Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Glossary and Index of Terms

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs
Assisted by C. Ott, under the patronage of the International Union of Acadamies

Glossary and Index of Terms treats the technical terms in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and other languages or dialects of the Islamic world. As an index, it is of immeasurable importance, in particular for the many terms which are not given an entry but are discussed in the course of an article; and as glossary it is an invaluable source of information for both non-specialist, who is given an insight into the varied and rich vocabulary of Islam, and the specialist, who may discover surprising new contexts in which a term is used.

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rāʾ

(31 words)

ʾ (A) : the tenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed as r, with the numerical value 200. It is defined…

raʿāʿ

(23 words)

raʿāʿ (A) : a mob, thieves, one of the numerous terms in the mediaeval and modern periods for ‘rasca…

raʿʿād

(12 words)

raʿʿād (A) : in zoology, the electric ray ναρκε. Mag̲h̲nāṭīs

rabʿ

(62 words)

rabʿ (A, pl. ribāʿ) : home, domicile, home town or home country; in Cairene architecture, ~ designates …

rabāʿ

(17 words)

rabāʿ (A) : a name for a foal between three and four years old. Faras

rabāʿa

(32 words)

rabāʿa (A), or magʿad al-rid̲j̲āl : the compartment in a Bedouin tent reserved for receiving menfolk. In…

rabāb

(63 words)

rabāb (A) : in music, the generic name for the viol, or any stringed instrument played with a bow. R…

rabaḍ

(74 words)

rabaḍ (A, pl. arbāḍ) : district or quarter of a town situated outside the central part. This term lies …

rabb

(161 words)

rabb (A, pl. arbāb) : lord, God, master of a slave. Pre-Islamic Arabia probably applied this term to it…

rabīʿ

(71 words)

rabīʿ (A) : the name of the third and fourth months of the Muslim calendar. Originally, ~ means the …

rābiʿ

(24 words)

rābiʿ (A), or sayyid al-mirbāʿ : a designation for tribal chief (from the chief’s entitlement to a quart…

rābiṭa

(126 words)

rābiṭa (A, > Sp rábida ‘monastery’) : ‘bond’; in mysticism, ~ originally meant the relationship of a mur…

rabṭ

(32 words)

rabṭ (A) : in medicine, ligature (of veins). D̲j̲āriya b. Ḳudāma rabṭa (A) : in wome…

raḍāʿ

(41 words)

raḍāʿ (A), riḍāʿ or raḍāʿa : suckling; in law, the suckling which produces the legal impediment to marri…

radd

(97 words)

radd (A) : ‘return’; in literature, a response to an adversary, intended to refute his statements or…

rad̲h̲ī

(28 words)

rad̲h̲ī (A) : in numismatics, bad, corrupt (coin), with bāṭil ‘false, unsound, currency cancelled or withdraw…

radīf

(206 words)

radīf (A, T redīf) : lit. one who rides behind, ‘pillion rider’; in its plural form rawādif, immigrants. al-Kūfa In gra…

rad̲j̲ʿa

(149 words)

rad̲j̲ʿa (A) : return; in s̲h̲īʿī theology, the return to life, which will precede the universal res…

rad̲j̲ab

(69 words)

rad̲j̲ab (A) : the seventh month of the Islamic calendar, observed in the D̲j̲āhiliyya as a holy mon…

rād̲j̲aputra

(8 words)

rād̲j̲aputra (San) : ‘king’s son’. Rād̲j̲asthān

rad̲j̲az

(118 words)

rad̲j̲az (A) : tremor, spasm, convulsion (as may occur in the behind of a camel when it wants to ris…

rad̲j̲fa

(17 words)

rad̲j̲fa (A) : in the Qurʾānic story of S̲h̲uʿayb, commonly glossed as ‘earthquake’. S̲h̲ōlāpur; T̲h̲amisṭiyus

rad̲j̲īm

(28 words)

rad̲j̲īm (A) : lit. stoned; for explaining the Qurʾānic expression al-s̲h̲ayṭān al-rad̲j̲īm, it has been sugges…

rad̲j̲ʿiyya

(34 words)

rad̲j̲ʿiyya (A), or irtid̲j̲āʿ : the term coined in modern Arabic for reaction in the political sense. Rad̲j̲az; with a…

rad̲j̲m

(47 words)

rad̲j̲m (A) : stoning; the casting of stones at Minā, one of the pre-Islamic rites preserved by Muḥa…

raḍk̲h̲

(35 words)

