Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(314 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, the ancient Arbela, celebrated for Alexander’s battle there (See Pauly-Wissowa, ii. 407 and vii. 861 et seq.), situated between the two Zāb on the road from Mōṣul to Bag̲h̲dād at the place where it is joined by two roads from the Iranian highlands (cf. Hüsing, Der Zagros, p. 38 et seq.), the capital of a Ḳaḍā in the Sand̲j̲aḳ of S̲h̲ehr-i Zōr in the Wilāyet of Mōṣul. In the earlier Arab geographers the town is described as a ṭassūd̲j̲ of the astān of Ḥulwān in the Sawād ( Bibl. Geogr. Arab., vi. 6 and 235). Erbil attained its greatest prosperity about 600 = 1200 as the capital of th…


(43 words)

, Hungarian Erdély, the old Turkish name for Transylvania or Sīebenbürgen. After the battle of Mohács (1526) the woiwods of this country became to a certain extent vassals of Turkey until by the Peace of Carlowitz (1699), Siebenbürgen passed to Austria.


(334 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, τὸ ‘ΗρακλέωΣ Κάστρον des (Theophanes, i. 482, de Boor; ἡ τοῦ ‛ΗρακλέοΣ ΚωμόπολιΣ of Michael Attaliata, p. 136 (ed. Bonn); ‘Ηράκλεια or Χώρα τοῦ ‘ΗρακλέοΣ in the epic of Digenis Acritas; the Hiraḳla of the Arabs ed. Houtsma, Recueil etc. iii. 11; iv. 5, 249, 260, Turk. and occasionally archaised , , the Reclei, Erachia of the Crusaders (Tomaschek, Zur histor. Topographie von Kleinasien, p. 84, 88, 92), Araclie in Bertrandon de la Broquière, p. 104 et seq., ed. Ch. Schefer, was a fortress on the Byzantine frontier on the road from Cilicia to Iconium and was repeatedly tak…


(1,372 words)

Author(s): Baldacci, A.
The population of the Italian colony of Eritrea may be divided into nomadic, semi-nomadic and settled tribes. In certain cases one section of a tribe leads a nomadic life, a second is semi-nomadic and the third settled. According to a tradition generally believed the earliest settlers in Eritrea were eight tribes who came one after the other; but any definite, reliable reference to their origin or order is quite wanting. This tradition certainly shows that the population of Eritrea has always b…


(311 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, Armenian Hrastan, the capital of a gouvernement in Russian Transcaucasia, in 40° 14′ N. Lat. and 44° 38′ E. Long. (Greenw.), about 3000 feet above sea-level on the left bank of the Zanga, a tributary of the Araxes with a population of about (1897) 30,000, according to other authorities 15,000, has a history dating back to remote antiquity according to the Armenian sources (sec St. Martin, Mémoires sur l’Arménie, I, 116). It is only since the beginning ¶ of the Turkish period that the town, written Rewān by the authorities, has obtained any considerable importance in the…


(156 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
(Armanāk), the capital of a ḳaḍā in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Ič Īlī in the wilāyet of Adana with 6430 inhabitants (Cuinet), built at the junction of the two streams that form the Giök-Ṣū (Calycadnus), is probably the ancient Gcrmanicopolis in Isauria (cf. Pauly-Wissowa, vii. 1258). The Oriental writers of the middle ages locate Ermenek two days’ journey south of Lārenda and three from the port of ʿAlāʾīya. A grotto there with a spring was particularly famous. In the viith-viiith (xiiith-xivth) century Ermenek was one of the principal strongholds and for a time the capital of the Ḳ…


