Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(3,491 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a.), being, existence and Mawd̲j̲ūd, being, existing, are the most common terms for the subject of Aristotelian metaphysics (τὸ εἶναι, τὸ ὄν). Before Aristotle found his way into Islām the early theological schools used (see As̲h̲ʿarī, Maḳālāt, i. 44 sq., 55, 70) as the commonest conception thing ( s̲h̲aiʾ) or body ( d̲j̲ism) with its qualities ( ṣifāt) and disputed as to whether God should be called a s̲h̲aiʿ or a d̲j̲ism. From the logic of Aristotle were added substance (οὐσία, d̲j̲awhar) with its accidents (συμβεβηκότα, aʿrāḍ) as the highest categories, and then the question …


(924 words)

Author(s): Schacht, Joseph
(a.), the minor ritual ablution which gets rid of the condition of “minor” ritual impurity ( ḥadat̲h̲, q. v.). Regulations for ritual ablutions based on a belief in demons and on animistic ideas were known to the Arabs as a survival from the older Semites but in Muḥammad’s time they were no longer carefully observed. The regulation in Sūra v. 8, of the late Medīna period, already betrays Jewish influence: “Ye, who believe, when you prepare for the ṣalāt, wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows and rub your heads and your feet up to the ankles”. Muslim regulations …


(786 words)

Author(s): Paret, R.
or Waḳfa (a.), “halt”, means in particular the halting of the pilgrims at any spot they choose within the plain of ʿArafa; it begins on the afternoon of the 9th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a and lasts till sunset. This wuḳūf is considered the most essential part of the ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲. The imām of the ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ usually introduces it (before the beginning of the combined ẓuhr and ʿaṣr ṣalāt) with a k̲h̲uṭba; his words can of course only be heard by those in his immediate neighbourhood. The pilgrims for their part recite portions of the Ḳurʾān, say prayers — mainly for forgiveness of sins — and cry labbaika [q. …