the most important Ottoman poets of the preparatory classical period. His real name was ʿIwaz or Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī or Yak̲h̲s̲h̲ī (according to Laṭīfī). Born in 876 (1471—1472) in Bali̊kesri in Ḳarasi̊, the son of a shoemaker, he followed the same trade. He had no education. In spite of all obstacles his poetical ability displayed itself. He was a born poet. In the time of Sulṭān Bāyazīd he came to Constantinople. As his original plan of becoming a ḳāḍī after some training fell through on acc…


(145 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a town in Persia, in Ḵh̲orāsān near Naisābūr. In the time of Muḳaddasī, it was a rural district which did not contain a town; but later (xivth century) there was a fine town there with a citadel built of brick. It contains the tomb of the s̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Ḥaidar, who was still alive in 617 (1220) whence the name of Turbat-i Ḥaidarī now given to the town. Muḳaddasī mentions a town of the same name near G̲h̲azna ( B. G. A., iii. 50, 297). (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ii. 770, 910 = Barbier de Meynard, Dict. de la Perse, p. 282 B. G. A., iii. 319c Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, Voyages, iii. 79 Ḳazwīnī, Āt̲…


(362 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the name of two towns in North Africa. 1. Zawīlat al-Mahdīya (according to al-Bakrī: Zuwaila) built by the Fāṭimid ʿUbaid Allāh al-Mahdī (d. Rabīʿ I 14, 322) situated a bowshot distant from al-Mahdīya, of which it was a suburb. According to Idrīsī the two towns formed one. It had fine bazaars and buildings and many merchants resided there who went to their businesses in Mahdīya in the day. The town was surrounded by a wall even on the side facing the sea; the land side was further protected by a great …


(1,030 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, properly the corner of a building, was at first appled to the cell of the Christian monk (cf. the Greek γωνία), then to a small mosque or praying room; the word still has this meaning in the Muslim east in contrast to a more important mosque ( masd̲j̲id or d̲j̲āmiʿ). On the other hand the term zāwiya has retained a much more general meaning in North Africa and is applied to a building or group of buildings of a religious nature, which resembles a monastery and a school. An excellent definition of the Mag̲h̲ribī zāwiya was given as early as 1847 by Daumas ( La Kabylie, p. 60) and it seems to be in …


(492 words)

Author(s): Bel, Alfred
(Banū Zayān or Banū Ziyān, the two vocalisations zayān and ziyān are classical; we also find zaiyān), a Berber dynasty of kings of Tlemcen, who reigned over Central Mag̲h̲rib from the xiiith to the xvith century a. d., whose claim to noble descent from Idrīs is disputed (cf. Hist. des Berbers, transl. de Slane, iii. 328 and ibid., the words attributed to Yag̲h̲murāsan). They are called by the chroniclers also ʿAbdalwādids (q. v., i., p. 64b). This is because ʿAbd al-Wād [q. v.] and Zaiyān were two of the ancestors of the kings of Tlemcen, centuries apart however, the f…


(179 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, an astrological magic table common in Morocco, the making and use of which is fully described by Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn in the Muḳaddima. The word is connected with Zīd̲j̲ [q. v.]; its fuller name is Zāyird̲j̲at al-ʿĀlam. The inventor is said to have been the Ṣūfī Abū ’l-ʿAbbās al-Ṣibtī (i. e. of Ceuta) who lived in the time of the Almohad Yaʿḳūb al-Manṣūr, i. e. at the end of the vith (xiith) century. The table has on one side a system of concentric circles with divisions corresponding to the signs of the zodiac and others for telling fortunes and answering questions on i…


(1,303 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(a.), popular form for ziʿāma, Turkish pronunciation zeamet and ziamet: 1. the quality of zaʾīm, 2. (military) fief of a zaʿīm (the other meanings of zeʿāmet will be found in the Arabic dictionaries). — The word zaʿīm, plur. Zuʿamāʾ, has several meanings which may be grouped round that of “person who puts forward a claim, who intercedes for or answers for one or more weaker individuals”. It means, in effect: 1. “caution, surety” (Ḳurʾān, Dīwān of Imruʾu ’l-Ḳais, treatises on Muslim law); 2. “spokesman of a group of individuals or metaphorically of animals, acting in n…


