Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(1,690 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
or Yeñi Bazar is the name of a former (down to 1912) Turkish sand̲j̲aḳ in what was once the wilāyet of Kosovo; it now belongs to Jugo-Slavia. The district through which the river Lim flows and which is therefore also called the Lim district (area 7,350 sq. km. with 168,000 inhabitants of whom 3/4 are Christian Serbs and 1/4 Muḥammadan Albanians), was bounded on the north by Bosnia and separated Serbia from ¶ Montenegro. The importance of Novibazar was for military reasons as it secured communications between Bosnia and Rumelia and at the same time prevented communic…


(4,121 words)

Author(s): Hillelson, S.
, name of a country [and people?] to the South of Egypt. The names Nubia, Nubian, Nūba are commonly used without scientific precision’ and it is only in the linguistic sense that they have an unambiguous meaning. The frontier separating Nubia from Egypt proper is well defined as the first cataract of the Nile in the neighbourhood of Aswān, and the area where Nubian is spoken nowadays ends in the vicinity of the 18th parallel, but the southern limit of Nubia is sometimes placed as far south as the junction of the Atbara and the Nile or even the confluence of the two N…

Nūbār Pas̲h̲a

(1,647 words)

Author(s): Sabry, M.
(1825-1899), an Egyptian statesman, who played a most prominent part in Egyptian politics in the xixth century. Summoned by his uncle Bog̲h̲os Bey, the Minister of Foreign Affairs and of Commerce under Muḥammad ʿAlī, he came to Egypt in 1842 at the age of 17 and entered the government service as second secretary to the Viceroy. In 1848 he accompanied Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a to Europe as secretary and interpreter. Under Saʿīd, Nūbār began to play a part in public life. His independent spirit, his methodical and precise…


(1,280 words)

Author(s): Heller, Bernhard
, the Noah of the Bible, is a particularly popular figure in the Ḳurʾān and in Muslim legend. T̲h̲aʿlabī gives 15 virtues by which Nūḥ is distinguished among the prophets. The Bible does not regard Noah as a prophet. In the Ḳurʾān Nūḥ is the first prophet of punishment, who is followed by Hūd, Ṣāliḥ, Lūṭ, S̲h̲uʿaib and Mūsā. Ibrāhīm is one of his following ( S̲h̲īʿa) (Sūra xxxvii. 81). He is the perspicuous admonisher ( nad̲h̲ir mubīn, xi. 27; lxxi. 2), the rasūl amīn “the true messenger of God” (xxvi. 107), the W s̲h̲akūr, “the grateful servant of God” (xvii. 3). Allāh enters into a cov…


(2,172 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of two Sāmānids. 1. Abū Muḥammad Nūḥ I b. Naṣr b. Aḥmad, called al-Amīr al-Ḥamīd, succeeded his father [see naṣr]; but the real ruler was the pious theologian Abu ’l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Sulamī. The latter long refused to take the title of “wazīr” but finally succumbed to Nūḥ’s pressing representations, and took much less interest in the business of government than in his devotional exercises and theological studies which earned him the name of “al-Ḥākim al-S̲h̲ahīd”. There were also by this time unmi…

Nūḥ b. Muṣṭafā

(256 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, an Ottoman theologian and translator, was born in Anatolia but migrated while still quite young to Cairo where he studied all branches of theology and attained a high reputation. He died there in 1070 (1659). He wrote a series of theological treatises, some of which are detailed by Brockelmann, G.A. L., ii. 314. His most important work however is his free translation and edition of S̲h̲āhrastānī’s celebrated work on the sects, Terd̲j̲eme-i Milal vie-Niḥal which he prepared at the suggestion of a prominent Cairo citizen named Yūsuf Efendi. It exists in manuscript in Berlin (cf. Pertsch, Ka…


(284 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a town in the ʿIrāḳ, near al-Kūfa. It is known mainly from the accounts of the battle of Ḳādisīya. From the statements collected by Yāḳūt regarding its position it appears that two different places of this name had later to be distinguished, namely one near Kūfa on the road to Syria, which is several times mentioned in the time of the Caliphs ʿAlī and Muʿāwiya and another, a watering station between al-Mug̲h̲īt̲h̲a and al-ʿAḳaba, 3 mīl from al-Ḥufair, to the right of the road to Mecca. Several encounters took place there during the second battle of Ḳādisīya. According…


(1,885 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, Tadeusz
(al-Nakkāra, al-Nakkārīya) “deniers”: one of the main branches ofthe Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ī sect of the Ibāḍīya [q. v.; cf. also the article abāḍīs]. The existence of this sect has already been proved by E. Masqueray, A. de C. Motylinski and R. Strothmann; cf. however the ¶ opinion of G. Levi Delia Vida, according to whom al-Nukkār is simply “an insulting epithet applied to Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲īs in general” [cf. the article sufrīya]. The name al-Nukkār comes from the fact that the members of this sect refused to recognise the second Ibāḍī imām of Tāhert, ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. ʿAbd al-…