raḍk̲h̲ (A) : a bonus share (of the booty given at the discretion of the Imām to those bondmen, wome…

rafʿ

(38 words)

rafʿ (A) : elevation, the act of raising something; in grammar, the nominative and indicative cases,…

rāfiḍa

(61 words)

rāfiḍa (A), or al-rawāfiḍ : a term that refers to the proto-Imāmiyya (and, subsequently, the Twelver s̲…

rafīḳ

(33 words)

rafīḳ (A) : companion; in Tradition, the phrase al-rafīḳ al-aʿlā is closely associated with Al-Malaʾ Al-Aʿlā …

rafraf

(13 words)

rafraf (A) : the tail of a turban hanging behind. Tulband

rag̲h̲īf

(24 words)

rag̲h̲īf (A) : a round bread, quite thick and cooked in an oven, also called d̲j̲ardaḳ or d̲j̲ard̲h̲aḳ (from Persian)…

raḥā

(17 words)

raḥā (A) : in Muslim Spain, a water mill. al-Andalus; a mill. Ḳuṭb al-Dīn S̲h̲īrāzī

rahbāniyya

(7 words)

rahbāniyya (A) : monasticism. al-Raḥba

rāhdār

(39 words)

rāhdār (P), or tutḳavul : the ‘guardian of the roads’ in the Īlk̲h̲ānid and Ḏj̲alāʾirid periods, paid b…

raḥḥāl

(31 words)

raḥḥāl (A), or raḥḥāla : the person endowed with skill in the saddling of a camel, or one who travelled much. The form raḥḥ…

rāhib

(22 words)

rāhib (A, pl. ruhbān, rahābīn, rahābina) : a monk, known to pre-Islamic poetry and to the Qurʾān and Trad…

raḥīl

(45 words)

raḥīl (A) : ‘travelling by camel’, in Arabic poetry applied to themes involving a desert journey. In…

raḥim

(27 words)

raḥim (A) : in medicine, the uterus. The expressions bard al-~ or ṣalābat al-~ seem to indicate frigidity or anor…

rahīs̲h̲

(37 words)

rahīs̲h̲ (A), or murtahis̲h̲a : in archery, a bow whose string, at the moment of loosing, strikes the part called the ṭāʾ…

raḥma

(35 words)

raḥma (A) : a Qurʾānic term, denoting either kindness, benevolence (syn. raʾfa) or, more frequently, an act of …

rahn

(24 words)

rahn (A) : in law, pledge, security; rāhin is the giver, and murtahin the taker of the pledge. Raḥmāniyya rahn ḥiyāzī …

rāʾib

(15 words)

rāʾib (A) : clotting, as does milk when it curdles. Mas̲h̲rūbāt; and Yog̲h̲urt

raʾīs

(245 words)

raʾīs (A, pl. ruʾasāʾ, T reʾīs) : head, chief, leader of a recognisable group (political, religious, juri…

rāʿiyat al-s̲h̲ayb

(17 words)

rāʿiyat al-s̲h̲ayb (A) : the first white hair which appears on the head. S̲h̲aʿyā

raʿiyya

(62 words)

raʿiyya (A, pl. raʿāyā; T pl. reʿāyā) : lit. pasturing herd of cattle, sheep, etc., a term which in later …

rakʿa

(28 words)

rakʿa (A) : lit. the act of bowing, bending; in the act of worship, a sequence of utterances and act…

raḳāʿa

(21 words)

raḳāʿa (A) : burlesque, a genre of literature, closely akin to Suk̲h̲f, practiced a.o. by al-Ṣaymarī…

raḳaba

(51 words)

raḳaba (A, T raḳabe) : lit. neck, nape of the neck; term frequently used in the Qurʾān for ‘slave’. al-Abbāsiyya In Otto…

rak̲h̲āwa

(7 words)

rak̲h̲āwa (A) : softness. Zumurrud

raḳīb

(48 words)

raḳīb (A) : ‘guardian, vigilant one who knows everything that takes place’; one of the names of God. Raʿiyya In Arabic …

rākib

(29 words)

rākib (A, pl. rukkāb) : in some brotherhoods in North Africa, a courier who served to link the local Zā…

rāḳid

(57 words)

rāḳid (A, N.Afr rāged or bū mergūd) : lit. sleeping child; in law, a foetus which is considered to have st…

raḳīḳ

(27 words)

raḳīḳ (A) : the generic term for slave. al-Abbāsiyya raḳīḳa (A, pl. raḳāʾiḳ) : an action that elevates man (in t…

raḳḳ

(32 words)

