Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(1,365 words)

Author(s): Weiss, J.
(a.) Technical term in Arabic grammar, frequently translated by “inflexion”, has however a much narrower meaning. For in the nouns it only applies to the formation of cases but not to numbers and in the verb it refers exclusively to the distinction of the moods of the imperfect and therefore is not applied, as Flügel, Die gramm. Schulen der Araber, p. 15, erroneously assumes, to the formation of the genders of the ¶ verb and its tenses and even to that of the personal forms, which are regarded as nominal elements added to the verb proper. According to the view of the Arab grammarians in pr…


(7,571 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, M.
, also called al-ʿIrāḳ al-ʿarabī in contrast to al-ʿIrāḳ al-ʿad̲j̲amī. In the older period al-ʿIrāḳān, “the two ʿIrāḳs”, meant the two oldest Muslim towns in the country, Kūfa and Baṣra (Yāḳūt, iii. 628, 11 sq.). later this name was applied to al-ʿIrāḳ and al-Ḏj̲ibāl [q. v.] together; Yāḳūt iii. 15, 18 knows al-Irāḳ alone as the name usual among the Persians for al-Ḏj̲ibāl and explains this by saying that the Sald̲j̲ūḳ ruler who held the ʿIrāḳ also conquered al-Ḏj̲ibāl. As he lived in Hamadiān, the people referred his title as “…


(171 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, the name of an individual ortribe which occupies the same position in Muslim genealogy as Aram in Biblical, as may be seen from a comparison of the Muslim series ʿŪṣ b. Iram b. Sām b. Nūḥ with the Biblical ʿŪṣ b. Aram b. Shem b. Noah. The Muslim line probably, like many others, entered historiography under Jewish influence and therefore gives us no new information regarding the dissemination of Aramaeans in Arabia. The name is identified with that of the Iram Ḏh̲āt al-ʿImād discussed below, th…

Iram Ḏh̲āt al-ʿImād

(866 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
occurs in the Ḳurʾān only in Sūra 89, 6: “(5) Hast thou not seen how thy Lord dealt with ʿĀd, (6) Iram d̲h̲āt al-Imād, the like whereof hath not been created in the lands”. — The connection between ʿĀd and Iram in these verses may be interpreted in various ways, as the commentaries explain at length. If Iram is taken in contrast to ʿĀd, it is intelligible why Iram also has been taken as a tribal name; Imād could then be taken in the sense of “tent-pole”. According to others, the poles are a description of the giant figure of the Iram, which is thus particularly emphasised. If Iram stands in iḍāfa to ʿĀd,…


(551 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, Berber Ait Iraten (cf. Ait), Arabic Banū Raten, a tribe of Great Kabylia, whose territory is bounded on the north by the Sebau, in the west by the Wādi Aisi, which separates them from the Banū Yenni, in the south by the district of the Ait Yaḥyā and in the east by that of the Ait Frausen, and forms a hilly country from 3000 ¶ to. 3500 feet in height, yielding olives and figs and some corn. The inhabitants are settled in several villages, of which the most important are ʿAdeni, Tawrirt Amoḳrān, Usammör, and Agemun. To-day the Banū Raten form a single dwār community (cf. dawār at the end) of 9781 sou…


(184 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
or Arbad (corruption of an older Arbel, see the following article), the old town (of which the ruins only now exist) ofhrbela, on a hill on the road from Tiberias through the so-called “Dove Ravine”. Among the ruins those of a synagogue are noteworthy (see Kohl and Watzinger, ¶ Synagogenruinen in Galilea, p. 59 sqq.). The remarkable rock caves in the neigbourhood played an important role in later Jewish history. Tradition places here the tombs of the mother of Moses and of four of the sons of Jacob, Dan, Issachar, Zebulon and Gad. Another Irbid-Arbad, likewise an ancient Arbela, lies in…


(3,246 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
, the name of various places in Mesopotamia: 1. a town in the wilāyet of Mōṣul, about 50 miles E. S. E. of Mōṣul, 12 hours N. of Altyn Köprü (see i. 322b) in 36° 11′ N. Lat. and 42° 2′ E. Long. (Greenw.). Irbil (Erbil, in the common language also Arbīl) is the Arba-ilu of the Babylonian-Assyrian and the Arbira of the Old Persian cuneiform inscriptions. This place, which is mentioned as early as in Assyrian documents of the ixth century b. c, played no special political role in antiquity. Its main importance was rather based in the pre-Achaemenid period on the possession of a h…


(1,284 words)

Author(s): Farès, Bichr
, a term, from the very first ambiguous and vague, like so many other Arabic terms [cf. murūʾa]. Ibn Ḳutaiba thought to see in it a synonym of “body”. Al-Ḳālī rightly challenged this view ( Amālī, Cairo 1323, i. 118). Setting aside its material meanings (“strong army, valley covered with palm-trees” etc.: especially T. A., v. 45), ʿirḍ would mean the distinction of one’sancestors( ḥasab), good character ( al-k̲h̲alīḳa al-maḥmūda) or the soul ( nafs). Now the expression “to insult a man’s ʿirḍ” ( s̲h̲atama and its synonyms) is very frequent. But one can insult neither the soul c…


(64 words)

