Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Glossary and Index of Terms

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs
Assisted by C. Ott, under the patronage of the International Union of Acadamies

Glossary and Index of Terms treats the technical terms in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and other languages or dialects of the Islamic world. As an index, it is of immeasurable importance, in particular for the many terms which are not given an entry but are discussed in the course of an article; and as glossary it is an invaluable source of information for both non-specialist, who is given an insight into the varied and rich vocabulary of Islam, and the specialist, who may discover surprising new contexts in which a term is used.

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nāʾib

(141 words)

nāʾib (A) : substitute, delegate, any person appointed as deputy of another in an official position; Naḥw; and Safīr In…

nāʾiba

(27 words)

nāʾiba (A) : an occasional tax in kind, levied by the first Saʿdīs; it later became more or less per…

nāḳa

(51 words)

nāḳa (A) : the female camel, a term also found in the Qurʾān, where it appears in the edifying stori…

naḳā

(87 words)

naḳā (A) : a term connected with nuḳāwā, a generic noun denoting alkaline plants utilised for washing linen…

naḳad

(51 words)

naḳad (A) : a strain of sheep in Bahrain in the time of al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, which was stunted but a good woo…

naḳāʾiḍ

(74 words)

naḳāʾiḍ (A, s. naḳīḍa) : in prosody, a form of poetic duelling in which tribal or personal insults are …

naḳarāt

(29 words)

naḳarāt (T) : lit. peckings; in Turkish poetry, the refrain, that is, the ultimate line or ultimate …

naḳb

(69 words)

naḳb (A, pl. nuḳūb) : an underground tunnel; in military science, mining, a system of siege warfare whi…

naḳḍ

(36 words)

naḳḍ (A) : ‘refutation’, in particular when used in reference to a book. Radd; and Radd naḳḍ al-mīt̲h̲āḳ

naḳd

(67 words)

naḳd (A) : in law, the portion of the dowry handed over at the conclusion of a marriage. In modern Arabic, ~ signifies…

nak̲h̲k̲h̲ās

(32 words)

nak̲h̲k̲h̲ās (A) : ‘cattle-dealer’, a term in the mediaeval period for a slave merchant. ʿAbd; Sūḳ; …

nak̲h̲l

(17 words)

nak̲h̲l (A, s. nak̲h̲la) : in botany, the date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera). Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab; Nak̲h̲čiwān

nāk̲h̲udāh

(18 words)

nāk̲h̲udāh (A, < H nāo and P k̲h̲udā) : in navigation, a term for ‘captain’. Milāḥa

naḳīʿ

(17 words)

naḳīʿ (A) : drinks composed of fruits (dates, etc.) mixed in water. Mas̲h̲riḳ al-Ad̲h̲kār; ʿUrs

naḳīb

(299 words)

naḳīb (A, pl. nuḳabāʾ) : chief, leader, of a tribe or other group; in early Islam, the Medinans negotia…

naḳīr

(28 words)

naḳīr (A) : in early Islam, a palmtrunk which is hollowed out and into which small dates and water a…

nāḳiṣ

(53 words)

nāḳiṣ (A) : in literary theory, an imperfect paronomasia whereby one term is incomplete by one or tw…

naḳḳāra

(76 words)

naḳḳāra (A, T naḳḳāre) : a medium-sized kettle-drum made of copper, one of the instruments of the milit…

naḳḳās̲h̲

(73 words)

naḳḳās̲h̲ (A) : die-sinker, one of the craftsmen employed as staff in the mediaeval mint, whose prof…

naḳl

(10 words)

naḳl (A) : transport. Naḳḳās̲h̲-K̲h̲āna; Naḳd; and Tard̲j̲ama

naḳra

(10 words)

naḳra (A) : in music, a beat. Ṭihrānī

naḳṣ

(25 words)

naḳṣ (A) : in prosody, a type of double deviation (Ziḥāf), whereby there are two cases per foot, com…

naḳs̲h̲

(30 words)

naḳs̲h̲ Taṣwīr naḳs̲h̲ ḥadīda (N.Afr) : the name given to the sculpturing of…

nāḳūs

(50 words)

