Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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[See aiyūb , i. 1220 et seq.]


(105 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Maḥmūd, one of the most important of modern Turkish lyric poets, wrote ballads and romances after French models and, by introducing these new forms, improved the poetry of his native land. His collections of poems Nag̲h̲ame-i Seḥer (“Morning Lays”), Zemzeme (“Whisperings”) and Gend̲j̲lik (“Youth”) enjoy a great popularity. He also wrote several plays; of these the most original is the Waṣlat (1874), the history of a slave who falls in love with the youthful son of the house and is thereupon sold by her mistress. The poet was still alive in 1902. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography P. Horn, Geschichte…


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[See alīsaʿ , i. p. 300b.]


(364 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, Arab, al-iksīr, also iksīr al-falāsifa, the secret means by which the alchemists believed base metals could be transmuted into silver and gold; synonymous with “the philosopher’s stone”. Although it has not yet been found in the older Greek alchemical works, it can hardly be doubted that the word is derived from the Greek ξήριον “powder for wounds”. It is frequently mentioned in the writings of Ḏj̲ābir b. Ḥaiyān edited by Berthelot. It enters the metals and permeates them like poison in a body; a s…

Elḳāṣṣ Mīrzā

(234 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the younger brother of S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp I., who appointed him governor of S̲h̲irwān after the conquest of this province. Elḳāṣṣ soon afterwards rebelled against Ṭahmāsp and after the defeat of his troops fled to Constantinople through the Crimea (954 = 1547). Sulṭān Sulaimān eagerly seized this opportunity for a new campaign against Persia, gave Elḳāṣṣ a splendid reception and then sent him to the Persian frontier under the command of the Ūlāma-Pas̲h̲a. On Elḳāṣṣ’s advice the army marched agains…


(218 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Turk. “Appletown”), a market-town in Asia Minor, the capital of a Ḳazā of the Sand̲j̲aḳ of Tekke in the Wilāyet of Ḳōniya, S. W. of Adalia, between this town and Deñizlü, at the east end of Lake Wālān, with about 6000 inhabitants, mostly Muslim peasants (the Christians are merchants and artisans), twenty mosques, three Greek and one Armenian church and fine Turkish baths. The climate is healthy and the temperature low. The Ḳaẓā has about 20,000 inhabitants of whom several thousand are nomads a…


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, Arabic ailūl, the name of the twelfth month in the Syrian Calendar; see taʾrīk̲h̲ .


(512 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, from the Arabic Ilbīra (rarely Lebīra and Yelbīra; this should be read in Yāḳūt, i. 348 with Fleischer, v. 40 instead of Belbīra) from old Iberian Il (l) ĭbēri, Ilĭberri, also Elibēri, Elberri etc. = New Town: ili town berri new (Municipium Florentinum Iliberritanum of the Romans) was in the later period of the Arab conquest and under the Umaiyads the name of the province afterwards called Granada, whose Arab capital was at that time Ḳasṭīliya or Medīnat Ilbīra, only incorrectly called Ilbīra alone, and lay 1¼ miles N. W. of Granada, N. of the Genil between the modern Atarf (Arab. al-Ṭarf) and…


(170 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, Arwand in the Arab authors and graecised as Orontes by classical writers (Achaemenid inscription, Semiramis legend), still called Erwend or Närwend in the district, a lofty granite mountain mass, about 17,560 feet high, a spur of the Zagros system, S. W. of Hamad̲h̲ān, ¶ which owes the fertility of its gardens to its wealth in water and snow. The scanty accounts of the Arab geographers are mainly confined to in part fantastic stories of a well on the top of the mountain, which Muslim tradition describes as one of the wells of Paradise n…


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[See amīn , i. 343.]