(695 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, the name of a Turkish tribe in the region of Smyrna. The origin of the Zeibek has not yet been fully explained. Just as it used to be the custom to say the Tak̲h̲tad̲j̲i [q. v.] were descendants of the earliest inhabitants of Asia Minor, so the ancestors of the Zeibek were sought in the remnants of Thracians who had settled around Tralles. In favour of this we have also the fact that they were called Gjaur by orthodox Turks (Lord Keppel, op. cit., ii. 266). This view however is undoubtedly wrong; we must rather see in the Zeibek one of those Yürük tribes, who settled in consi…


(969 words)

Author(s): Marçais, G.
The Arab historians of the middle ages give this name to one of the two great groups into which the population of Barbary falls. According to the genealogical fiction which formed the frame-work of their ethnical classification, the Zenāta, who are descended from Maddg̲h̲is al-Abtar, are distinguished from the Ṣanhād̲j̲a who are descended from Bernes; Bernes and Madg̲h̲is were the sons of one father, Berr. Other theories connect the Zenāta with a certain S̲h̲ana or Ḏj̲ana, who was said to be ei…


(511 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
, one of the principal rivers of Central Persia. Its source lies about 90 miles W. of Iṣfahān in the province of ʿArabistān (Ḵh̲ūzistān) in the Zardeh-Kūh, “the yellow hills” (so-called after the yellow limestone found there) which are included among the Bak̲h̲tiārī mountains, in which also rises the Kārūn [q. v.], the greatest river of southern Persia. After leaving the mountains the Zende-rūd flows through the district of Iṣfahān after which it is often called Iṣfahān-Rūd, “the river of Iṣfahā…


(1,126 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, ʿImād al-Dīn b. Ḳasīm al-Dawla Aḳsonḳor b. ʿAbd Allāh, atābeg of al-Mawṣil and one of the most distinguished emīrs of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ period. His father Aḳsonḳor al-Ḥād̲j̲ib (“the chamberlain”), a Turkish Mamlūk in the service of Sulṭān Maliks̲h̲āh [q. v.], had received from the latter the town of Ḥalab as a fief; but when Aḳsonḳor on the death of Maliks̲h̲āh rebelled against his brother Tutus̲h̲ [q. v.], he was taken prisoner and put to death (487 = 1094) and the young Zengī, who was then only ten years…


(583 words)

Author(s): Hartner, Willy
, the vertical point, i. e. the highest point in the visible sphere of the heavens in the direction of the vertical (plumb line) above the observer, at the same time the upper (visible) pole of the horizon. The technical astronomical term for zenith in Arabic is samt al-raʾs or samt al-ruʾūs, which means “direction ( samt) of the head”, corresponding to the Greek κορυφή or τò κατά κορυφὴν σημεĩον. Plato Tiburtinus reproduces samt al-raʾs in his Latin translation as zenith capitis or zenith capitum, the Spanish translation of al-Battānī by el zonte (el zont) de la cabeça (cf. al-Battānī, Opus a…


(421 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
(formerly Hungarian Szenta; Turkish , , ; [ Ḳāmūs al-Aʿlām, iv. 2425] and also [in Ḵh̲alīl Edhem, Düwel-i islāmīye, 1927 p. 323]; Serbo-Croat Senta), a flourishing town on the right bank of the Theiss in the Bačka (since 1929 in the Danube banate) in Jugoslavia, with 30,044 inhabitants (1931), first mentioned in 1216 and made a free city in 1516. After the battle of Mohács (1526) Zenta became Turkish and belonged to the sand̲j̲aḳ of Segedīn (Szegedin; cf. e. g. Fekete, Türkische Schriftendes Palatin N. Esterházy, 1932, p. 110 and 324). Ewliyā Čelebi (vii. 363) who visited Zenta in the xviith …

Zer Maḥbūb

(134 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, “beloved gold”, a Turkish gold coin (sequin). In the reign of Aḥmad III (1115-1143 = 1703—1730) a new gold sequin was issued weighing 40 grains (2.6 grammes), in addition to the older sequin of 53 grains (3.44 grammes) ( funduḳ altūnī) which continued to be issued alongside of it. This coin, known as the zer maḥbūb, remained in circulation till the great Med̲j̲īdīye recoinage of 1280 (1844), being reduced in weight to 37 grains (2.4 grammes) by Selīm III (1203—1222 = 1789—1807) and to 25 grains (1.62 grammes) in the last years of Maḥ…
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