Author(s): Suter, H.
(a.) = heights in astronomy the height of a constellation, that is its distance from the horizon measured on a circle passing through zenith and nadir (vertical, aāʾirat al-irtifāʿ); in geometry it is also used for the height of a plane figure (triangle, parallelogram) or of a body (prism, cylinder), but ʿamūd (pillar, plumb line) is much more commonly used. (H. Suter)


(527 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
a large river in Siberia, in the basin of the Ob. Its two sources, the Blue and the White Irtis̲h̲, rise in the Great Altai; after their junction the river as far as Lake Zaisan bears the name “Black Irtis̲h̲”; after leaving the lake it flows for about 180 miles through steppe country as the “White” or “Slow Irtis̲h̲”, then for 60 miles with a stronger current as the “Rapid Irtis̲h̲” through a hilly country. At the town of Ustkamenogorsk it enters the Great Siberian plain which sinks away towar…


(483 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Mūsā b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-ʿAbbās, nephew of the two first ʿAbbāsid Caliphs, al-Saffāḥ and al-Manṣūr. In the last year of his reign al-Saffāḥ had homage paid to his brother Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar and after him to his nephew ʿĪsā b. Mūsā as heirs-apparent. ʿĪsā, who a few years previously had been appointed governor of Kūfa, retained this office after the accession of Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr. When the ʿAlid Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh rebelled in Medīna in 145 (762), ʿĪsā was sent with an army against…


(82 words)

b. ʿOmar al-T̲h̲aḳafī, Arab grammarian and reader of the Ḳurʾān, died 149 (766). He is regarded as one of the first representatives of the grammatical school of Baṣra and is said to have taught Sībawaihi [q. v.]. To the data collected about him by Flügel, Die grammatischen Schulen der Araber, p. 29 sqq. and after him by Brockelmann, Gesch. d. Arab. Litt., i. 99, may be added that Yāḳūt, Irs̲h̲ād, ed. Margoliouth, vi. 100 sq. has an article on him.


(319 words)

b. al-S̲h̲aik̲h̲ b. al-Salīl al-S̲h̲aibānī was appointed governor of Ramla in 252 (866) and a few years later (256 = 870) gained possession of Damascus also. But when he embezzled the Syrian taxes, al-Muʿtamid sent Amad̲j̲ūr as governor to Damascus, who put to flight ʿĪsā’s troops commanded by his son Manṣūr. ʿĪsā himself retired to Armenia, where the governorship of this province was given him by the Caliph. On the part which he played here, see Thopdschian in Mitteil. des Seminars für Orient. Sprach., vii. 2, p. 119. In 266 (879) ʿĪsā was in Āmid and with, other Arab amirs w…


(8 words)

b. ʿAlī [See ʿalī b. ʿīsā.]


(2,315 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
, the proper name of Jesus in the Ḳurʾān, and thence in Islām, is explained by some ¶ western scholars (Marraccii, ii. 39; Landauer and Nöldeke, Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesells., xli. 720) as a form imposed upon Muḥammad by the Jews and used by him in good faith. They called Jesus Esau () in hatred and said that the soul of Esau had been transferred to him. Others (J. Derenbourg, Rev. des Études juives, xviii. 126; Fränkel, Wien. Zeitschr., iv. 334; Vollers, Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesells., xlv. 352; Nestle, Dict. of Christ and the Gospels, i. 861) hold that the name origina…


(473 words)

b. Muhannāʾ, S̲h̲araf al-Dīn, an Arab Amīr, who played an important part during the war between the Mamlūks and the Mongols in Syria. His genealogy in Abu ’l-Fidāʾ (Constant. 1286 a. h.), iv. 91, is ʿĪsā b. Muhannā b. Māniʿ b. Ḥadīt̲h̲a b. ʿAṣaba b. Faḍl. Salamīya and Sarmīn were the seats of his family; he probably belonged to the Rabīʿa. His grandfather Māniʿ and other members of the family are several times mentioned in the history of Ḥalab by Kamāl al-Dīn (cf. Blochet, Histoire d’Alep, p. 168, 210, 213). ʿĪsā fought on the side of Ḳuṭuz in the battle of ʿAin Ḏj̲ālūt [q. v.] …


(4 words)

[See isḥāḳ.]


(106 words)

, name of an idol at Mecca, which is almost always mentioned along with Nāʾila. Tradition relates that a man and a woman of the Ḏj̲urhūm were so called and were turned into stone as a punishment for indecent conduct in the temple. They were first of all placed as a warning on al-Ṣafā and al-Marwa, but were later idolatrously worshipped by order of ʿAmr b. Luhaiy. It is therefore a question of two sacred stones, but the origin of their names is so far unexplained. Attempts are given in Dozy, De Israelieten te Mekka, p. 197. Bibliography Wellhausen, Reste Arab. Heidenthums 2, p. 77.


(266 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, isagoge, from the Greek εἰσαγωγή, is an Arabic adaptation of the Introduction (al-Madk̲h̲at) to the categories of Aristotle composed by Porphyry of Tyre. According to Ṣāʿid al-Andalusī ( Ṭabaḳāt al-Umam, Beyrout 1912, p. 49), the Arabic translation was made directly from the Greek by Ibn al-Muḳaffaʿ [q. v.] and, according to the Fihrist (i. 244), it was made from a Syriac version by Aiyūb b. al-Ḳāsim al-Raḳḳī. In any case, it is certain that Arabic versions of Porphyry’s work were multiplied quite early, in commentaries, epitomes and adaptations…
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