Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Glossary and Index of Terms

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs
Assisted by C. Ott, under the patronage of the International Union of Acadamies

Glossary and Index of Terms treats the technical terms in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and other languages or dialects of the Islamic world. As an index, it is of immeasurable importance, in particular for the many terms which are not given an entry but are discussed in the course of an article; and as glossary it is an invaluable source of information for both non-specialist, who is given an insight into the varied and rich vocabulary of Islam, and the specialist, who may discover surprising new contexts in which a term is used.

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laashin

(40 words)

laashin (Somali, pl. laashinno) : in the southern, mainly agriculturalist clans of Somalia, specific re…

laban

(51 words)

laban (A) : milk. In certain dialects, the distinction has arisen between Ḥalīb, milk, and ~, fully …

labin

(49 words)

labin (A), or libn : unfired brick whose use in building dates back to the earliest antiquity. The ~ ge…

lad̲j̲ʾa

(28 words)

lad̲j̲ʾa (A) : in botany, ~ k̲h̲aḍrāʾ is the green turtle or true chelon ( Chelonia mydas) and ~ sahfiyya is the imbric…

lād̲j̲ward

(7 words)

lād̲j̲ward : lapis lazuli. Parčīn-Kārī

laffa

(14 words)

laffa (A) : a man’s turban cloth in the Arab East. Libās

lafīf

(27 words)

lafīf (A) : in law, an ‘unsifted’ witness, neither a virtuous man nor a professional, more a ‘man in…

lafūt

(27 words)

lafūt (A) : in zoology, a term used for two different types of fish: the lophot ( Lophotes) and the unicorn fish ( Lophotes…

lafẓ

(117 words)

lafẓ (A) : lit. to spit out; in grammar, the actual expression of a sound or series of sounds, hence…

lag̲h̲i̊m

(56 words)

lag̲h̲i̊m (T) : explosive mines of various types and sizes, an instrument of war used in the Ottoman empire. Bārūd lag̲h…

lag̲h̲w

(7 words)

lag̲h̲w Ṣila lag̲h̲w al-yamīn Yamīn

lāgmī

(36 words)

lāgmī : ‘palm-wine’, a drink in Arabia, extracted from the sap rising in the palm trunk. This very s…

lahāt

(10 words)

lahāt (A) : in anatomy, the uvula. Maḳdis̲h̲ū

lāḥib

(8 words)

lāḥib (A) : ‘clearly marked’. Waṣf

lahīb

(16 words)

lahīb : in medicine, congestion (there is question as to its exact meaning). Ṣandal

lāḥiḳ

(5 words)

lāḥiḳ Ḥud̲j̲d̲j̲a; Muḍāriʿ

laḥn

(189 words)

laḥn (A) : a manner of speaking; in grammar, dialectical or regional variation, which was judged con…

lāhūt

(47 words)

lāhūt (A) : divinity, the antithesis of nāsūt, humanity. Lahndā In the mystical thought of al-Ḥallād̲j̲, ~ mea…

lahw

(7 words)

lahw (A) : amusement. Lāhūtī

laʿib

(28 words)

laʿib (A) : play(ing), which came in Islam to be considered the exclusive prerogative of children, b…

laḳab

(37 words)

laḳab (A, pl. alḳab) : in onomastics, nickname or sobriquet, and at a later date under Islam and with m…

laḳāniḳ

(19 words)

laḳāniḳ (A, < L), or naḳāniḳ : mutton sausages, containing little semolina and sold by naḳāniḳiyyūn. G̲h̲id̲h̲āʾ

laḳīṭ

(29 words)

laḳīṭ (A) : in law, a foundling; according to Mālikī doctrine, a human child whose parentage and who…

laḳṭ

(14 words)

laḳṭ (A) : in medicine, the (surgical) removal of a thing. Ṭibb

lā-ḳuwwa

(28 words)

lā-ḳuwwa (A) : in philosophy, inability or weakness, a translation of Aristotle’s ἀδυναμία; ~ predis…

laḳwa

(16 words)

laḳwa (A) : facial paralysis. Nuḥām; in zoology, the female eagle (var. liḳwa). Uḥud

laʿl

(15 words)

laʿl (A) : in mineralogy, a kind of ruby, according to al-Bīrūnī. Maʿdin

lālā

(46 words)

