Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Glossary and Index of Terms

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs
Assisted by C. Ott, under the patronage of the International Union of Acadamies

Glossary and Index of Terms treats the technical terms in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and other languages or dialects of the Islamic world. As an index, it is of immeasurable importance, in particular for the many terms which are not given an entry but are discussed in the course of an article; and as glossary it is an invaluable source of information for both non-specialist, who is given an insight into the varied and rich vocabulary of Islam, and the specialist, who may discover surprising new contexts in which a term is used.

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aʿaban

(13 words)

aʿaban (Mor) : a large outer wrap for Berber men. Libās

āb

(41 words)

āb (P) : water; and Ābdār-Bās̲h̲ī; Ābs̲h̲ār āb-anbar Miṣnaʿa āb-i gus̲h̲t (P) : a s…

ʿabāʾ

(20 words)

ʿabāʾ (A), or ʿ abāʾa : a coat, shoulder mantle, worn by both sexes in the Arab East. Libās

aba

(7 words)

aba : roughly-spun cloth. Tatar

abad

(46 words)

abad (A) : time in an absolute sense. ʿAbābda In philosophy, ~ or abadiyya is a technical term corresponding to ἀφθαρτός…

abʿādiyya

(38 words)

abʿādiyya (A, pl. abāʿid), or ibʿādiyya : uncultivated or uncultivable land in Egypt under Muḥammad ʿAlī;…

abanūs

(14 words)

abanūs (A, P, T, < Gk) : ebony wood. Abān b. ʿUt̲h̲mān

ʿabāya

(18 words)

ʿabāya (Alg) : a sleeveless, long overblouse for men; a sleeveless, flowing dress for women. Libās

abayān

(19 words)

abayān (A) : in zoology, the prawn and the shrimp. al-Sarāt, where many more synonyms are given

ʿabayt̲h̲arān

(19 words)

ʿabayt̲h̲arān (A) : in botany, a type of artemisia, also called rayḥān al-t̲h̲aʿālib ‘the foxes’ basilicum’. S̲h̲īḥ

abbāla

(14 words)

abbāla : camel nomads in the central Sudan belt of Africa. al-S̲h̲uʿūbiyya

ʿabbas

(40 words)

ʿabbas (Alg) : a verb signifying in Algeria ‘to go among the peasants to levy contributions of grain…

ʿabbāsī

(77 words)

ʿabbāsī (P) : in numismatics, a Ṣafawid coin introduced by Shāh ʿAbbās I, the value of which was 4 S…

ʿabd

(116 words)

ʿabd (A, pl. ʿabīd) : a slave, in particular a male slave, a female slave being termed ama (pl. imāʾ). al-Abbāsiyya In th…

abdaʾa

(4 words)

abdaʾa It̲h̲t̲h̲ag̲h̲ara

abdāl

(95 words)

abdāl (A, s. badal) : in mysticism, the highest rank in the ṣūfī hierarchical order of saints (syn. …

ābdār-bās̲h̲ī

(19 words)

ābdār-bās̲h̲ī (P) : in Ṣafawid times, an official in the royal kitchen in charge of drinks. Maṭbak̲h̲

abd̲j̲ad

(27 words)

abd̲j̲ad (A), or abad̲j̲ad, abū d̲j̲ad : the first of the mnemotechnical terms into which the twenty-eigh…

ābiḳ

(9 words)

ābiḳ (A) : a runaway slave. ʿAbd

ʿabḳarī

(11 words)

ʿabḳarī (A) : a genie of great intelligence. S̲h̲āyḳiyya

abnāʾ

(199 words)

abnāʾ (A, s. ibn) : sons As a denomination, it is applied to two tribes, viz. the descendants of Saʿd b. Z…

abrāmīs

(10 words)

abrāmīs (A) : in zoology, the bream. Samak

ābs̲h̲ār

(44 words)

ābs̲h̲ār (P) : in Muslim India, large water chutes, made of inclined and carved marble slabs, which …

abū

(341 words)

abū (A) : father abū barāḳis̲h̲ (A) : a name, no longer in use, given to two b…

abyaḍ

(48 words)

abyaḍ (A) : the colour white; also, saliva, a sword, money, and paradoxically, in Africa, coal. In the Qurʾān, ~ and aswa…