(490 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
I. Son of Sulaimans̲h̲āh and father of ʿOt̲h̲mān I, the founder of the dynasty and empire of the Ottomans. According to the oldest tradition, which is preserved in ʿĀs̲h̲iḳpas̲h̲azāde, he migrated with 400 nomadic Turkoman families from Pāsīn Owa and Sürmeli Čuḳur to Asia Minor where the Sald̲j̲ūḳ ʿAlā al-Dīn allotted him the district of Sägüd between Karad̲j̲aḥiṣār and Biled̲j̲īk as winter pastures ( kis̲h̲la) and the hills of Ermenibeli and Domanič as summer pastures ( yaila). Karad̲j̲ahiṣār and Biled̲j̲ik still belonged to the Byzantines but they paid tribute to ʿAlā…


(715 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, the capital of a wilāyet in Turkish Armenia, in the plateau about 6000 feet above sea-level in which rises the Ḳarā Ṣū or Western Euphrates, the only natural gateway to northern Asia Minor (Sīwās) from Russian Transcaucasia (Kars) and Persia (Tabrīz), is at the same time connected by a good road with the Black Sea (Trebizond) in the north and Lake Van in the South. Even in ancient times there was an important town, the Theodosiopolis of the Byzantines, (see Chapot, La Frontière de l’Euphrate, p. 361) at this point so important strategically and commercially, the capital of the…


(342 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, the capital of a sand̲j̲aḳ, with about 23,000 inhabitants in the wilāyet of Erzerum, lying in a fertile plain on the north bank of the Ḳarā-Ṣū between Erzerum and Sīwās, is said by the Armenian sources to date back to pre-Christian times. We first obtain definite facts about the town in the Sald̲j̲ūḳ period [cf. the article mangučak]. According to Yāḳūt it was inhabited mainly by Armenians. In 627 (1230) the Ḵh̲wārizm-S̲h̲āh Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn (q.v., i. 1004) was defeated here by the Sald̲j̲ūḳ ʿAlā al-Dīn Kai-Ḳubād ¶ I and the Aiyūbid al-As̲h̲raf. Mustawfī (Le Strange, op. cit.), says that th…

Esʿad Efendi

(66 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Muḥammed, nicknamed Hindī-Mollā, a Turkish official, son of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām ʿAbd Allāh Waṣṣāf, born in 1119 (1707), was imprisoned in Brusa with his father in 1168 (1754-1755), became Ḳāḍī-ʿasker of Anatolia in 1182 (1768-1769), of Rūmili in 1186 (1772) and 1190 (1776) S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām, but was deposed eight months later and died in 1192 (1778). (Cl. Huart) Bibliography Sāmī-Bey, Ḳāmūs al-Aʿlām, ii. 908.

Esʿad Efendi

(142 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Aḥmed, a Turkish official and learned jurist, son of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ, was Ḳāḍī-ʿaskar of Anatolia in 1205 (1790-1791), of Rūmilī in 1208 (1793-1794), became S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām in 1218 (1803) and held this office for three years and five months. During his tenure of this office he issued a fatwā, sanctioning the new organisation of the army, known as niẓām-i d̲j̲edīd, proposed by Sulṭān Selīm III. But the revolution of the Janissaries brought about his deposition and it was with difficulty that he escaped with his life in this troubled…

Esʿad Efendi

(220 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Muḥammad, a Turkish official and historian, son of Muftī Abū Isḥāḳ Ismāʿīl, born in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 1096 (Oct. 1685), filled several judicial offices in the lifetime of his father, accompanied the Turkish army to Belgrade in 1152 (1739), became Ḳāḍī-ʿasker of Rūmilī in Muḥarram 1157 (Febr. 1744) and succeeded Muftī Aḳ-Maḥmūd-Zāde in office on the 24th Rad̲j̲ab 1161 (20th July 1748). He was the author of a Lehd̲j̲et al-Lug̲h̲a (Arabic-Persian Dictionary, printed in Constantinople 1211 = 1795), a Bülbül-nāme (“Book of the Nightingale”) a Ted̲h̲kire-i Ḵh̲wānendegān (“collection of b…

