Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(1,916 words)

Author(s): Nikitine, B.
, Urmar. The administrative geography of Turkey speaks sometimes of the ḳaḍā of Urāmār containing two nāḥiya, Ḏj̲iluler and Is̲h̲tāzin, with 32 townships and 25,910 inhabitants (cf. Cuinet, Turquie d’Asie, ii. 756), sometimes of a nāḥiya of this name forming part of the ḳaḍā of Gawar, in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Ḥaḳḳari, in the wilāyet of Wān [q. v.]. We incline rather to the second definition, having visited this district, lost in the middle of Central Kurdistān. Not only has Orāmār not the importance of a ḳaḍā but the two nāḥiya attributed to it are inhabited exclusively by Nestorians [q.…


(1,198 words)

Author(s): Marçais, G.
(Wahrān), a sea-port town on the coast of Algeria (33° 44′ N. Lat.; 0° 39′ W. Long.). The anchorage which is protected on the west by the heights of the Aidour, the extreme end of the little range of the Murd̲j̲ad̲j̲o, and the bay of Mars al-Kabīr, 10 miles distant, was probably the Portus Divini mentioned in the Itinerary of Antoninus. According to the Arab writers however, the town was founded, like a number of other towns on the same coast, by Andalusians: at the beginning of the tenth century (c. 290 a. h.) a band of these émigrés came there under the leadership of two chiefs in the…


(5,384 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(Greek Edessa, Syr. Orhāi, Armen. Urhay, Ar. al-Ruhāʾ), an important town in Diyār Muḍar, the ancient Osrhoëne. The origin of the town, which must have existed before the Macedonian conquest, is lost in obscurity. Repeated attempts to prove the existence of the name in Assyrian times (E. Honigmann, Urfa keilinschriftlich nachweisbar?, in Z. A., N. F., v. 1930, p. 301 sq.) have so far failed. The original name was probably ’Ορρόη which has survived in that of the spring Καλλιῤῥόη, which lay below the walls of the town, and in that of the district of Osrho…


(212 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Arab. Uryūla, a town in Eastern Spain (Levante), 15 miles N. E. of Murcia, the capital of an administrative area ( partido) and the see of a bishop, contains with its adjoining country, which is thickly populated, 35,000 inhabitants. It was conquered by the Muslims at the same time as the other towns of the kūra of Todmīr [q. v.] and was for a long time the capital of this kūra before it had to give way to Murcia. Its history was that of the latter town as long as it remained Muslim. It was however for a very brief period in the middle of the vith century a. h. (middle of the xiith century a. d.) the capital…


(512 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(Odra-deça), a part of the modern Indian province of Bihar and Orissa, has an area of 13,706 square miles and a population of 5,306,142, of which only 124,463 profess the Muslim faith. For administrative purposes it is divided into the five districts of Cuttack, Balasore, Purl, Angul and Sambalpur. There are in addition twenty-four native states, the Orissa feudatory states, with a population of 4,465,385, the Muḥammadans numbering only 17,100 (Census of India, 1931). Modern Orissa, which embraces the deltas of the Mahānadī and neighbouring rivers, extends from the Ba…


(2,614 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
or urk̲h̲an (ur-k̲h̲an ?) was the eldest son of the emīr ʿOt̲h̲mān [q. v.], the founder of the Ottoman dynasty. His mother was Malk̲h̲atun, the daughter of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ede-Bali̊ of the village of Itburnu near Eski-Shehir. The year of his birth is not known and indeed the whole chronology of his reign leaves much to be desired. Ottoman sources say he was born in 687 (beg. Feb. 6, 1288); according to others, he was born as early as 680 (beg. Apr. 22, 1281). The first date which probably goes back to Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa’s Taḳwīm has most in its favour. We know very little about his youth. …


(2,024 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(Urtuḳids), a Turkmen dynasty, branches of which ruled in Mārdīn, Ḥiṣn Kaifā and Ḵh̲artabirt. When the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sulṭān of Damascus, Tutus̲h̲, conquered Jerusalem in 479 he appointed as governor of the town his officer Urtuḳ b. Aksab, who had already served under Maliks̲h̲āh and had taken part in the siege of Āmid in 477. He was succeeded in 484 (1091) by his sons Sukmān and and Īlg̲h̲āzī. After the Holy City had been taken for the Fāṭimids in S̲h̲aʿbān 489 (1096) by al-Afḍal b. Badr al-Ḏj̲amālī, Sukmān went to al-Ruhā and ¶ Īlg̲h̲āzī to his lands in the ʿIrāḳ. In 495 (1101) Sulṭān Mu…

Osman Digna

(9 words)

[see ʿOt̲h̲mān Abū Bakr Digna .]


(739 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of a district in Transoxania. The form Osrūs̲h̲ana is the best known although Yāḳūt (i. 245) says that Os̲h̲rūsana is preferable. In the Persian versions of the text of al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī and in the Persian text of the Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam (ed. Barthold) we find more often Surūs̲h̲ana while Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih sometimes has S̲h̲urūsana; the original form may have been Srōs̲h̲ana. This district lies to the northeast of Samarḳand between this tow D and Ḵh̲od̲j̲and, to the south of the Sīr Daryā (Saiḥūn) so that it forms the approach to th…