nāḳūs (A, < Syr; pl. nawāḳīs) : a kind of rattle once used and in some places still used by Eastern Chris…

naʿl

(134 words)

naʿl (A) : in early Islam, a sandal which could be of palm fibre, smooth leather, or leather with an…

nalam

(66 words)

nalam (Mal) : a genre of Acehnese poetry, using partly the urd̲j̲ūza (Rad̲j̲az), partly the ḳaṣīda as model, bu…

nāma

(42 words)

nāma (P) : a letter; royal edict or diploma; a register, and in many ways the equivalent of the Arab…

namas̲h̲

(18 words)

namas̲h̲ (A) : in mineralogy, freckles or inclusions, a defect or impurity in a gem. Yāḳūt

namāzgāh

(81 words)

namāzgāh (P) : ‘place of prayer’, in India, an alternative name for ʿīdgāh, the open structure built usually to …

namir

(65 words)

namir (A), or nimr : in zoology, the panther ( Panthera pardus), better known, in Africa, by the name of ‘leopa…

naml

(40 words)

naml (A) : in zoology, ants (s. namla). In law, small ants ( d̲h̲arr) are permitted to be killed when they intrud…

nammām

(5 words)

nammām Fūd̲h̲and̲j̲; Ṣandal

nāmūs

(154 words)

nāmūs (A) : originally, a transcription of the Greek νόμος, which was left untranslated in Ibn His̲h…

nānkār

(26 words)

nānkār (P) : under the Mug̲h̲als, an allowance paid out of the land revenue by the holder of rights …

nār

(17 words)

nār (A, pl. nīrān) : fire. Nandurbār; for ~ in compounds, Nār ff.; and Manāẓir

nārand̲j̲

(101 words)

nārand̲j̲ (A, < P narang) : in botany, the hesperideous or aurantiaceous fruits, including oranges and l…

nard

(16 words)

nard (P) : the game of backgammon (trictrac); any kind of dicing. Ḳimār; Nārand̲j̲

nard̲j̲īla

(111 words)

nard̲j̲īla (A, < P nāgīl ‘coconut, water pipe’), or s̲h̲īs̲h̲a : the water pipe, constructed from a coconut s…

nard̲j̲is

(35 words)

nard̲j̲is (A, T nergis, P nargis and ʿabhar) : in botany, the narcissus. In al-Andalus, three terms were used: nard̲j̲i…

nark̲h̲

(27 words)

nark̲h̲ (P) : in the Ottoman empire, the prices determined by official authorities for various goods…

nasaʿa

(4 words)

nasaʿa It̲h̲t̲h̲ag̲h̲ara

nasab

(48 words)

nasab (A) : kinship, the relationship, particularly ancestral, i.e. the genealogy of an individual o…

naṣārā

(58 words)

naṣārā (A, s. naṣrānī) : Christians in the Muslim Arab world. In the Qurʾān, where it is found fifteen …

naṣb

(101 words)

naṣb (A) : setting up, raising; in grammar, the accusative and subjunctive cases, because both take -a and are thus manṣ…

nas̲h̲am

(18 words)

nas̲h̲am (A) : in botany, Chadara velutina, used in the construction of pre-Islamic Arab bows. Ḳaws

nas̲h̲īd

(121 words)

nas̲h̲īd (A, pl. anās̲h̲īd, nas̲h̲āʾid, ans̲h̲ād) : in music, a piece of oratory, a chant, a hymn and a f…

nas̲h̲īṭa

(17 words)

nas̲h̲īṭa (A) : casual plunder obtained while journeying to meet the enemy. G̲h̲anī b. Aʿṣur

nās̲h̲iz

(12 words)

nās̲h̲iz (A) : in law, a recalcitrant wife. Tāzarwālt; Nafaḳa

nasīʾ

(96 words)

nasīʾ (A) : intercalary month, intercalation, or person (pl. nasaʾa) charged, in pre-Islamic Mecca, with the …

nasīb

(78 words)

nasīb (A) : in literature, a generic term applied in mediaeval sources to love poetry. In its modern…

naṣīḥāt al-mulūk

(65 words)