(162 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a plain west of the Ḏj̲ebel Ḥawrān on the border of Trachonitis in Transjordan. The name al-Nuḳra (“the cavity”) is quite modern. It is applied to an area, which includes the two districts of al-Bat̲h̲anīya (with its chief town Ad̲h̲riʿāt) and Ḥawrān (west of the hills of the same name), i. e. the whole northern half of Transjordan. In the wider sense al-Nuḳra includes all the country from al-Led̲j̲āʾ, Ḏj̲aidūr and al-Balḳāʾ to the foot of the Ḏj̲ebel Ḥawrān, in the narrower sense only the southern part of thi…


(960 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa, an Arab tribe (Wüstenfeld, Geneal. Tabellen, F 15) inhabiting the western heights of al-Yamāma and those between this region and al-Ḥimā Ḍārīya: a bare and difficult country the nature of which explains the rude and savage character of the Numair. Their name like that of Namr and Anmār borne by other ethnic groups (there are also in the list of Arab tribes a number of other clans with the name Numair: among the Asad, the Tamīm, the Ḏj̲uʿfī, the Ḥamdān etc.) is no doubt connected with nimr, the Arabian panther; we know the deductions made by Robertson Smith from t…


(659 words)

Author(s): Fyzee
b. Abī ʿAbd Allāh Moḥammad b. Manṣūr b. Aḥmad b. Ḥaiyūn al-Tamīmī al-Ismāʿīlī al-Mag̲h̲ribī Abū Ḥanīfa, the greatest of Ismāʿīlī jurists and a protagonist of the early Fāṭimids in Egypt. Nuʿmān appears to have been derived from a Mālikī stock in Ḳairawān, adopting the Ismāʿīlī faith early in life. The exact date of his birth is not known, but it is probable that he was born in the last decades of the third century of the Hid̲j̲ra. He began his service of the Fāṭimids by entering the service of al-Mahdī (first Fāṭimid caliph), and served him for the last nine years of his life, i. e., 313—322 a. h. The…

al-Nuʿmān b. Bas̲h̲īr

(907 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
al-Anṣārī, governor of al-Kūfa and Ḥimṣ. According to some Muslim authorities, al-Nuʿmān was the first anṣārī to be born after the Hid̲j̲ra. His father Bas̲h̲īr b. Saʿd [q. v.] was one of the most distinguished of the Companions of the Prophet, and his mother, ʿAmra bint Rawāḥa, was the sister of the much respected ʿAbd Allāh b. Rawāḥa [q. v.]. After the assassination of ʿOt̲h̲mān, Nuʿmān, who was devoted to him, refused to pay homage to ʿAlī. According to some stories which seem rather apocryphal, he brought …

al-Nuʿmān b. al-Mund̲h̲ir

(622 words)

Author(s): Moberg, A.
(with the kunya Abū Ḳābūs or Abū Ḳubais) was the last “king” of the house of the Lak̲h̲mids of al-Ḥīra [cf. lak̲h̲m]. He is certainly the best known to the Arabs but not by any means therefore the most important of the dynasty. He is often mentioned by the poets, according to circumstances a subject of panegyrics or of lampoons. His best known court poet was al-Nābig̲h̲a al-Ḏh̲ubyānī [q. v.]; on his relationship with ʿAdī b. Zaid al-ʿIbādī see below. His fame among the Arabs does not mean that we know a great deal about his life and activities. What we can get from the poet…


(117 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, the twenty-fifth letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value of 50, belonging to the group of liquids ( al-ḥurūf al-d̲h̲alḳīya), and as such subject to numerous changes and assimilations; cf. the Bibliography, ¶ On the palaeographic history of the character, cf. arabia, plate i. (A. J. Wensinck) Bibliography W. Wright, Lectures on the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages, Cambridge 1890, p. 67 H. Zimmern, Vergl. Grammatik der sem. Sprachen, Leipzig 1898, p. 31—32 Brockelmann, Précis de linguistique sémitique, transl. by W. Marçais and M. Cohen, Paris 19…


(2,582 words)

Author(s): Hartner, Willy | de Boer, Tj.
(a.), light, synonym ḍawʾ, also ḍūʾ and ḍiyāʾ (the latter sometimes used in the plural). According to some authors, ḍawʾ ( ḍiyāʾ) has a more intensive meaning than nūr (cf. Lane, Arabic-English Dictionary, s.v. ḍawʾ); this idea has its foundation in Ḳurʾān x. 5, where the sun is called ḍiyāʾ and the moon nūr. The further deduction from this passage that ḍiyāʾ is used for the light of light producing bodies (sun) and nūr on the other hand for the reflected light in bodies which do not emit light (moon), is not correct, if we remember the primitive knowledg…

Nūr Allāh

(390 words)

Author(s): Hosain, M. Hidayet
al-Saiyid b. al-Saiyid S̲h̲arīf al-Marʿas̲h̲ī al-Ḥusainī al-S̲h̲us̲h̲tarī, commonly called Ḳāḍī Nūr Allāh, was born in 956(1549). He was descended from an illustrous family of the Marʿas̲h̲ī Saiyids and settled in S̲h̲us̲h̲tar. He left his native place for India and settled in Lāhore where he attracted the notice of Ḥakīm Abu’l-Fatḥ (d. 997 = 1588) and through his presentation to Emperor Akbar (963—1014 = 1556—1605), he was appointed Ḳāḍī of Lahore in lieu of al-S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Muʿīn (d. 995 = 1586). ʿAbd …
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