Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(2,099 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(a.), infinitive ivth from the root ḥ-r-m, which has the meaning of “warding off” ( manʿ), as the Lisān, xv. 9 says: “to declare a thing ḥaram” or “to make ḥaram”. (The opposite is iḥlāl “to declare permitted”). The word iḥrām has however become a technical term for “sacred state”; one who is in this state is called muḥrim. For example, a person fasting may be called muḥrim. The word iḥrām, however, is only used for two states: the sacred state in which one performs ¶ the ʿumra and ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲, and the state of consecration during the ṣalāt. Thirdly the word can be used of the dress in which the ḥad̲j̲d̲…


(162 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th. W.
(a.) “bringing waste land into cultivation”. The Muslim Fiḳh-books in the section on legal transactions have a chapter on iḥyāʾ al-mawāt, literally, making the dead (soil) alive. Land which is not being used is called mawāt. Every Muslim who cultivates neglected land for himself becomes the proprietor if it does not belong to another Muslim. According to most faḳīh’s express permission from the authorities is not necessary. The imām Abū Ḥanīfa however considers it illegal to cultivate a mawāt without permission from the authorities. (Th. W. Juynboll) Bibliography Abū Yūsuf, Kitāb al-…

I. Ibn al-Wardī

(440 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Zain al-Dīn Abū Ḥafṣ ʿOmar b. al-Muhẓaffar b. ʿOmar b. Abu ’l-Fawāris Muḥammad al-Wardī al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī al-Bakrī, al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, philologist, jurisconsult, litterateur, and poet, born at Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān in 689 = 1290 and died of the plague at Aleppo on Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 27, 749 = March 19, 1349. He studied in his native town, at Ḥamā, Damascus, and Aleppo and while still young acted for a short time as deputy for the ḳāḍī Muḥammed b. al-Naḳīb (d. 745 = 1343). It seems that as a result of a dream he abandoned this office to devote himself to scientific work. He left the following works: 1°. Dīwā…

Ii. Ibn al-Wardī

(136 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Sirād̲j̲ al-Dīn Abū Ḥafṣ ʿOmar, S̲h̲āfiʿī savant died in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 861 (sept.-oct. 1457). He was author of Ḵh̲arīdat al-ʿAd̲j̲āʾib wa-Farīdat al-G̲h̲arāʾib, a kind of geography and natural history of no scientific value. It seems that, in spite of the authorities quoted in the preface (al-Masʿūdī, al-Ṭūsī, Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, al-Marrākus̲h̲ī), the Ḵh̲arīda is only a plagiarism from Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-Funūn wa-Salwat al-Maḥzūn of Nad̲j̲m al-Din Aḥmad b. Ḥamdān b. S̲h̲abīb al-Ḥarrānī al-Ḥanbalī who lived in Egypt about 732 (1332). Several orientalists have transl…


(41 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th. W.
(A.), punishment, retaliation; especially the punishment from God which will fall upon the sinner after death (often used in the Ḳurʾān in this sense). Cf. ʿad̲h̲āb and: Sprenger, A Dictionary of the Technical Terms, p. 947. (Th. W. Juynboll)


(369 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th. W.
(a.) is the second call to the ṣalāt which is pronounced by the muʾad̲h̲d̲h̲in in the mosque before each of the five prescribed daily ṣalāt’s as well as before the ṣalāt at the Friday service. This second call gives the moment at which the ṣalāt begins. The formulae of the iḳāma are the same as those of the ad̲h̲ān [q. v.]. According ¶ to the Ḥanafīs, they are repeated as often as in the ad̲h̲ān; according to the other Fiḳh schools, they are pronounced only once with the exception of the words “God is great”, which are repeated twice at the beginning as well as at the end of the iḳāma. Moreover after th…


