Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(651 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(Ar. Labla), a little town in the S. W. of Spain, 45 miles W. of Seville on the right bank of the Rio Tinto. Now much decayed, it has less than 2,000 inhabitants and is in the judicial district of Moguer, in the province of Huelva. It is the ancient Ilipla. In the Visigothic period it was the see of a bishop. In the Muslim period it enjoyed considerable prosperity. It formed part of the district of al-S̲h̲araf ( Ajarafe) and was also called al-Ḥamrāʾ, “the red”, no doubt from the colour of its ramparts and of the water of its river. It was particularly an olivegrowing cent…


(1,989 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
(Nuffar), a ruined site in southern ʿIrāḳ, in 32° 7′ N. Lat. and 45° 10′ East Long. (Greenw.), now in the ḳaḍā of ʿAfek in the liwā al-Dīwānīye. Niffar corresponds, as J. Oppert was the first to point out, to the town of Nippur well known from cuneiform inscriptions, one of the oldest and most important places in Babylonia. Its great importance was not political but religious, as the temple of the chief deity of the town formed a kind of central sanctuary or place of pilgrimage for the whole of …


(434 words)

Author(s): Arberry, A. J.
Muḥammad Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲abbār. This mystic, whom the principal Ṣūfī biographers fail to mention, flourished in the ivth (xth) century, and, according to Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, died in the year 354 (965). His nisba refers to the town of Niffar [q. v.] in Mesopotamia, and one MS. of his works asserts that it was during his residence at Niffar and Nīl that he committed his thoughts to writing. Niffarī’s literary reliquiae consist of two books, the Mawāḳif and the Muk̲h̲āṭabāt, together with a number of fragments. It is improbable that Niffarī himself was responsible for the e…


(1,192 words)

Author(s): Wittek, Paul
, a town in the Turkish sand̲j̲aḳ (now wilāyet) of the same name in a fertile trough on the east edge of the Central Anatolian steppe. The town is first mentioned in the Turkish period; previously the chief town of the district was Tyana (Arab. Ṭawāna) but it is probable that the striking hill which commands the important road from Cilicia across the Taurus to Ḳaisārīye ¶ at its entrance to a pass over the mountains had a fortified settlement upon it in the pre-Turkish period. The old place-name may be the origin of the modern one, an older form of which was N…

Nihāl Čand Lāhawrī

(199 words)

Author(s): Bailey, T. Grahame
, Indian man of letters, Hindū by religion, was born in Dihlī, but left it in early life and went to Lahore where he lived for a considerable time. Owing to this circumstance he called himself Lāhawrī. Search for a livelihood led him to Calcutta. Here he was introduced to Dr. J. B. Gilchrist who asked him to translate into “Hindī rek̲h̲ta” the story of Tād̲j̲ al-Mulūk and Bakāwalī. He consented and thus became one of the famous band of Fort William translators. He made the translation from Gul-i Bakāwalī, a Persian rendering by S̲h̲aik̲h̲ ʿIzzat Ullāh, 1772, of an old Hindī story, w…


(735 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a town in the old province of Hamad̲h̲ān, with, at the present day, 5,000-6,000 inhabitants (de Morgan), at a height of 5,860 feet on the branch of the Gāmāsāb which comes from the S. E. from the vicinity of Burūd̲j̲ird; the Gāmāsāb then runs W. to Bisūtūn. Nihāwand lies on the southern road which, coming from Kirmāns̲h̲āh (Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih, p. 198), leads into Central Persia (Iṣfahān) avoiding the massif of Alwand (ʾΟρόντηΣ) which rises W. of Hamad̲h̲ān. Hence the importance of the town in the wars of Persia with her western neighbours. The French excavations of 1931 (Dr. Contenau)…


(2,717 words)

Author(s): Schacht, Joseph
(a.), marriage (properly: sexual intercourse, but already in the Ḳurʾān used exclusively of the contract). Here we deal with marriage as a legal institution; for marriage customs see ʿurs. 1. The essential features of the Muslim law of marriage go back to the custumary law of the Arabs which previously existed. In this, although there were differences according to districts and the conditions of the individual cases, the regulations governing marriage were based upon the patriarchal system, which permitted the man very grea…


(900 words)

Author(s): Atiya, A. S.
, in Turkish spelling Nikbūlī or Nīkbūlī (in Ewliyā Čelebi, vii. 463: ), town on the southern bank of the Danube, at 43° 43′ N., 24° 54′ E. This Nikopolis, founded by Heraclius (c. 575—642), has often been confused, especially in mediaeval literature, with Nikopolis ad Istrum or ad Haemum, founded by Trajan in 101 in commemoration of his victory over the Dacians (ruins recently excavated near modern Niküp in the upper valley of the Ḏj̲antra by Mt. Haemus). The Byzantine Nikopolis is sometimes called Nikopolis Major to distinguish it from Traja…


(521 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Neo-Caesarea, first mentioned by Pliny (vi. 3) so that it presumably arose under Tiberius, lies in the Anatolian wilāyet of Sīwās [q. v.] 1,150 feet above sea-level. The town is picturesquely situated at the foot of a hill, crowned by the ruins of a mediaeval castle which was erected from the material provided by the numerous buildings of antiquity there. Here in remote antiquity was Cabira and after its decline Diospolis founded by Pompey, later called Sebaste. In Church history Nīksār is famous as the scene of a Council (314 a. d.) and as the birthplace of Gregory the miracle-worke…


