Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(1,341 words)

Author(s): Heffening
(a.), a maṣdar from waliya “to have power over something”, according to others a substantive like ṣināʿa; a general term for any “conferment of power”, authorisation. Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānī, Taʿrīfāt, p. 275, defines it as the “carrying through of a decision affecting a third person whether the latter wishes or not”. I. In constitutional law it means the sovereign power (= sulṭān; Ibn al-Sikkīt [d. 243 = 857], in Lisān, s. v.) or the power delegated by the sovereign, the office of a governor, a wālī. The wilāya is derived from Sūra iv. 62: “O ye who believe, obey God and obey the Prophet …


(528 words)

Author(s): Massignon, Louis
(a., pl. awrād). The technical term wird (etymologically “to go down to a wateringplace”; not to be vocalised ward) means the definite time ( waḳt) of day or night which the pious believer devotes daily to God in private prayer (in addition to the five prescribed prayers). It also means the formula of prayer recited on this occasion, called properly ḥizb (plur. aḥzāb; cf. Makkī, Ḳūt al-Ḳulūb, i. 81—84 and i. 4—22). The simplest wird consists of 4 rakʿas, with the recitation of a seventh of the Ḳurʾān; but, very early, in private devotional prayer ( duʿāʾ; Sunn! as well as S̲h̲īʿī, cf. Kulainī, Kāf…


(882 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
In the treatment of ceremonial law in ḥadīt̲h̲ and fiḳh this term is applied to the odd number of rakʿa’s which are performed at night. For details see below. ¶ I. a. Witr ( watr is also admitted) does not occur in this sense in the Ḳurʾān, but frequently in ḥadīt̲h̲, which in this case also discloses to us a piece of the history of the institution, which is probably a continuation of the history of the fixation of the daily ṣalāt’s, as the traditions on witr presuppose the five daily ṣalāt’s. Some traditions even go so far as to call witr an additional ṣalāt of an obligatory nature (see also belo…