Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Glossary and Index of Terms

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs
Assisted by C. Ott, under the patronage of the International Union of Acadamies

Glossary and Index of Terms treats the technical terms in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and other languages or dialects of the Islamic world. As an index, it is of immeasurable importance, in particular for the many terms which are not given an entry but are discussed in the course of an article; and as glossary it is an invaluable source of information for both non-specialist, who is given an insight into the varied and rich vocabulary of Islam, and the specialist, who may discover surprising new contexts in which a term is used.

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(57 words)

nāfila (A, pl. nawāfil) : in theology, supererogatory work; those works which are supererogatory in the…


(98 words)

nafs (A, pl. anfus, nufūs) : soul; self, person. Nafīsī, Saʿīd; and Rūḥ In divination, ~ is a term of geomancy, b…


(91 words)

nafṭ (A, P naft) : the purest form of Mesopotamian bitumen. Barṣīṣā; a generic, vague appellation for a…


(27 words)

nafūd (A) : a sandy area, in the north of the Arabian peninsula; in the south it is called a ramla. Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab; …


(17 words)

nafūr (A) : in the terminology of horse-riding, a horse that swerves and shies. Furūsiyya


(14 words)

nafy (A) : in grammar, negation (ant. īd̲j̲āb ‘affirmation’). al-Nafūsī; and Nefy


(22 words)

naga (J) : a Hindu serpent guardian spirit, which sculpture frequently graces the entrance to a sain…


(50 words)

nahār (A) : a day, which extends from sunrise to sunset. Lawn; the ~ begins at the moment that the u…


(31 words)

nahḍa (A) : ‘awakening’, the Arab renaissance, the rebirth of Arabic literature and thought under We…


(32 words)

naḥīta (A, pl. nuḥut) : the ‘moving section’, a bee hive that is not welded to the wall of a dwelling, …


(50 words)

nāḥiye (T, < A nāḥiya ‘district, vicinity’) : in Ottoman administration, the subdivisions of a wilāyet ‘province’ (…


(27 words)

naḥl (A, P) : in zoology, domestic or social bees (apid family). A swarm is called dabr, which is grouped around the…


(69 words)

naḥr (A) : in law, one of the two methods of slaughtering animals, by which the animal concerned bec…


(48 words)

nahr (A, pl. anhār, anhur) : running water, hence a perennial watercourse, river, stream of any size, thus opposed to a w…


(87 words)

naḥw (A, pl. anḥāʾ) : path, way; fashion, manner. Maʿārif In grammar, the term for ‘grammar’ (to be contrasted…


(64 words)

nahy (A) : prohibition; in religion, the phrase al-nahy ʿan al-munkar ‘forbidding wrong’ (in full, preceded by al-amr…


(141 words)

nāʾib (A) : substitute, delegate, any person appointed as deputy of another in an official position; Naḥw; and Safīr In…


(27 words)

nāʾiba (A) : an occasional tax in kind, levied by the first Saʿdīs; it later became more or less per…


(51 words)

nāḳa (A) : the female camel, a term also found in the Qurʾān, where it appears in the edifying stori…


(87 words)

naḳā (A) : a term connected with nuḳāwā, a generic noun denoting alkaline plants utilised for washing linen…


(51 words)

naḳad (A) : a strain of sheep in Bahrain in the time of al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, which was stunted but a good woo…


(74 words)

naḳāʾiḍ (A, s. naḳīḍa) : in prosody, a form of poetic duelling in which tribal or personal insults are …


(29 words)

naḳarāt (T) : lit. peckings; in Turkish poetry, the refrain, that is, the ultimate line or ultimate …


(69 words)

naḳb (A, pl. nuḳūb) : an underground tunnel; in military science, mining, a system of siege warfare whi…


(36 words)

naḳḍ (A) : ‘refutation’, in particular when used in reference to a book. Radd; and Radd naḳḍ al-mīt̲h̲āḳ


(67 words)

naḳd (A) : in law, the portion of the dowry handed over at the conclusion of a marriage. In modern Arabic, ~ signifies…


(32 words)

nak̲h̲k̲h̲ās (A) : ‘cattle-dealer’, a term in the mediaeval period for a slave merchant. ʿAbd; Sūḳ; …


(17 words)

nak̲h̲l (A, s. nak̲h̲la) : in botany, the date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera). Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab; Nak̲h̲čiwān


(18 words)

nāk̲h̲udāh (A, < H nāo and P k̲h̲udā) : in navigation, a term for ‘captain’. Milāḥa


(17 words)

naḳīʿ (A) : drinks composed of fruits (dates, etc.) mixed in water. Mas̲h̲riḳ al-Ad̲h̲kār; ʿUrs


(299 words)

naḳīb (A, pl. nuḳabāʾ) : chief, leader, of a tribe or other group; in early Islam, the Medinans negotia…


(28 words)

naḳīr (A) : in early Islam, a palmtrunk which is hollowed out and into which small dates and water a…


(53 words)

nāḳiṣ (A) : in literary theory, an imperfect paronomasia whereby one term is incomplete by one or tw…


(76 words)

naḳḳāra (A, T naḳḳāre) : a medium-sized kettle-drum made of copper, one of the instruments of the milit…


(73 words)

naḳḳās̲h̲ (A) : die-sinker, one of the craftsmen employed as staff in the mediaeval mint, whose prof…


(10 words)

naḳl (A) : transport. Naḳḳās̲h̲-K̲h̲āna; Naḳd; and Tard̲j̲ama


(10 words)

naḳra (A) : in music, a beat. Ṭihrānī


(25 words)

naḳṣ (A) : in prosody, a type of double deviation (Ziḥāf), whereby there are two cases per foot, com…


(30 words)

naḳs̲h̲ Taṣwīr naḳs̲h̲ ḥadīda (N.Afr) : the name given to the sculpturing of…


(50 words)

nāḳūs (A, < Syr; pl. nawāḳīs) : a kind of rattle once used and in some places still used by Eastern Chris…


(134 words)

naʿl (A) : in early Islam, a sandal which could be of palm fibre, smooth leather, or leather with an…
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