Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Glossary and Index of Terms

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs
Assisted by C. Ott, under the patronage of the International Union of Acadamies

Glossary and Index of Terms treats the technical terms in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and other languages or dialects of the Islamic world. As an index, it is of immeasurable importance, in particular for the many terms which are not given an entry but are discussed in the course of an article; and as glossary it is an invaluable source of information for both non-specialist, who is given an insight into the varied and rich vocabulary of Islam, and the specialist, who may discover surprising new contexts in which a term is used.

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pāʾ

(38 words)

ʾ (P), or bāʾ-i fārsī : the Bāʾ with three points subscript, invented for Persian as supplement to the…

pada

(8 words)

pada : in India, song. Ḳabbānī

pādis̲h̲āh

(22 words)

pādis̲h̲āh (P) : the name for Muslim rulers, especially emperors. Pāʾ In Turkish folklore, the chief of the D̲j…

pahlawān

(110 words)

pahlawān (P, < pahlaw ‘Parthian’; A bahlawān) : in pre-modern Persian and thence in Turkish, ‘wrestler’, ‘…

pāʾī

(52 words)

pāʾī (H ‘quarter’, > Eng ‘pie’) : in numismatics, the smallest copper coin of British India = one-tw…

pāiza

(34 words)

pāiza (Mon) : during the Mongol empire, an imperial tablet, given e.g. to postal couriers along with…

pālāhang

(43 words)

pālāhang (P, Ott pālāheng) : lit. string, rope, halter, cord; ~ is applied to the belt worn around the …

palkī

(64 words)

palkī (H ?) : ‘palanquin’, an enclosed variety of litter used in India for transporting people, its …

pān

(56 words)

pān (H ?) : in Mug̲h̲al cuisine, a heart-shaped green leaf smeared with lime and catechu, to which i…

panbuḳ

(22 words)

panbuḳ (T) : cotton, in western Turkish. Ḳuṭn, where other variants are found as well as terms in eastern Turkish

pandūl, or pandūr

(30 words)

pandūl, or pandūr : in the Ottoman period, a militia recruited in the Balkans among the free peasants …

papyrus

(52 words)

papyrus (Eng, < Gr) : one of the world’s oldest writing materials, ~ was used in Egypt, the land of …

pāra

(69 words)

pāra (P) : ‘piece’, ‘fragment’; in numismatics, a Turkish coin of the Ottoman and early Republican p…

parčīn-kārī

(23 words)

parčīn-kārī (P, U paččī-kārī) : in architecture, a technique of inlay-work, usually set in marble, used…

parda-dār

(38 words)

parda-dār (P) : lit. the person who draws the curtain; ‘court chamberlain’, a term used among the dy…

pargana

(37 words)

pargana (H, < San) : in Indo-Muslim administrative usage, a term denoting an aggregate of villages, …

parī

(70 words)

parī (P, T peri) : in folklore, a fairy, belonging to the realm of supernatural tales; in Turkish every…

parias

(26 words)

parias (< L) : in the mediaeval Iberian peninsula, a tribute paid by one ruler to another in recogni…

parmaḳ

(48 words)

parmaḳ (T) : under the Ottomans, a measure of length equivalent to one and a quarter inches. Arnawutluḳ parmaḳ ḥisābi̊ …

pārsī

(33 words)

pārsī (P) : lit. inhabitant of Fārs, the name given to those descendants of the Zoroastrians who mig…

parwāna

(74 words)

parwāna (P), or parwānača : in mediaeval Persian administration, the term used for the document ‘relate…

pasaz̲h̲

(20 words)

pasaz̲h̲ (T) : in 19th-century Ottoman cities, a shop-lined covered street, a modern version of the ārāsta. Sūḳ

pas̲h̲a

(108 words)

pas̲h̲a (T, < P pādis̲h̲āh) : under the Ottomans, the highest official title of honour, used in Turkey u…

pās̲h̲īb

(38 words)

pās̲h̲īb (IndP) : in Mug̲h̲al siegecraft, a raised platform constructed by filling the space between…

pas̲h̲tūnwalī

(31 words)

pas̲h̲tūnwalī (Pash) : the special social code of the Afghans, the main pillars of which are nanawātai ‘right of asy…

pās-i anfās

(32 words)

pās-i anfās (P) : a practice of regulating the breath, adopted by the Čis̲h̲tī mystics in order to h…

pasisir

(17 words)

pasisir (J) : originally an administrative unit of the Central Javanese kingdom of Mataram. Pasir

paṭrīk

(36 words)

paṭrīk (Ott, < A Biṭrīḳ ‘patricius’) : in the Ottoman empire, the term for the patriarch of the Gree…

patrona

(44 words)

patrona (T, < It) : in the Ottoman navy, a ‘galley carrying the lieutenant-general or the next in co…

patuḳ

(23 words)

patuḳ (P) : a habitual location for a guild. Ṣinf; as pātuḳ, the place where s̲h̲īʿī funeral flags are stored. Tihrān

patwāri

(24 words)

patwāri : in the Mug̲h̲al empire, the village accountant, whose functions resembled those of the Ḳān…

pawlā

(22 words)

pawlā : in numismatics, the name given in the Mug̲h̲al emperor Akbar’s monetary system to the quarter- dām (quarter-P…

pāyak

(50 words)

pāyak (IndP) : in the Dihlī sultanate, the footsoldiers who were maintained within the infantry cont…

payg̲h̲ū

(31 words)

payg̲h̲ū (T) : a Turkish name or title found among the early Sald̲j̲ūḳs, usually written P.y.g̲h̲ū or B.y.g̲h̲ū. Thes…

paysā

(71 words)

paysā (H, Eng ‘pice’), or paisā : in numismatics, a copper coin of British India, equalling 3 pies or sup:1/sub:4 anna.…

pāzār

(5 words)

pāzār Bāzār; čars̲h̲i̊

pegon

(23 words)

pegon (Mal), jawi or melayu : in Indonesia, the name for Arabic characters that were adapted for the ver…

penbe ḳabbāni̊

(60 words)

penbe ḳabbāni̊ (T) : in the Ottoman period, a special building into which all cotton imported for sa…

penče

(67 words)

penče (T, < P pand̲j̲a ‘palm of the hand’) : in the science of diplomatic, a sign placed on a document i…

pend̲j̲ik

(59 words)

pend̲j̲ik (T, < P pand̲j̲ yak ‘fifth’) : in Ottoman financial and administrative usage, a term denoting t…

penghulu

(66 words)

penghulu (Ind, Mal; Sun panghulu) : lit. headman, chief, director; used in southeast Asia as a title for…

pesantren

(79 words)

pesantren (J) : in Indonesia, the educational institution where students, santri, study classical Islamic subj…

pes̲h̲dār

(23 words)

pes̲h̲dār (T) : in the Ottoman empire, the term for the third animal of a mule caravan operating in Anatolia. Kārwān

pes̲h̲ek

(36 words)

pes̲h̲ek (T) : in the Ottoman empire, the term for the leading animal of a mule caravan operating in…

pēs̲h̲wā

(35 words)

pēs̲h̲wā (P) : ‘leader’; in onomastics, a title for one of the ministers of the Bahmanī sultans of t…

peth, or mela

(17 words)

peth, or mela : in Muslim India, an occasional or seasonal market. Sūḳ

peyk

(13 words)

peyk (T) : in the Ottoman military organisation, a messenger. Ṣolaḳ
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