Esʿad Efendi

(211 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Saiyid Muḥammed, called ṣaḥḥāf-Zāde (“son of the bookseller”), a Turkish official and historian, son of al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Aḥmad, who was Mudarris and at the same time a bookseller and later Ḳāḍī of Jerusalem and Cairo, born in Constantinople near the Āyā Ṣōfia on the 18th Rabīʿ I 1204 (6th Dec. 1790), adopted his father’s profession and received the position of a judge in Adrianople and Scutari in Albania without actually filling the offices. On the death of S̲h̲ānī-Zāde in 1241 (1825) he was appointed Historiographer Royal. He held this office…

Esʿad Efendi

(152 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Muḥammad, a Turkish official and poet, son of the historian Saʿd al-Dīn, born in 978 (1570), became Ḳāḍī of Adrianople, and in 1004 (1595-1596) Ḳāḍī-ʿasker of Anatolia, in 1012 (1603-1604) of Rūmilī, made the pilgrimage to Mecca in 1023 (1614) and after his return succeeded his brother Čelebi Muḥammad Efendi, who had just died, as S̲h̲aik̲h̲, al-Islām. He filled this high office for seven years under Sulṭāns Aḥmad I, Muṣṭafā I and Ot̲h̲mān II; the latter gave him his daughter in marriage. He so…


(98 words)

(t.) “old”; frequent in place-names like Eski S̲h̲ehr “Old-town” [q. v.], Eski Ḥiṣār “Old-citadel”, a name borne by the ancient Dakibyra (see Tomaschek in Sitz.-Ber. der Wiener Akad., 1881, viii. 6) and Laodicea ad Lycum (see deñizli, i. 939) amongst others. Following a very common custom the Turks usually call ancient ruined sites by the name of some adjacent large town with the prefix Eski, e. g. Eski S̲h̲ām “Old Damascus”, Boṣrā (q. v., i. 765), Eski Mōṣul, the ancient Balad (see Le Strange, Eastern Caliphate, p. 99); on Eski Bag̲h̲dād, see i. 564a and 926b.


(412 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, on the Pursak-čai, the capital of the ḳāẓā of the same name in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Kiutahia, in the province of Brusa, with about 25,000 inhabitants, chiefly Muslims, is celebrated for its hot springs and the meerschaum pits near it (see Reinhardt in Petermanns Mitteilungen, 1911, ii. 251 et seq.) and has very recently attained considerable importance as a junction on the Constautinople-Ḳōniya and Constantinople-Angora railways; of the 11 mosques one dates from the Sald̲j̲ūḳ period, and another was built by Ḳara Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a. Eskis̲h̲ehr is t…


(169 words)

Author(s): Ritter, H.
(Egyptian Te-snet, Coptic Sne, Arabic Isna, Greek Latopolis from the fish Latos worshipped there) a town in Upper Egypt, lying on the left bank of the Nile halfway between Luxor and Edfu. It was for a time the capital of ¶ a Mudīrīye, now Markaz in the Mudīrīye of Ḳēnē, with 19,103 inhabitants, celebrated for the ruins of the temple of the God Chnum, which dates from the Ptolemaic period, in which a number of Roman emperors are depicted in the garb of the Pharaohs. In the Muslim period Esne was a flourishing provincial town. According…


(154 words)

, Patriarch of Alexandria 321—328 (933—939) known in Arabic as Saʿīd b. al-Biṭrīḳ, born at Fusṭaṭ in 263 (876) was the author of several medical and historical works. The best known in his Arabic chronicle, Naẓm al-Ḏj̲awhar, published by Pococke at Oxford in 1658-1659, which was afterwards continued by Yaḥyā b. Saʿīd al-Anṭākī [cf. i. 359a]. The fragment of a history of Sicily contained in a famous Cambridge manuscript (cf. Browne, Handlist of Moham. Mss., p. 27, N°. 170) used to be wrongly ascribed to Eutychius (on this point cf. Vasiliew, Vizantia i Arabi, ib, 79 et seq. and the works cit…