Emīn Pas̲h̲a

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Author(s): Schaade, A.
, a distinguished German explorer and coloniser of Africa. Emīn whose real name was Eduard Schnitzer was born in Oppeln (Schlesia) on the 28th March 1840. From 1858—1864 he studied medicine and science in Breslau, Berlin and Königsberg, taking his Dr. Med. degree in March 1863. In autumn 1864 he went to Antivari which at that time was still a Turkish possession. Here he began to practise medicine privately but in the following summer he was appointed quarantine and medical officer for the district. Schnitzer became a …


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[See amīr , i. 330a.]

Emīr Sulṭān

(460 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, i. e. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Meḥemmed b. ʿAlī al-Ḥusainī al-Buk̲h̲ārī, also called Saiyid Meḥemmed Buk̲h̲ārī, Saiyid Emīr Sulṭān, Emīr Saiyid (ʿAs̲h̲iḳpas̲h̲azāde, p. 148, Haniwald’s chronicle in Leuncl., Hist. Mus., p. 541, 543, whence ΜηρσαίτηΣ in Ḳananos), the great patron saint of Brusa, born about 770 a. h., migrated to Asia Minor from Buk̲h̲ārā and settled in Brusa where he died of the plague in the odour of sanctity in 833 a. h. According to tradition Emīr Sulṭān was held in high esteem by Bāyazīd I. Yilderim, whose daughter, Ḵh̲ūndī Sulṭān, he married; when the S…


(129 words)

Author(s): Suter, H.
, i. e. al-Anf “the nose”, is the name of star ε of second to third magnitude in Pegasus, or as it is called by the Arabs the larger Horse. Ḳazwīnī and Ulūg̲h̲ Beg call this star Fam al-Faras (= the horse’s mouth), the latter also calls it Ḏj̲aḥfala al-Faras (= the horse’s lip). Al-Battānī has no special name for it, he calls it “the star which is in its (i. e. the horse’s) mouth”. The name Enif probably passed from the works of western Arab astronomers into the Latin translations of the middle ages. (H. Suter) Bibliography al-Battānī, Opus astronomicum (ed. Nallino), ii. 154 iii. 254 al-Ḳazwīnī, Kosm…


(1,275 words)

Author(s): Destaing, E.
(usually in Arabic texts, Berber Innāyer), the name of the first month of the Julian calendar, among the natives of North Africa who reckon by solar years and have retained the Latin names of the months (cf. awrās, i. 521b], also the name of the New Year festival celebrated at the beginning of that month by Christians and Muslims in North Africa, for the Muslims there as a rule take part in different Christian feasts, for example, the feast of the summer solstice or the Anṣara feast [see anṣara, i. p. 358] ¶ which falls on the 24th June of the Julian calendar and corresponds to our feast of…


(379 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Saʿdullāh, Efendi, a native of Trebizond, entered the higher Turkish civil service as Ḵh̲od̲j̲a (superintendent of a dīwān) and successively filled the office of Tes̲h̲rifatd̲j̲i (1184—1187), Ḏj̲ebed̲j̲iler Kātibi (1187—1190), Tes̲h̲rifatd̲j̲i (1190—1196), Mewḳūfātd̲j̲i (1196—1199), Büyük Tezkered̲j̲i (1197) and from 1200 to his death with several breaks that of an Anadolu Muḥāsebed̲j̲isi. At the end of 1182 he was also given the post of Historiographer Royal ( Waḳʿa Nuwīs), which he held till the end of 1197 with an interval of 18 months (4th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 118…


(209 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, the harbour of Res̲h̲t, the capital of Gīlān in Persia. Enzeli lies on a narrow tongue of land, which has been cut by a channel, between the Caspian Sea and a freshwater lake called Murdāb. From Enzeli one goes by boat to Pīr-i Bāzār on the south side of the Murdāb, thence by land to Res̲h̲t, whence the high road runs via Ḳazwīn to Ṭeherān. In the Russian wars with Persia Enzeli played a considerable part. In 1722 Russian troops landed in Pīr-i Bāzār. A Russian demonstration at Enzeli in 1804 failed completely on account of the…