Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(39 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th. W.
(a.) means in Muslim law all that must be given or done as a guarantee of the fulfilment of what the other party is pledged to, in a contract or sale or other agreement. (Th. W. Juynboll)


(1,148 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a great Arab tribe belonging to the ¶ Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy is Iyād b. Nizār b. Maʿadd b. ʿAdnān. The Rabīʿa, Anmār and Muḍar were consanguineous tribes of the Iyād. A section of the Iyād professed Christianity. The poet Abū Dūʾād, famous for his descriptions of the horse, and the celebrated Ḳuss b. Sāʿida were members of the Iyād. At first they dwelt in Tihāmn up to the borders of Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.]. In the first half of the iiird century they emigrated in large bodies to Eastern ʿIrāḳ and thence to Mesopotamia. Among their settlements were: Anbār (they …

ʿIyāḍ b. Mūsā

(633 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl ʿIyāḍ b. Mūsā b. ʿIyāḍ al-Yaḥṣubī al-Sabtī al-Mālikī, known as al-Ḳāḍī ʿIyāḍ, a Mālikī jurist, traditionist, historian, man of letters and poet, born at Ceuta on S̲h̲aʿbān 15, 476 (Dec. 29, 1083) and died at Marrākūs̲h̲,, 7 Ḏj̲umādā II (13 Oct.) or Ramaḍān 11 Dec. 544 (1149). After studying in his native town he went in 507 (1114) to Cordova where he devoted himself particularly to Ḥadīt̲h̲, and attended the lectures of Abū Muḥammed ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAttab and Abu ’l-Walīd Ibn Rus̲h̲d. His teachers numbered a hundred. He returned to …


(154 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
, the eighth month of the Syriac calendar. There is no uniform opinion regarding its vocalization. Al-Bīrūnī (see Bibl.) says that the name was originally written without an alif as the third letter. The initial vowel also varies between a and i and the doubling of the also is not regular. The usual modern form is aiyār. It corresponds to May of the Roman year and like it has 31 days. On the 6th and 19th of this month, according to al-Bīrūnī, the third and fourth lunar stations rise and the 17th and 18th set. In the year 1300 of the Seleucid era (989 a. d.) according to al-Bīrūnī on the 5th, 18th and 31st…


(129 words)

b. Muʿāwiya was appointed ḳāḍī of Baṣra by ʿOmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz and died at the age of 76 in 121 or 122 (739-740). He has become proverbial in Arabic literature on account of the many examples of ready wit and intuition ( azkanu min Iyās, Freytag, Prov. Arab., i. 593) related of him, which were collected by so early a writer as al-Madāʾinī in a work ( Zakan Iyās). In this way he has become a familiar figure in literature (cf. R. Basset, Revue des Traditions populaires, vi. 67). Bibliography Ibn Ḵh̲allikān, Wafayāt, ed. Cairo 1299, i. 143 sqq. Ibn Nubāta, S̲h̲arḥ al-ʿUyūn ʿala Risālat Ibn Zaidūn, Al…


(702 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
(older forms: iznukumīd; iznikmīd; in Ibn Ḵh̲ordād̲h̲beh and Idrīsī: niḳumīdīya; in modern times officially written izmīt), the ancient Nicomedia, capital of the independent Liwā (muteṣarrifliḳ) of the same name (cf. kōd̲j̲a-īlī). The town was taken by the Sald̲j̲ūḳs on their invasion of Asia Minor at the end of the xith century and belonged to the lands of Sulaimān b. Ḳutlumus̲h̲ (470—479 = 1078—1085) who had chosen Nicaea as his capital; shortly after his death it was recaptured by Alexius I Comnenus (Anna Comnena, ed. Reifferscheidt, i. 212…


(1,847 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
(Smyrna), the most important commercial town in Asiatic Turkey and the residence of the Wālī of the province of Aidīn. The form Izmīr (in Ibn Baṭṭūṭa: Yazmīr) corresponds to the form used by Westerners in the middle ages, Smirc, Zmirra, etc. (Tomaschek, p. 28; Esmira in Ram Muntaner, c. 202; Ismira in Schiltberger). On the incursion of the Sald̲j̲ūḳs into Asia Minor at the end of the xith century the Turk Tzachas (Τζαχᾶα, only in Anna Comnena), the father-in-law of Ḳilid̲j̲ Arslān I, who lived in Nicaea, established himself in Smyrna and undertook from there hi…


(814 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, the ancient and Byzantine Nicaea ( Nīḳīya in Ibn Ḵh̲ordād̲h̲bih and al-Idrīsī), was besieged in vain by the Arabs in their first campaigns against Byzantium in 717 and 725 (Theophanes, ed. de Boor, i. 397 and 405 sqq.) and fell at the beginning of 1081 into the hands of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ, Sulaimān, son of Ḳutlumus̲h̲, who made his residence there. The first Crusaders under Walther Habenichts were severely defeated before Nicaea in 1096 by Alp Arslān, son and successor of Sulaimān; next year, however, the town could not withstand the o…


(1,116 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(in European literature one also finds ʿAzrāʾīl), the name of the angel of death, one of the four archangels (next to Ḏj̲ibrīl, Mīk̲h̲āʾīl, Isrāfīl). The name is perhaps a corruption of which is given by Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Judenthum, ii. 333, as the name of the prince of Hell. Like Isrāfīl, whose office of trumpet-blower at the last judgment is sometimes given to him, he is of cosmic magnitude; if the water of all the seas and rivers were poured on his head, not a drop would reach the earth. He has a seat ( sarīr) of light in the fourth or seventh heaven, on which one of his feet re…

ʿIzz al-Dawla

(16 words)

, honorific name frequently assumed by Muḥammadan princes, e. g. Bakhtiyar [q. v.].

ʿIzz al-Dīn

(26 words)

, honorific name, for princes often combined with the preceding ( ʿIzz al-Dawla wal-Dīn). However, not only princes bear this name, but scholars also.

ʿIzzet Molla

(435 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Theodor
, Kečed̲j̲i-zāde Meḥmed, ʿIzzet Efendi, an important Ottoman statesman and poet in the reign of Maḥmūd II. Born in 1200 (1785-6) in Constantinople, the son of the ḳāḍī-ʿasker Ṣāliḥ Efendi, he devoted himself to a theological and legal career, following in his father’s footsteps. When he had reached the position of Mollā of Galata, he was subsequently involved in the fall of his patron Ḥālet Efendi, as he had written satirical verses on his behalf. He was therefore banished to Kes̲h̲ān near Rodosto. …


(201 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Theodor
(Waḳʿa-Nuwīs Sulaimān ʿIzzī Efendi); Turkish historigrapher-royal and poet. He was the son of Ḵh̲alīl Ag̲h̲a, commander of the Baltad̲j̲i Guard, and of Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a, daughter of Aḥmad III, and entered the Imperial Dīwān as secretary. In 1156 (1743) he was appointed the seventh holder of the office of historiographerroyal ( waḳʿa-nüwīs) in succession to Ṣubḥī. In 1160 he became master of ceremonies ( tes̲h̲rīfātī). He died in Ḏj̲umādā II 1160 (March/April 1755) and was buried beside S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Murād-zāde, who had initiated him into the Naḳs̲h̲bandī order. ʿIzzī left a Dīwān and a chr…