Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Glossary and Index of Terms

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs
Assisted by C. Ott, under the patronage of the International Union of Acadamies

Glossary and Index of Terms treats the technical terms in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and other languages or dialects of the Islamic world. As an index, it is of immeasurable importance, in particular for the many terms which are not given an entry but are discussed in the course of an article; and as glossary it is an invaluable source of information for both non-specialist, who is given an insight into the varied and rich vocabulary of Islam, and the specialist, who may discover surprising new contexts in which a term is used.

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ḥamal

(73 words)

ḥamal (A) : lamb; in astronomy, al-~ is the term for Aries, one of the twelve zodiacal constellations, also called al-ka…

ḥamām

(61 words)

ḥamām (A, pl. ḥamāʾim, ḥamāmāt) : in zoology, any bird ‘which drinks with one gulp and coos’, that is, a…

ḥamāsa

(84 words)

ḥamāsa (A) : bravery, valour; in literature, the title of a certain number of poetic anthologies whi…

hamasāla

(40 words)

hamasāla (P) : allocations on the revenue of specific villages or districts, according to which the …

hama ūst

(45 words)

hama ūst (P) : ‘All is He’, in mystical thought on the subcontinent, the equivalent of Waḥdat Al-Wud…

ḥamd

(42 words)

ḥamd (A) : praise; in Urdu religious literature, specifically praise of God. Madīḥ, Madḥ ḥamdala

ḥamḍ

(27 words)

ḥamḍ (A) : in botany, on the Arabian peninsula, a bush and a prime source of salt needed by camels. …

ḥāmil

(32 words)

ḥāmil (A) : in astronomy, an eccentric deferent for the epicycle nested within the parecliptic, one …

ḥamla

(33 words)

ḥamla (A) : in the Ottoman empire, the term used to designate the group of people at the rear of the…

ḥammāda

(32 words)

ḥammāda (N.Afr) : large areas which are the outcrops of horizontal beds of secondary or tertiary lim…

ḥammāl

(83 words)

ḥammāl (A) : street-porter, bearer, who transports packages, cases, furniture, etc. on his back in t…

ḥammām

(6 words)

ḥammām Mukayyis; Waḳḳād; Zabbāl

hamsāya

(20 words)

hamsāya (Pash) : in Afghanistan, a client attached to and living under the protection of a tribe. Afg̲h̲ān

ḥamūla

(26 words)

ḥamūla (A) : a group of people who claim descent from a common ancestor, usually five to seven gener…

hāmūr

(15 words)

hāmūr (A) : in the Persian Gulf, term for the grouper. Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab

hamza

(32 words)

hamza (A) : the orthographical sign alif, which is the first letter of the Arabic alphabet, with numerical…

ḥanak

(95 words)

ḥanak (A), or taḥnīk al-ʿimāma : a turban which was distinctively wound under the chin. Originally, the …

ḥanbal

(12 words)

ḥanbal (A) : a rug made of coarse wool. Sūf

hanbala

(21 words)

hanbala (A), or hunbuʿa : the swaying and limping gait of the hyena, as described in pre-Islamic poetry. Ḍabuʿ

ḥanīf

(60 words)

ḥanīf (A, pl. ḥunafāʾ) : in Islamic writings, one who follows the original and true (monotheistic) reli…

ḥanīnī

(47 words)

ḥanīnī (A) : a headdress, borrowed (both name and object) by the ladies of France and Spain in the 14th-16th centuries ( h…

ḥāniṭ

(15 words)

ḥāniṭ (A) : the child who has reached the age of reason. Ṣag̲h̲īr

ḥannāt

(9 words)

ḥannāt (A) : a wheat merchant. Sūḳ

ḥans̲h̲al

(14 words)

ḥans̲h̲al (A, s. ḥans̲h̲ūlī) : small parties of Bedouin on foot. G̲h̲aznawids

ḥanūṭ

(33 words)

ḥanūṭ (A) : a perfume or scented unguent used for embalming ( ḥināṭa), consisting of sweet rush or some mixture ( d̲h̲arī…

ḥānūṭ

(11 words)

ḥānūṭ (A, < Ar) : a tent. K̲h̲amīs Mus̲h̲ayṭ

ḥanẓal

(19 words)

ḥanẓal (A) : in botany, colocynth ( Citrullus colocynthis), also called ḳit̲h̲t̲h̲āʾ al-naʿām ‘the ostrich’s cuc…

ḥāra

(31 words)