(6,638 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the river Nile. The Nile is one of the large rivers which from the beginning have belonged to the territory of Islām, and the valleys and deltas of which have favoured the development of an autonomous cultural centre in Islāmic civilisation. In the case of the Nile this centre has influenced at different times the cultural and political events in the Muḥammadan world. Thus the Nile has, during the Islāmic period, continued to play the same part as it did during the centuries that preceded the coming of Islām. The name al-Nīl or, very often, Nīl Miṣr, goes back to the Greek name Νεĩ…

Nīlūfer K̲h̲atun

(371 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
wife of Urk̲h̲ān and mother of Murād I, apparently the Greek name Nenuphar (i. e. Lotus-flower) (cf. J. v. Hammer, G. O. R., i. 59), was the daughter of the lord of Yārḥiṣār (Anatolia, near Brussa; cf. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, Ḏj̲ihānnumā, p. 659) and according to one story was betrothed to the lord of Belokoma (Biled̲j̲ik). ʿOt̲h̲mān, the founder of the dynasty which bears his name, is said to have kidnapped and carried her off in 699 (1299) and to have destined her to be the wife of his son Urk̲h̲ān, then only 12 years old. Idrīs Bitl…

Niʿmat Allāh b. Aḥmad

(290 words)

Author(s): Berthels, E.
b. Ḳāḍī Mubārak, known as Ḵh̲alīl Ṣūfī, author of a Persian-Turkish Dictionary, entitled Lug̲h̲at-i Niʿmat Allāh. Born in Sofia, where as an enameller he made a reputation as an artist, he moved to Constantinople and there entered the Naḳs̲h̲bandī order. Association with the Naḳs̲h̲bandī dervishes made him more closely acquainted with literature and ¶ especially with Persian poetry. Niʿmat Allāh decided to make accessible to others the knowledge he had acquired by an ardent study of Persian literature and thus arose his lexicographical work which …

Niʿmat Allāh b. Ḥabīb Allāh Harawī

(250 words)

Author(s): Berthels, E.
, a Persian historian. His father was for 35 years in the service of the Great Mug̲h̲al Akbar (1556—1605) where he was a k̲h̲āliṣa inspector. Niʿmat Allāh himself was for 11 years historian to Ḏj̲ahāngīr (1605—1628), then entered the service of Ḵh̲ān-Ḏj̲ahān whom he accompanied in 1018 (1609—1610) on the campaign against the Dekkan. Soon afterwards he became acquainted with Miyān-Haibat-Ḵh̲ān b. Salīm-Ḵh̲ān Kākar of Sāmāna who persuaded him to write a history of the reign of Ḵh̲ān-Ḏj̲ahān. Niʿma…

Niʿmat Allāh Walī

(359 words)

Author(s): Berthels, E.
, a Persian mystic. Amīr Nūr al-Dīn Niʿmat Allāh, son of Mīr ʿAbd Allāh, and a descendant of the fifth imām of the S̲h̲īʿa, Bākir, the founder of the Niʿmat Allāhī order, is highly esteemed in Persia as a great saint and wonder-worker. He was born in Ḥalab in ¶ 730—731 (1329—1330/1), spent his early years in the ʿIrāḳ and went to Mecca at the age of 24 where he became a pupil and k̲h̲alīfa of the famous S̲h̲aik̲h̲ ʿAbd Allāh Yāfiʿī [see yāfiʿī]. After his teacher’s death, he went to Samarḳand, then visited Herāt and Yazd and finally settled in Māhān, 8 farsak̲h̲s from Kirmān, …

Niʿmat K̲h̲ān ʿĀlī

(493 words)

Author(s): Berthels, E.
, Mīrzā Nūr al-Dīn Muḥammad, son of Ḥakīm Fatḥ al-Dīn S̲h̲īrazī, a Persian author, was born in India and came of a family several of whom had been distinguished physicians in their ancestral home in S̲h̲īrāz. He entered the service of the state under S̲h̲āh-Ḏj̲ahān (1628—1659) and was appointed keeper of the crown jewels with the title of dārūg̲h̲a-yi d̲j̲awāhirk̲h̲āna. He attained his highest honours under Awrangzēb (1659—1707) who gave him the title of Niʿmat Ḵh̲ān (1104 = 1692-1693), which was later changed to Muḳarrab Ḵh̲ān and then to Dānis̲h̲mand Ḵh̲ān. He died at Dehli on the 1st Rab…


(2,699 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
, a ruined site in the ancient Assyria, the northern portion of the modern ʿIrāḳ, about twenty miles south of Mōṣul, in 36° 5′ North Lat. and 43° 20′ East Long. (Greenwich) in the angle formed by the Tigris and its tributary, the Upper or Great Zāb, six miles above the mouth of the latter. The plateau of Nimrūd rises abruptly from the surrounding country, and the great advantages of this situation caused a settlement to be made here already in remote antiquity. Excavations on the site have estab…


(4,678 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
, 1. an extensive area of ruins on the eastern bank of the Tigris opposite the town of Mōṣul, the ancient capital of the late Assyrian empire. The name is probably connected with that of the old Babylonian goddess Ninā, an incarnation of Is̲h̲tar, who had her chief place of worship on Assyrian soil here. In the Assyrian inscriptions it is most frequently written Ni-nu-a; we also find Ni-na-a and Ni-nu-u. The Amarna tablets have the forms Ni-i-na-a and Ni-i-nu-u; the reproduction of the name by Ninuwa or Nenuwa in the Mitanni and Ḵh̲atti texts shows that the Hebrew form with consonantal w is just…
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