naṣīḥāt al-mulūk (A) : lit. advice for rulers; in pre-modern Islamic literature, the genre which cons…

nāsik

(46 words)

nāsik (A, pl. nussāk) : in early Islam, a representative of the ascetic movement, who wore rough woolle…

nāsik̲h̲

(18 words)

nāsik̲h̲ (A) : a copyist. Diplomatic; Maktaba; al-Nūs̲h̲ādir; an abrogator. Naṣīḥat al-Mulūk al-nāsik̲h̲ wa ’l-m…

nask̲h̲

(149 words)

nask̲h̲ (A) : the act of cancellation, abrogation; in Qurʾānic exegesis, in the science of Tradition…

nasnās

(61 words)

nasnās (A, pl. nasānis), or nisnās : in mediaeval Arabic literature, a ‘demi-man’ with human face and ver…

nasr

(94 words)

nasr (A, P dāl, T akbaba; pl. ansur, nusūr, nisār) : in zoology, the vulture, of which eight species are know…

naṣrī

(25 words)

naṣrī (A) : in numismatics, a square silver coin of Ḥafṣid Tunisia, which remained in use after the …

naṣṣ

(92 words)

naṣṣ (A) : in law, a text whose presence in either Qurʾān or Tradition must be demonstrated to justi…

nassād̲j̲

(39 words)

nassād̲j̲ (A) : weaver, textile worker, synonymous with ḥāʾik although less derogatory. Naṣṣ; and Tanawwuṭ n…

nastaʿlīḳ

(66 words)

nastaʿlīḳ (P), or nask̲h̲-i taʿlīḳ, nask̲h̲-taʿlīḳ : a script, which is said in the works on calligraphy …

nasṭūriyyūn

(34 words)

nasṭūriyyūn (A, s. nasṭūrī), also nasāṭira : the Nestorian or East Syrian, later called Assyrian, Christi…

nāsūr, nāṣūr

(12 words)

nāsūr, nāṣūr (A) : in medicine, anal fistulas. ʿUḳāb

naʿt

(80 words)

naʿt (A) : qualification, in grammar, a technical term used to designate a qualifying adjective and …

nat̲h̲r

(27 words)

nat̲h̲r (A) : prose, whose opposite is Naẓm, poetry. Nandana al-nat̲h̲r al-mursal (A) :…

natīd̲j̲a

(44 words)

natīd̲j̲a (A) : an almanac, also called Ruz-nāma and Taḳwīm. Taḳwīm In logic, the conclusion resulting from the…

nātiḥ

(25 words)

nātiḥ (A) : a term applied to a wild animal or bird which approaches a traveller or hunter from the front. Barīd S̲hāhīs

nāṭiḳ

(71 words)

nāṭiḳ (A) : among the Ismāʿīliyya, one of seven ‘speaking’ prophets, each of whom reveals a new reli…

naṭrūn

(52 words)

naṭrūn (A) : in mineralogy and pharmacology, a compound of sodium carbonate (NaCOsub:3) and sodium bicarbonate (…

naṭṭāla

(100 words)

naṭṭāla (A) : an artificial irrigation contrivance, still in use in Egypt, as well as in many Africa…

naʾūr

(27 words)

naʾūr (A) : soot, as used in filling the trace left by a tattooing needle. Other materials used were antimony ( kuḥl) or …

nāʿūra

(74 words)

nāʿūra (A, pl. nawāʿīr) : ‘noria’, a current-driven, water-raising wheel, sometimes confused with Sāḳiy…

nāward

(11 words)

nāward (P) : a training-routine of a horse. K̲h̲ayl

nawba

(111 words)

nawba (A) : ‘turn’; in its non-technical meaning, appearing in the Ag̲h̲ānī by al-Iṣbahānī of the 4th/10th cent…

nawḥ

(90 words)

nawḥ (A) : in music, the elegy. G̲h̲ināʾ nawḥa (A) : in Persian literature, a gen…

nawkar

(8 words)

nawkar (P) : an official. Tihrān

nawriyya

(55 words)

nawriyya (A, < nawr ‘flower’) : in literature, a genre of poetry devoted to the description of flowers,…
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