Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Glossary and Index of Terms

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs
Assisted by C. Ott, under the patronage of the International Union of Acadamies

Glossary and Index of Terms treats the technical terms in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and other languages or dialects of the Islamic world. As an index, it is of immeasurable importance, in particular for the many terms which are not given an entry but are discussed in the course of an article; and as glossary it is an invaluable source of information for both non-specialist, who is given an insight into the varied and rich vocabulary of Islam, and the specialist, who may discover surprising new contexts in which a term is used.

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bāʿ

(58 words)

bāʿ (A), or ḳāma : a basic measure of length consisting of the width of the two arms outstretched, i.e.…

(50 words)

(A) : a genealogical term used in South Arabia to form individual and (secondarily) collective pr…

baʿʿād̲j̲ūn

(51 words)

baʿʿād̲j̲ūn (A) : ‘cleavers’, according to e.g. Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, magicians who had only to point their …

bāb

(230 words)

bāb (A) : gate. Bā ʿAlawī In early s̲h̲īʿism, ~ denotes the senior authorised disciple of the Imām, and am…

babbag̲h̲āʾ

(24 words)

babbag̲h̲āʾ (A), or babg̲h̲āʾ : in zoology, both parakeet and parrot. The term represents both female a…

babr

(12 words)

babr (A, pl. bubūr) : in zoology, the tiger. Fahd

bābūnad̲j̲

(31 words)

bābūnad̲j̲ (A, < P bābūna) : in botany, the common camomile, primarily Anthemis nobilis, also called Roman camomi…

badāʾ

(30 words)

badāʾ (A) : appearance, emergence. In theology, the alteration of God’s purpose. Ahl al-Kitāb; the emerge…

badal

(117 words)

badal (A, T bedel) : substitute; and Abdāl; ʿIwaḍ In the Ottoman empire, a term used to denote a contribution…

badan

(146 words)

badan (A) : body, in particular the human body, often only the torso. D̲j̲ism; in mediaeval Islam, a…

baddāʿ

(16 words)

baddāʿ (Bed) : among the Sinai Bedouin, a composer adept at spontaneous improvisation. S̲h̲āʿir

bādgīr

(45 words)

bādgīr (P), or bād-gīr : lit. wind-catcher; an architectural term used in Persia for the towers contain…

bād̲h̲iḳ

(17 words)

bād̲h̲iḳ (A) : in early Islam, a prohibited product prepared by means of grapes. K̲h̲amr

bād̲h̲ind̲j̲ān

(18 words)

bād̲h̲ind̲j̲ān (A) : in botany, the aubergine, one of the summer crops in mediaeval Egypt. Māʾ …

bad̲h̲r al-kattān

(11 words)

bad̲h̲r al-kattān (A) : in botany, linseed. Simsim

bād-i hawā

(61 words)

bād-i hawā (T), or ṭayyārāt : lit. wind of the ai…

bād̲j̲

(132 words)

bād̲j̲ (A, < P bāz̲h̲) : a fiscal technical term among the…

bādrund̲j̲ubūya

(4 words)

bādrund̲j̲ubūya Turund̲j̲ān …

bag̲h̲g̲h̲āl

(27 words)

bag̲h̲g̲h̲āl (A) : a muleteer, also known as Muḳārī or ḥammāra, who emerged as a distinct group of transport w…

bāg̲h̲ī

(5 words)

bāg̲h̲ī Bug̲h̲āt; Mulḥid

bag̲h̲iyy

(33 words)

bag̲h̲iyy (A, pl. bag̲h̲āyā), and mūmis, ʿāhira, zāniya : prostitute. A more vulgar word was ḳaḥba, from the verb ‘…

bag̲h̲l

(106 words)

bag̲h̲l (A, fem. bag̲h̲la, pl. big̲h̲āl) : mule; hinny (offspring of a stallion and she-ass). Bag̲h̲dād K̲h̲ātūn In E…

bag̲h̲y

(9 words)

bag̲h̲y (A) : encroachment, abuse. Zulālī-yi K̲h̲wānsārī

bagtal

(19 words)

bagtal : a word used in Laḳ society to designate the K̲h̲ān’s family and the nobility. Laḳ

bahaḳ

(11 words)

bahaḳ (A) : in medicine, vitiligo. Kilwa; and D̲j̲ud̲h̲ām …

baḥīra

(21 words)

baḥīra (A) : the name in the pre-Islamic period for a she-camel or ewe with slit ears. al-Bāhilī, al-Ḥusayn …

baḥr

(122 words)

baḥr (A, pl. buḥūr) : a place where a great amount of water is found. Accordingly, ~ is not only applied to the seas and oceans but also, uniquely, because of its outstanding size, to the Nile. al-Bahnasā; Naḥl; al-Nīl …