ʿād

(36 words)

ʿād (A) : from the expression min al-ʿād, it has been suggested that ~ means ‘the ancient time’ and that th…

ʿāda

(20 words)

ʿāda (A), or ʿurf : a (pre-Islamic) custom; customary law. Adāʾ; Atjèh; Berbers; Iṣlāḥ ff.; Res̲h̲īd Pa…

adāʾ

(61 words)

adāʾ (A) : lit. payment, accomplishment. In law, ~ is a technical term to designate the accomplishment of …

adab

(239 words)

adab (A, pl. ādāb) : originally, a habit, a practical norm of conduct, equivalent to sunna; during the …

adak

(4 words)

adak Nad̲h̲r-Niyāzmanlik

ʿadāla

(51 words)

ʿadāla (A) : the quality of ʿAdl; the state of a person who in general obeys the moral and religious law. ʿAdl In public l…

ʿadam

(24 words)

ʿadam (A) : the absence of existence or being, used by the Muslim philosophers as the equivalent of …

adan

(14 words)

adan (J, Sun) : the Javanese and Sundanese form of Ad̲h̲ān. Masd̲j̲id

ʿadas

(17 words)

ʿadas (A) : in botany, lentils, one of the winter crops in mediaeval Egypt. Māʾ

adat

(41 words)

adat (Mal, < A ʿāda) : a custom, usage, practice; customary law, the juridical customs of Indonesia.…

aḍāt

(27 words)

aḍāt (A, N.Afr ḍāya) : in the Sahara of southern Morocco and Algeria, small basins where the limestone …

aḍdād

(23 words)

aḍdād (A, s. Ḍidd) : lit. opposites; in linguistics, words which have two meanings that are opposite…

ʿaddān

(31 words)

ʿaddān (A) : in Syria, a conventional rotation, according to which the distribution of the separate …

ʿad̲h̲āb

(29 words)

ʿad̲h̲āb (A) : ‘torment, suffering, affliction’, inflicted by God or a human ruler. Adfū ʿ ad̲h̲āb al-ḳabr

ʿad̲h̲aba

(51 words)

ʿad̲h̲aba (A, Egy d̲h̲uʾāba) : the loose end of the turban, which usually hangs behind from the turban.…

ad̲h̲ān

(62 words)

ad̲h̲ān (A, T ezan) : ‘announcement’; as technical term, ~ indicates the call to the divine service of …

ad̲h̲argūn

(43 words)

ad̲h̲argūn (P, A ad̲h̲aryūn) : lit. flame-coloured; a plant about 2-3 feet high with finger-long elonga…

ʿād̲j̲

(19 words)

ʿād̲j̲ (A) : ivory, exported in the Islamic period in all probability solely from East Africa. Adiyaman

ʿad̲j̲āʾib

(58 words)

ʿad̲j̲āʾib (A) : ‘marvels’, especially the marvels of Antiquity, e.g. the Pharos of Alexandria. Ad̲j̲aʾ and Salmā In …

ad̲j̲al

(23 words)

ad̲j̲al (A) : the appointed term of a man’s life or the date of his death; the duration of existence. ʿAd̲j̲āʾib

ʿad̲j̲ala

(38 words)

ʿad̲j̲ala (A) : the generic term for wheeled vehicles drawn by animals; carriage. In Mamlūk Egypt, ~…

ʿad̲j̲am

(71 words)

ʿad̲j̲am (A) : people qualified by ʿud̲j̲ma, a confused and obscure way of speaking, as regards pronunciat…

ad̲j̲d̲h̲āʿ

(49 words)

ad̲j̲d̲h̲āʿ (A), or al-d̲j̲id̲h̲āʿ : the name for the group formed by four children of ʿAwf b. Kaʿb, on…

ad̲j̲īr

(26 words)

ad̲j̲īr (A) : in the hierarchy of guilds, an apprentice (syn. mubtadiʾ). Other levels were worker, ṣāniʿ, and master…

ad̲j̲r

(97 words)

ad̲j̲r (A, < Akk) : reward, wages, rent. In theology, the reward, in the world to come, for pious deeds. Ad̲j̲nādayn In l…