ḥāra (A) : a quarter or ward of a town; in Morocco, used as a synonym of Mallāḥ, a special quarter f…

ḥarāba

(25 words)

ḥarāba (A) : a one-day battle among tribal factions; if it lasted longer than one day, it was called a kawn. Ḳays ʿAylān

ḥaraka

(73 words)

ḥaraka (A) : motion; in philosophy, ~ is used for the Aristotelian notion of motion. Ḥaraka wa-Sukūn In grammar, ~ is…

ḥaram

(58 words)

ḥaram (A) : among the Bedouin, a sacred area around a shrine; a place where a holy power manifests i…

ḥarām

(68 words)

ḥarām (A) : a term representing everything that is forbidden to the profane and separated from the r…

haram

(18 words)

haram (A, pl. ahrām, ahrāmāt) : pyramid, pre-eminently the pyramid of Cheops and Chephren. Ḥaraka wa-Sukūn

ḥarb

(27 words)

ḥarb (A) : war. Ḥarb ḥarba ʿAnaza ḥarbī (A), or ahl al-ḥarb : a non-Muslim from the Dār Al-Ḥarb. Amān; Dār al-Ḥ…

ḥareket ordusu

(42 words)

ḥareket ordusu (T) : ‘investing’ or ‘marching’ army. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II; the name usually given to the …

ḥarf

(190 words)

ḥarf (A, pl. ḥurūf, aḥruf) : letter of the alphabet; word. Ḥareket Ordusu; in grammar, articulation of t…

ḥarfūs̲h̲

(76 words)

ḥarfūs̲h̲ (A, pl. ḥarāfīs̲h̲, ḥarāfis̲h̲a), sometimes k̲h̲arfūs̲h̲ : vagabond, ne’er-do-well, often used i…

ḥarīd

(32 words)

ḥarīd (A) : in zoology, the parrot fish, whose Arabic term is found again in the Latinised nomenclat…

hārim

(18 words)

hārim (A, pl. hawārim) : a (female) camel which feeds from the harm bush. Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab

ḥarīm

(30 words)

ḥarīm (A), also ḥaramgāh, zanāna : a term applied to those parts of the house to which access is forbidd…

ḥarīr

(67 words)

ḥarīr (A, Ott ipek) : silk (syn. ibrīsam, ḳazz); ~ occurs in the Qurʾān, where it is said that the raiment o…

harīsa

(29 words)

harīsa (A) : the term for a dish of meat and bulgur, but in Egypt a sweet pastry made of flour, melt…

ḥarḳāniyya

(38 words)

ḥarḳāniyya (A) : a type of black turban, which the Prophet is said to have worn on his campaigns. Th…

ḥarmaliyyāt

(20 words)

ḥarmaliyyāt (A) : in mineralogy, inclusion or patches looking like African rye, a defect in a gem. Zumurrud

ḥarra

(36 words)

ḥarra (A, pl. ḥirār) : a basalt desert in Arabia, which owes its origin to subterranean volcanoes which…

ḥarrāḳa

(38 words)

ḥarrāḳa (A) : ‘fire ship’; ~ presumably denoted in origin a warship from which fire could be hurled …

ḥarṭānī

(61 words)

ḥarṭānī (A, < B ?; pl. ḥarāṭīn) : name given in northwest Africa to a sedentary population of the oases in…

ḥarūn

(18 words)

ḥarūn (A) : in the terminology of horse-riding, a horse that refuses to walk forward. Furūsiyya

harwala

(14 words)

harwala (A), or k̲h̲abab : a more rapid pace than ramal. Ummī

ḥasab

(31 words)

ḥasab (A) : nobility, possessed by one ( ḥasīb) either with noble ancestry or acquired by the performance of…

ḥasan

(97 words)

ḥasan (A) : good; in the science of Tradition, one of three kinds of Traditions, in between Ṣaḥīḥ ‘s…

ḥaṣāt

(5 words)

ḥaṣāt Bayʿ Al-Munābad̲h̲a

ḥas̲h̲ar

(9 words)

ḥas̲h̲ar : corvée labour, syn. bīgār. Māʾ

ḥas̲h̲arāt

(27 words)

ḥas̲h̲arāt (A) : in zoology, insects; and Hawāmm Wa-Ḥas̲h̲arāt ḥas̲h̲arāt al-arḍ (A), or k̲h̲as̲h̲ās̲h̲ : in zool…

hās̲h̲ima

(24 words)

hās̲h̲ima (A) : a fracture of a bone; a determining factor in the prescription of compensation follo…

hās̲h̲imiyya

(27 words)

hās̲h̲imiyya (A) : a term commonly applied in the 2nd-3rd/8th-9th centuries to members of the ʿAbbās…

ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲

(107 words)

ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲ (A) : a narcotic product of Cannabis sativa, hemp. al-Hās̲h̲imiyya ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲at al-naḥl Turund̲j̲ān ḥ…

ḥās̲h̲iya

(25 words)

ḥās̲h̲iya (A, pl. ḥawās̲h̲ī) : margin; marginal note, super-commentary on the commentary, S̲h̲arḥ; glos…

ḥas̲h̲m

(79 words)

ḥas̲h̲m (A, P), or ḥas̲h̲m-i ḳalb, afwād̲j̲-i ḳalb, ḳalb-i sulṭānī : a term used in the 7th/13th century to d…

ḥas̲h̲r

(48 words)

ḥas̲h̲r (A) : in eschatology, the gathering. Ḳiyāma ḥas̲h̲r ʿāmm Ḥas̲h̲r Kh̲āṣṣ ḥas̲h̲r k̲h̲āṣṣ …

has̲h̲t bihis̲h̲t

(46 words)

has̲h̲t bihis̲h̲t (P) : lit. eight paradises; a technical term in Mug̲h̲al architecture used for a s…

ḥas̲h̲w

(91 words)

ḥas̲h̲w (A) : ‘stuffing’; ‘farce’, hence ‘prolix and useless discourse’. ʿArūḍ; Ḥas̲h̲met; and Ṣila In prosody, ~ …

ḥāṣil

(22 words)

ḥāṣil (A), or bāʾika : in mediaeval Islam, a warehouse. Sūḳ; Sūḳ; a shop. K̲h̲ān In administration, revenue. K̲h̲ar…

ḥaṣūr

(12 words)

ḥaṣūr (A) : one who leads a celibate life. al-Ṭabarī

ḥatār

(34 words)

ḥatār (A), or ḥitr, hutra : a band placed vertically around the awning of an Arab tent, in order to fill…

hātif

(37 words)

hātif (A) : an invisible being whose cry rends the night, transmitting a message; a prophetic voice …

ḥaṭīm

(42 words)

ḥaṭīm (A) : a semi-circular wall of white marble, opposite the north-west wall of the Kaʿba. The sem…

ḥawāla

(98 words)

ḥawāla (A) : lit. draft, bill; ~ is the cession, i.e. the payment of a debt through the transfer of …

ḥawāmīm

(20 words)

ḥawāmīm (A), or ḥawāmīmāt : a name for the sūras that begin with the initials ḥā-mīm: xl-xlvi. Sūra

hawāmm wa-ḥas̲h̲arāt

(23 words)

hawāmm wa-ḥas̲h̲arāt (A) : in biology, crawling and swarming creatures, usually also including mice,…

ḥawāntī

(21 words)

ḥawāntī (A) : in Muslim Spain, a shopkeeper in the Sūḳ, as opposed to the major trader, Tād̲j̲ir. Sūḳ

ḥawārī

(69 words)

ḥawārī (A, < Eth) : apostle; a bird in Sumatra, ‘smaller than a pigeon, with a white belly, black wi…

hawāy

(28 words)

hawāy : a bird, which ‘speaks better than a parrot’, recorded in Mozambique by al-Ḳazwīnī in the 13t…

ḥawḍ

(83 words)

ḥawḍ (A, pl. aḥwāḍ, ḥiyāḍ) : a cistern or artificial tank for storing water; drinking trough, wash-basin. Ḥawḍ; Māʾ In …

hawda

(72 words)

hawda : a term used in India to designate the litter on working and processional elephants, either a…

ḥawfī

(48 words)

ḥawfī (A) : a type of popular poetry peculiar to Algeria, consisting of short poems of between two a…

ḥāwī

(14 words)

ḥāwī (A, pl. ḥāwiyyūn, ḥuwā) : a snake-charmer or itinerant mountebank. Ḥawfī

hāwī

(52 words)

hāwī (A) : ‘pertaining to air’; in grammar, an attribute of the letter alif which according to Sībawayh ‘has some…

ḥawid̲j̲ār-bās̲h̲ī

(24 words)

ḥawid̲j̲ār-bās̲h̲ī (P) : in Ṣafawid times, an official in charge of supervising the poultry yard and…
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