(369 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
(a.), to keep (or make) clear and pellucid, to keep free from admixture. In connection with the Ḳurʾānic use of the expression ik̲h̲lāṣ al-dīn lillāh (cf. iv. 145, vii. 28, x. 23, xxxix. 14, 16, etc.), i. e. to honour and serve Allāh exclusively, ik̲h̲lāṣ by itself received the meaning (cf. Ḳurʾān, ii. 133) of “absolute devotion to Allāh” and became used in opposition to is̲h̲rāk, s̲h̲irk, “associating divine beings with Allāh”. Sūra cxii. which emphasises the unity and uniqueness of God and denies that he has any associates was called Sūrat al-Ik̲h̲lāṣ (also Sūrat al-Tawḥīd); this Sūra i…


(705 words)

Author(s): Becker, C. H.
, an Egyptian dynasty. On the general place in history of the dynasty see above ii. p. 8b. The name of the dynasty is derived from the old Persian princely tide Ik̲h̲s̲h̲īd which the Caliph al-Rāḍī was induced to grant to the founder Muḥammad b. Ṭug̲h̲d̲j̲ in 326 = 937. It was the title of the old rulers of Farg̲h̲āna (see ii. p. 62b) from which the dynasty claimed descent. Ik̲h̲s̲h̲īd is said to mean “king of kings”, although others interpret it as “servant” (cf. Ibn Saʿīd, ed. Tallqvist, Arab, text, p. 23 sq.; transl. p. 41), presumably in the same sense as ʿAbd Allāh was used as an h…


(169 words)

(a.), trembling of the limbs: whence ʿilm al-ik̲h̲tilād̲j̲, the alleged science of prophesying from the involuntary twitchings of the limbs, also called palmology. The oldest work on the subject is probably ΜελάμποδοΣ ίερογραμματέωΣ περὶ παλμῶν μαντικὴ πρὸΣ Πτολεμαῖον βασιλέα (J. S. F. Franzius, Scriplores phyńognomoniae veteres, Altenburgi 1780, p. 451 sqq.). The Arabs however usually ascribe the origin of this science to the Indian Ṭomṭom. Who he was has not yet been explained. A suggestion is given by Hauber, Ṭomṭom (Ṭimṭim) = ΔάνδαμιΣ = Dindymus, in Zeitschr. der Deutsch. Mor…


(230 words)

Author(s): Goldziher, I.
(a.), difference of opinion; in contrast to Id̲j̲māʿ [q. v.], the difference of views among the authorities on Muslim law and dogmatics on details of legal practice and doctrine which do not affect great principles, particularly among the former, as it appears in the diversities between the Mad̲h̲āhib [q. v.] and also in those within each one of them. In opposition to contrary views urging unity of practice, and in face of the reality of the existence of this difference ¶ of opinions, the conviction has arisen in Muslim orthodoxy that they are of equal value and this view f…

Ik̲h̲wān al-Ṣafāʾ

(876 words)

Author(s): de Boer, T. J.
We have evidence in the second half of the iv.th (x.th) century (373 = 983) of the existence of a religious and political association with ultra-S̲h̲īʿī, perhaps to be more accurately described as Ismāʿīlī views and tendencies. The members of the association, the head quarters of which were at Baṣra, called themselves the “Pure and Faithful”, as their chief aim was to further the salvation of their immortal souls by mutual assistance and by every means, especially purifying knowledge (γνῶσιΣ). Nothing is …


(186 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
(a.), the crown, the name of several constellations, namely: 1. al-Ikīl, is the name given to the stars β, δ, π, forming a blunt wedge close together on the brow of the Scorpion. These stars mark the seventeenth station of the moon. 2. al-Iklīl al-s̲h̲amālī, Greek στέφανοΣ Latin Corona, the northern crown, a constellation of eight stars which follows the staff of Bootes and is also called al-Fakka, the “breach”, and Ḳaṣʿat al-Masākīn, the “alms bowl”, Pers. Kāsa-i Darwīs̲h̲ān, the “beggar’s bowl” and Kasa s̲h̲ikasta, the “broken bowl”, because the ring of stars is broken at one spot. Al-Fakk…