ād̲j̲urr

(64 words)

ād̲j̲urr (A, < P agūr ?) : baked brick, used notably in public baths; of varying dimensions, and sometim…

ʿad̲j̲uz

(113 words)

ʿad̲j̲uz (A) : in prosody, the name for the second hemistich of an Arabic poem. ʿArūḍ; Ṣadr; the nam…

ʿad̲j̲z

(9 words)

ʿad̲j̲z (A) : in medicine, impotence. Muḳawwiyāt

ʿadl

(104 words)

ʿadl (A) : justice; rectilinear, just. In Muʿtazilite doctrine, ~ means the justice of God and constitutes…

adrama

(5 words)

adrama (al-ṣabiyy) It̲h̲t̲h̲ag̲h̲ara

adrar

(20 words)

adrar (B) : ‘mountain’, Berber geographical term applied to a number of mountainous regions of the Sahara. Adramit

afʿā

(39 words)

afʿā (A) : in zoology, the viper; also other similar kinds of snakes. Most sources state that ~ deno…

afāriḳa

(41 words)

afāriḳa : the descendants of the Graeco-Romans and the latinised Berbers, mostly Christians, living …

afāwīh

(49 words)

afāwīh (A, pl. of afwāh, s. fūh) : spices, aromatic substances added to food and beverages to increase ple…

afg̲h̲ānī

(21 words)

afg̲h̲ānī (A) : in numismatics, a coin introduced in Afghanistan by S̲h̲īr ʿAlī in place of the rupee. al-S̲h̲inḳīṭī

ʿafiṣ

(12 words)

ʿafiṣ (A) : the quality of food being pungent. G̲h̲id̲h̲āʾ

āfrāg

(38 words)

āfrāg (B ‘enclosure’) : in Morocco, an enclosure of cloth, which isolates the encampment of the sove…

ʿafṣ

(59 words)

ʿafṣ (A) : in botany, the gall, an excrescence which forms on certain kinds of trees and shrubs as t…

afsantīn

(35 words)

afsantīn (A, < Gk), or afsintīn, ifsintīn : in botany, the common wormwood ( Artemisia absinthium); other similar k…

afs̲h̲īn

(14 words)

afs̲h̲īn : a pre-Islamic title borne by princes in Central Asia. Afs̲h̲ār

afsūn

(23 words)

afsūn (P) : charm, incantation; now used in Iran to designate especially a charm against the biting …

ʿāfūr

(18 words)

ʿāfūr (A) : a sand devil; the word has an echo of ʿifrīt in it. al-ʿIfār

afyūn

(18 words)

afyūn (A, < Gk) : opium; in Iran and Turkey often called Tiryāḳ ‘antidote’. al-Afwah al-Awdī

agadir

(38 words)

agadir (B, < Ph gadir) : in North Africa, one of the names of a fortified enclosure among the Berbers, also called ḳaṣr ( ga…

āgdāl

(55 words)

āgdāl (A, < B) : pasturage reserved for the exclusive use of the landowner. Agadir-Ighir In Morocco, ~ has acquired…

ag̲h̲a

(76 words)

ag̲h̲a (T, P āḳā) : in Eastern Turkish, ‘elder brother’, ‘grandfather’, ‘uncle’, ‘elder sister’. Agadir…

ag̲h̲ač

(48 words)

ag̲h̲ač (T) : in Ottoman Turkish, a ‘tree’, ‘wood’. In Eastern Turkish, ~ means both ‘the male membe…

ag̲h̲i̊t

(31 words)

ag̲h̲i̊t (T) : in Turkish folklore, lyrical compositions expressive of grief. They commemorate the d…

ag̲h̲rem

(7 words)

ag̲h̲rem (B) : ‘settlement’. Tadlīs

ag̲h̲riba

(34 words)

ag̲h̲riba (A), or ag̲h̲ribat al-ʿarab : lit. the crows [of the Bedouin]; a designation in early Islam fo…

ag̲h̲rum

(7 words)

ag̲h̲rum (B) : bread. K̲h̲ūbmesīḥīs

agurram

(16 words)

agurram (B) : among the Berbers of Morocco, the name for a saint. al-Mag̲h̲rib
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