lālā (P), or lala : a preceptor or tutor, especially of royal princes, becoming a more common usage aft…

lāla

(5 words)

lāla S̲h̲aḳīḳat Al-Nuʿmān

lālaka

(18 words)

lālaka (A, pl. lawālik) : a nailed boot used by common people in pre-modern times. al-Isʿirdī

lalamiko

(11 words)

lalamiko (Sw) : in Swahili literature, an elegy. Mart̲h̲iya

lāle devri

(53 words)

lāle devri (T) : ‘the Tulip Period’, the name given to one of the most colourful periods of the Ottom…

lālla

(16 words)

lālla (Mor) : the name for women saints of Berber origin in Morocco. al-Mag̲h̲rib

lām

(28 words)

lām (A) : the twenty-third letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed l, with the numerical value 30. It is def…

lamṭ

(25 words)

lamṭ (A) : in mediaeval Islam, the oryx of the Sahara. The term is now obsolete. Lamlam; antelope. W…

land̲j̲

(51 words)

land̲j̲ (A, < Eng ‘launch’), or lans̲h̲ : in Kuwayt, a motor launch provided with one or two sails, and em…

langgar

(27 words)

langgar (J) : in Indonesia, a small mosque serving for the daily cult and religious instruction alon…

larin

(72 words)

larin (P lārī) : the larin, a silver coin current in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean in the 16th and…

lāsa

(30 words)

lāsa (A) : a woman’s head scarf of white silk or cotton net into which flat metal strips have been d…

las̲h̲kar

(44 words)

las̲h̲kar (P) : the term normally used by the Indian Muslim rulers for army. Las Bēla las̲h̲kar-i bāzār …

lās̲h̲ōn

(44 words)

lās̲h̲ōn (< Heb ‘tongue, language’) : a form of slang used by Jewish traders and artisans. Occasionally it was called īs…

lāṭiʾa

(18 words)

lāṭiʾa (A) : a small, tight-fitting cap, but probably not the proper name for it. Tulband

laṭīfa

(38 words)

laṭīfa (A, pl. laṭāʾif) : in mysticism, the ‘subtle organ’ (syn. ṭūr, pl. aṭwār), a theory of levels developed fr…

laṭīm

(36 words)

laṭīm (A) : ‘knocked out of the enclosure by a blow’, the name for the ninth horse in a race, accord…

lāṭiniyya

(8 words)

lāṭiniyya (A) : Romance [language]. Ḳuḍāʿa

lāṭis

(15 words)

lāṭis (A), or lūṭis : in zoology, the Nile perch ( Lates nilotica). Samak

lawḥ

(77 words)

lawḥ (A, pl. alwāḥ) : board, plank; tablet, table; school-child’s slate; blackboard. al-Lawātī; and K̲h̲as̲h̲aba In…

lawn

(46 words)

lawn (A) : the general term used to express the concept of colour. Besides this precise sense, it al…

lawṭa

(51 words)

lawṭa (A) : in music, an instrument of the lute type, with four double strings and is very popular i…

lawt̲h̲

(13 words)

lawt̲h̲ (A) : in law, the notion of serious presumption. Ḳasam

layḳ

(8 words)

layḳ (A) : ink well. Nīrand̲j̲

layl

(320 words)

layl (A, pl. layālin) : nighttime, night (ant. Nahār). Lawn; and Ṣāḥib Al-Layl laylat al-barāʾa …

lāzim

(22 words)

lāzim (A) : in law, ‘binding’. ʿAḳd; Ṣaḥīḥ lāzima (A, pl. lawāzim) : in music, a short melodic formula. Nāy

lazma

(13 words)

lazma (A) : a curb-bit, part of the horse’s bridle. K̲h̲ayl

lebaran

(35 words)

lebaran (Ind) : ‘end, close’; the name generally used in Indonesia for the ʿĪd Al-Fiṭr, the ‘minor f…

leff

(89 words)

leff (A) : a term used in the Berber-speaking regions of central and southern Morocco (a different t…

leh

(29 words)

leh (Ott, < Polish) : the ancient Ottoman Turkish term for the Poles and Poland. From the 12th/18th …

lewend

(46 words)

lewend (T, < ? It levantino) : in the Ottoman period, two kinds of daily-wage irregular militia, one sea-going ( deñiz),…
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