(451 words)

Author(s): Weir, T. H.
, the Greek word klīma, inclination. Eratosthenes (d. 195 b. c.) divided the orbis veteribus notus into seven longitudinal zones, of which the limits were arbitrarily fixed. Hipparchus (c. 150 b. c.) made the zones equal in latitude. The division into seven climates of equal width was taken over by the Arabs, though sometimes the countries to the S. of the Equator were reckoned an eighth, and those in the extreme N. a ninth. Al-Idrīsī [q. v.] has arranged his book on geography according to climates. The determining factor in …


(374 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th. W.
(a.), Confession. If the accused in the case before the ḳāḍī confesses that the prosecutor is right, no further proof is needed according to Muslim law. The judge can at once give his verdict. An iḳrār however can only be considered valid when it is made by a person of age in full possession of his faculties and without any pressure before the ḳāḍī. Measures to extort a confession are absolutely forbidden. Even an iḳrār made by some one perhaps from fear of a flogging is invalid. If the case concerns the law of property, the one who acknowledges the demand must be capable of independent action ( ras̲h…


(2,439 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
(a) in Muslim countries means: 1. the ¶ act of bestowing land which is not private property in return for taxes or tithes; 2. the act of giving the produce of land in place of or as a guarantee of payment on the part of the state treasury. Iḳṭāʿ may consist of: 1. the granting of a whole province as a fief to a governor (e. g. the granting of Egypt to Ibn Ṭūlūn by the Caliph on payment of tribute), as well as the granting of a few fields in return for tithe ( ʿus̲h̲r) or taxes ( k̲h̲arād̲j̲) or rent ( k̲h̲arād̲j̲-ud̲j̲ra) or a poll tax afterwards converted into k̲h̲arād̲j̲ (k̲h̲arād̲j̲-d̲j̲izya); 2. the a…


(330 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
means to take a ḳabas, a live coal or a light, from another’s fire (Ḳur. xx. 10;xxvii. 7; lvii. 13); hence to seek knowledge ( ʿilm) and, as a technical term in rhetoric, to quote specific words from the Ḳurʾan or the traditions but without indicating these as quoted. If the source is indicated and the quotation is put into verse the figure is called ʿaḳd, “binding”, and if it is verse, not Ḳurʾān or tradition, that is quoted, and in verse, the figure is taḍmīn, “inserting”. In iḳtibās the original application of the words may be preserved or may be changed. As to the lawfulness of…


(146 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
(a.), a technical term in metre, meaning an error in prosody, which consists in the vowel of the vocalised, rhyme-forming, terminal consonant ( rawī) being a ḍamma in one verse of a poem and a kasra in another, irrespective of whether the majority of the verses of the poem. end in one or other of these vowels or not. According to al-Ḵh̲alīl b. Aḥmad, al-ikwāʾ means the presence of an unusual vowel with the rhyme-forming consonant, so that the verses end partly in ī and partly in ā or ū. Other prosodists on the other hand call the insertion of verses with the terminal vowels ū or ī in a poem rhyming in ā, i…


(583 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
is undoubtedly the same as and has the same problem of ultimate derivation ( Encyclopædia Biblica, Hi. coll. 3323 sqq.; Brown-Driver-Briggs, Hebrew Lexicon, p. 42 sqq.; Fleischer, Kleinere Schr., i. 154 sqq.). Here only the Arabic side is considered. The pre-Muslim Meccans regarded Allāh as a proper name ( ism ʿalam) and this view is practically universal in Islām; for the arguments of the few who held that it was a descriptive noun ( ṣifa) see Rāzī, Mafātīḥ, ed. Cairo, 1307, i. 83, 24 sqq. But, according to Rāzī ( loc. cit.), al-Ḵh̲alīl, Sībawaihi and the most of the formulators of t…
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