raḳḳ (A), or riḳḳ : parchment, used alongside other terms used in a less specific manner, such as ḳirṭā…

rakkāḍ

(41 words)

rakkāḍ (A) : a type of merchant in mediaeval Islam, the itinerant trader who owes his profits to his…

raḳḳāṣ

(69 words)

raḳḳāṣ (A, Fr rekkas) : in the Muslim West, a messenger who travels on foot long distances in order to …

raḳḳī

(30 words)

raḳḳī (A, < Raḳḳa) : in the mediaeval Muslim world, a well-known kind of coarse soap, similar to date-p…

raḳṣ

(44 words)

raḳṣ (A) : dance, generally frowned upon in Islam for it is connected with ecstasy. Raḳḳāda raḳṣ-i bismil …

rakwa

(17 words)

rakwa (A) : a leather bowl, one of the ṣūfī paraphernalia. Sad̲jd̲j̲āda; a waterbottle. al-Walīd

ramād

(11 words)

ramād (A) : ordinary ashes; ashes for washing. Ramaḍān-Zāde

ramad

(58 words)

ramad (A) : in medicine, ophthalmitis, inflammation of the eye, or ophthalmia (conjunctivitis), infl…

ramaḍān

(24 words)

ramaḍān (A) : name of the ninth month of the Muslim calendar, the only month to be mentioned in the Qurʾān. Ramad

ramadiyya

(22 words)

ramadiyya (A) : tramps, vagabonds, one of the numerous terms in the mediaeval and modern periods for…

ramaka

(14 words)

ramaka (A) : in zoology, a mare of mixed breed. Faras; K̲h̲ayl

ramal

(57 words)

ramal (A) : a rapid pace. Ummī In prosody, the name of the eighth Arabic metre. ʿArūḍ; al-Rāmahurmuzī In music, a rhyt…

ramat̲h̲

(55 words)

ramat̲h̲ (A) : in the Gulf area, a raft or a sort of raft made of tree trunks or lengthy pieces of w…

raml

(61 words)

raml (A, pl. rimāl, armul) : sand; also, the black or white lines on the hooves of wild cattle or on the…

ramm

(27 words)

ramm (A, pl. rumūm) : a geographical term employed by al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī to denote a tribal district in Pers…

ramūḥ

(15 words)

ramūḥ (A) : in the terminology of horse-riding, a horse that kicks. Furūsiyya

ramy al-d̲j̲imār

(58 words)

ramy al-d̲j̲imār (A) : lit. the throwing of pebbles’, a practice that probably goes back to early Ara…

ramz

(66 words)

ramz (A, pl. rumūz) : winking, signalling with your eyes and eyebrows; allusion, symbol, cypher. Rāmpur…

rank

(61 words)

rank (P) : lit. colour, dye, a term used in mediaeval Arabic sources primarily to designate the embl…

rannaḳ

(18 words)

rannaḳ (A) : ‘feeble’, used to describe the sun in a poem by Ibn Rūmī. Waṣf

rapak

(41 words)

rapak (J) : a technical term for the charge made by the wife, at the court for matters of religion, …

raʾs

(169 words)

raʾs (A, pl. ruʾūs, arʾus) : head; in geography, ~ is the common word for ‘cape’, but it also used with …

rasan

(21 words)

rasan (A) : the bozal, a bit preferred to the curb bit by Arab horsemen in the East. Furūsiyya

raṣāṣ

(50 words)

raṣāṣ (A), or usrub : in mineralogy, lead, which was mostly obtained from galena (lead sulphide). Maʿdin raṣāṣ ḳalʿī …

ras̲h̲ād

(21 words)

ras̲h̲ād (A) : in botany, cress or rocket, forbidden by al-Ḥākim in addition to the classical food p…

rās̲h̲idūn

(17 words)

rās̲h̲idūn (A, s. rās̲h̲id) : orthodox, or rightly-guided. For the first four caliphs, al-k̲h̲ulafāʾ al…

ras̲h̲wa

(19 words)

ras̲h̲wa (A, pl. rus̲h̲ā) : in law, ‘bribe’, which is strictly forbidden by law. Ras̲h̲tī, Sayyid Kāẓim

rasm

(181 words)

rasm (A, T resm) : the act of drawing, a drawing, not always distinguished from painting. Ras̲h̲wa; al-~ al-ḥadīt̲h̲ ‘…

rass

(31 words)

rass (A) : in prosody, the vowel (always a) immediately before the alif of the Taʾsīs, the alif of prolongation place…
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