bahrad̲j̲

(10 words)

bahrad̲j̲ (A) : in numismatics, counterfeit money. Tazwīr

bahramānī

(28 words)

bahramānī (A) : the deep red colour (Rubicelle, Escarboucle) of the ruby, also called rummānī (defined at the pres…

baht

(28 words)

baht (A) : in the Arabian Nights, the name of a city, made up of ~ stone, whose effect is mad laughter lea…

baḥt̲h̲

(15 words)

baḥt̲h̲ (A) : study, examination, inquiry. Baḥriyya; and Ahl Al-(Baḥt̲h̲ Wa ’l-) Naẓar

bahw

(51 words)

bahw (A) : an empty and spacious place extending between two objects which confine it; the axial nav…

baḥzad̲j̲

(29 words)

baḥzad̲j̲ (A), or barg̲h̲az : in zoology, the calf of the oryx or addax antelope at birth. If it is com…

bāʾin

(12 words)

bāʾin (A) : in law, an irrevocably divorced woman. ʿIdda

baʿīr

(21 words)

baʿīr (A) : the individual camel, regardless of sex, as opposed to ibil, the species and the group. Ibil

baḳʿa

(19 words)

baḳʿa (A) : a term applied especially to a place where water remains stagnant. Būḳa; and Buḳʿa

bāḳālāw

(16 words)

bāḳālāw (A, < Sp bacallao), with var. bāḳālyū, baḳala, baḳlāwa : the stockfish. Samak

baḳar

(41 words)

baḳar (A) : cattle; mediaeval Arab authors distinguished between the domestic ~ ahlī and the wild ~ waḥs̲h̲ī, meaning…

baḳāʾ wa-fanāʾ

(31 words)

baḳāʾ wa-fanāʾ (A) : ‘subsistence’ and ‘effacement’, ṣūfī terms referring to the stages of the develo…

bak̲h̲nūḳ

(15 words)

bak̲h̲nūḳ (Tun) : an embroidered head shawl for women, worn in Tunisia. Libās

bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī

(92 words)

bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī (< Ch po-che ?) : a Buddhist priest, monk; later ‘writer, secretary’, a term stemming from Mongol administrative usage. In the 15th and 16th centuries, it came to mean a wandering minstrel among the Turkomans and the Anatolian Turks. al-Bak̲h̲rāʾ; bard. Alpami̊̊s̲h̲; Turks f.; and Bāk̲h̲s̲h̲ī …

bak̲h̲s̲h̲īs̲h̲

(64 words)

bak̲h̲s̲h̲īs̲h̲ (P) : a gratuity bestowed by a superior on an inferior, a tip or ‘consideration’ thrown into a bargain, and a bribe, particularly one offered to judges or officials. Under the Ottomans, ~ came to mean the gratuity bestowed by a sultan upon his accession on the chief personages of state, the Janissar…

bakkāʾ

(20 words)

bakkāʾ (A) : lit. weepers; in early Islam, ascetics who during their devotional exercises shed many …

baḳḳāl

(19 words)

baḳḳāl (A) : retailer of vegetables; grocer (syn. k̲h̲aḍḍār). Bakkāʾ, where many synonyms used regionally ar…

baḳḳam

(43 words)

baḳḳam (A, < San) : sappan wood, an Indian dye wood obtained from the Caesalpinia Sappan L. The Arabic equivalent fr…

baḳḳāra

(14 words)

baḳḳāra : cattle nomads in the central Sudan belt of Africa. al-S̲h̲uʿūbiyya

bāla

(27 words)

bāla (Yem) : a folk poetry genre for men in northern Yemen tribal areas, usually improvised and sung…

balad

(30 words)

balad S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ baladiyya (A) : municipality; the term used to denote mode…

balāg̲h̲a

(27 words)

balāg̲h̲a (A) : eloquence. Badīʿ; Baladiyya; Bayʿa; Fasā; to Ḳazwīnī (d. 1338), ~ was the term for t…

balam

(75 words)

balam (A) : a typically ʿIrāḳī term for a barque which has bot…

balamīda

(17 words)

balamīda (A, < Pelamys) : in zoology, the pelamid, also called būnīt, the bonito. Samak

balīlad̲j̲

(14 words)

balīlad̲j̲ (P) : in botany, a variety of myrobalanus (

baliyya

(70 words)

baliyya (A, pl. balāyā) : a name given, in pre-Islamic times, to a camel (more rarely a mare) tethered at the grave of his master …

ballūṭ

(15 words)

ballūṭ (A, pl. balāliṭa) : i…
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