(97 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
(P.), master, teacher, artisan. This word has passed into Arabic, with the plural ostād̲h̲ūn, asātid̲h̲a. It also means eunuch, musician, merchant’s ledger, in the modern language particularly teacher. Combined with dār the form ostādār, “master of the house”, major-domo, was applied to one of the great dignitaries of the Mamlūk sulṭāns [q. v.]. We also find the abbreviated forms ostā, osṭā, ōsṭā, plural ostawāt, osṭawāt, ōstawāt, which in Cairo is applied to coachmen. (A. J. Wensinck) Bibliography the lexicons of Vullers, Lane, Dozy C. A. Nallino, Varabo parlato in Egitto, second e…


(534 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of the leader of a religious movement in Ḵh̲urāsān, directed against the ʿAbbāsids. The rising began in 150 (767) and spread rapidly in the districts of Herāt, Bādg̲h̲īs, Gand̲j̲-Rustāḳ and Sid̲j̲istān; the sources say that it had 300,000 adherents. The first opposition it met with was at Marw al-Rūd̲h̲ but the rebels killed the Arab leader al-Ad̲j̲t̲h̲am with a number of his officers. On hearing this, the caliph al-Manṣūr sent his general Ḵh̲āzim b. Ḵh̲uzaima to his son al-Mahdī at Nīsābūr and the latter ordered Ḵh̲āzim to attack the rebels with 20,000 men. ¶ After several chec…

ʿOtba b. G̲h̲azwān

(419 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Ḏj̲ābir b. Wahb (or Wuhaib) b. Nusaib Abū ʿUbaid Allāh or Abū G̲h̲azwān al-Māzinī, belonged to the tribe of Ḳais ʿAilān, ḥalīf of the Nawfal or of the ʿAbd S̲h̲ams, one of the oldest Companions of the Prophet, “the seventh of the Seven”, i. e. the seventh to adopt Islām and one who had shared in the sufferings to which the first believers had been exposed in Mecca. He took part in both hid̲j̲ras, the battle of Badr, and in most of the battles and expeditions of the Prophet. — He is best known as the f…

ʿOtba b. Rabīʿa

(232 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
b. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams b. ʿAbd Manāf Abu ’l-Walīd, one of the chiefs of the tribe of Ḳurais̲h̲, who refused to follow Muḥammad. He met his death in the battle of Badr. His daughter Hind was the wife of Abū Sufyān [q. v.]. Shocked by the number of adherents of Muḥammad, ʿOtba having consulted the other chiefs of the Ḳurais̲h̲, went to the Prophet to offer him anything he would care to ask if he would only abandon his propaganda. According to the traditional story, Muḥammad in reply only repeated a part of Sūra XLI, which made such an impression…


(3,465 words)

Author(s): Levi Delia Vida
b. ʿAffān, the third caliph (23—35 = 644—655). He belonged to the great Meccan family of the Banū Umaiya and to the branch descended from Abu ’l-Āṣī, whose grandson he was (cf. the genealogy in Wüstenfeld, Geneal. Tabellen, U, 23). This makes his prompt acceptance of the teaching of Muḥammad quite noteworthy; he became a convert, if not at the very beginning of the Prophet’s mission, at least at a very early date, several years before the Hid̲j̲ra. ʿOt̲h̲mān was a rich merchant and an accomplished man of the world; tradition, which…


(1,550 words)

Author(s): Ernst Ludwig Dietrich
Abū Bakr Digna (Diḳna), governor and general of the Mahdīya in the Eastern Sūdān from 1883 onwards, born in Sawākin about 1840 (cf. S̲h̲uḳair, iii. 200; Dietrich, p. 50), was according to some a descendant of Kurds of Diyār Bakr who had come in 1517 under Sulṭān Selīm to Sawākin and intermarried with the Hadendowa. The resulting family of the Dignāi (Diḳnāi) settled in Erkowīt (Arkuwait) west of Sawākin. S̲h̲uḳair mentions several relations of ʿOt̲h̲mān: two brothers, Muḥammad Mūsā and the slave de…

ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Maẓʿūn

(383 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
b. Ḥabīb…Abu ’l-Sāʾib of the Ḳurais̲h̲ clan of Ḏj̲umaḥ, one of the earliest Companions of Muḥammad, the thirteenth man to adopt Islām. He took part in the hid̲j̲ra to Abyssinia, returned, like some other refugees, on the false news of a reconciliation between Muḥammad and his pagan enemies and became for some time the client of al-Walīd b. al-Mug̲h̲īra. Soon he renounced this privilege, because he preferred to bear his share in the insults offered to his co-religionists in Mecca. On a quarrel between ʿOt̲h̲mān and the poet Labīd see Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 343—344. ʿOt̲h̲mān took part in the hi…


(677 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, the chief town in a ḳaḍā of the sand̲j̲aḳ of Amasia in the wilāyet of Siwas [q. v.] in Turkey in Asia, lies in a picturesque position at the foot of a volcanic hill which rises straight out of the plain and is crowned by a castle which formerly commanded the celebrated bridge said to have been built by Bāyazīd I. The settlement is probably very old as is evident from the numerous rock chambers cut out of the cliffs. The number of inhabitants according to Maercker (1893) was about 5,000 and the…

ʿOt̲h̲mān I

(1,888 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, very often called ʿOt̲h̲mān G̲h̲āzī, founder of the dynasty of Ottoman sulṭāns and the first in the traditional series of the members of the dynasty. We are only imperfectly acquainted with the life and personality of this founder of a great empire but we may conclude from the fact that his name ¶ has remained attached to the dynasty of the ʿOt̲h̲mān Og̲h̲ullari̊ or Āl-i ʿOt̲h̲mān and is later found in the description of the empire and its inhabitants as ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ or ʿOt̲h̲mānī, that behind the name of ʿOt̲h̲mān there lies a powerful personal…
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