Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Glossary and Index of Terms

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs
Assisted by C. Ott, under the patronage of the International Union of Acadamies

Glossary and Index of Terms treats the technical terms in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and other languages or dialects of the Islamic world. As an index, it is of immeasurable importance, in particular for the many terms which are not given an entry but are discussed in the course of an article; and as glossary it is an invaluable source of information for both non-specialist, who is given an insight into the varied and rich vocabulary of Islam, and the specialist, who may discover surprising new contexts in which a term is used.

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wabāʾ

(62 words)

wabāʾ (A, P wabā) : in medicine, an epidemic, pestilence, and theoretically distinguished from ṭāʿūn in the more s…

wabāl

(9 words)

wabāl (A) : in astrology, ‘detriment’. ʿUṭārid

wabar

(29 words)

wabar (A) : camel’s hair. Sūf ahl al-wabar ‘the people of the camel skin’, a designation for nomads, as opposed to ahl al…

waʿd

(75 words)

waʿd (A) : in eschatology, part of the dogma of al-waʿd wa ’l-waʿīd, promises and threats in the life beyond, on…

waʾd

(39 words)

waʾd (A) : infanticide, in pre-Islamic times generally of newborn daughters, who were buried alive ( waʾd al-banāt), …

waʿda

(9 words)

waʿda (A) : a communal meal. al-Sanūsī

wadaʿ

(71 words)

wadaʿ (A, s. wadaʿa), or wadʿ : cowrie shells, Cypraea moneta or Cypraea annulus, used in India and widely in Wes…

wadaad

(48 words)

wadaad (Somali) : in Somali society, a man of religion, who also mediates in disputes between lineag…

wad̲h̲ārī

(36 words)

wad̲h̲ārī : an expensive cloth of cotton woven on cotton made in the Transoxianan village of Wad̲h̲ā…

wādī

(55 words)

wādī (A, pl. widyān, awdiya) : a watercourse filled only at certain times of the year; stream channel. Ḏ…

waḍīʿa

(34 words)

waḍīʿa (P, < A) : in taxation matters, a tax schedule (syn. ṭisḳ) drawn up to meet the variety of physical condi…

wadīʿa

(78 words)

wadīʿa (A, pl. wadāʾiʿ) : in law, the legal contract that regulates depositing an object with another p…

wad̲j̲d

(32 words)

wad̲j̲d (A) : in mysticism, a technical term meaning ‘ecstasy, rapture’, feelings which dissociated …

wad̲j̲h

(21 words)

wad̲j̲h (A, pl. wud̲j̲ūh) : face; variant. Abū Tammām; in music, the belly of the ʿŪd. ʿŪd; and ʿIrḍ

wād̲j̲ib

(79 words)

wād̲j̲ib (A) : in theology, a synonym of Farḍ ‘a religious duty or obligation’, the omission of whic…

waḍʿ al-lug̲h̲a

(63 words)

waḍʿ al-lug̲h̲a (A) : lit. the establishment of language; in linguistics and legal theory, a view of…

wafaya

(9 words)

wafaya (A, pl. wafayāt) : obituary. al-Yūnīnī

wafd

(18 words)

wafd (A) : lit. delegation; the name of a nationalist political party in modern Egypt. Wafa

wafḍa

(25 words)

wafḍa (A) : originally, a shepherd’s leather bag; in archery, a quiver made from skin entirely, with…

wāfid

(44 words)

wāfid (A) : ‘one who comes, makes his way, in a delegation or group’ (syn. muwaffad); used in the collective, wāfidiyya,…

wāfir

(16 words)

wāfir (A) : in prosody, the name of the fourth Arabic metre. ʿArūḍ; Wāfidiyya

wafḳ

(47 words)

wafḳ (A, pl. awfāḳ) : lit. harmonious arrangement; in sorcery, a square, in the field of which certain …

wāḥa

(9 words)

wāḥa (A, pl. wāḥāt) : oasis. Wafḳ

waḥam

(43 words)

waḥam (A), also waḥām, wiḥām : pregnancy craving; little noted in the medical literature, in popular Isl…

waḥda

(96 words)

waḥda (A) : oneness; unit, unity, used as a technical term in philosophy and theology with these mea…

waḥf

(10 words)

waḥf (A) : a woman’s exuberant hair. S̲h̲aʿr

wahhābiyya

(20 words)

wahhābiyya (A) : in law, both the doctrine and the followers of Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb. Waḥdat al-S̲h̲uhūd

wāḥid

(13 words)

wāḥid (A), or fard, mufrad : in grammar, the singular. D̲j̲ālūt

wahm

(37 words)

wahm (A, pl. awhām) : lit. notion, supposition, in particular false notion, delusion; in philosophy, es…

waḥs̲h̲

(127 words)

waḥs̲h̲ (A, pl. wuḥūs̲h̲) : wild, desolate, uninhabited; a collective noun meaning ‘wild animals’. al-Wahrānī waḥs̲…

waḥy

(24 words)

waḥy (A) : a Qurʾānic term primarily denoting revelation in the form of communication with speech. W…

waʿīd

(25 words)

waʿīd (A) : the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite and Muʿtazilī doctrine of unconditional punishment of the unrepentant …

waʿil

(10 words)

waʿil (A) : in zoology, the ibex. Mahāt

wāʿiẓ

(69 words)

wāʿiẓ (A, pl. wuʿʿāẓ) : a preacher, mostly a preacher who gives sermons conveying admonishments ( waʿẓ, mawʿiẓa), the…

waḳʿa

(118 words)

waḳʿa (A) : part of the expression waḳʿat al-ḥufra ‘day of the ditch’, sometimes considered a literary topos…

waḳaʿa

(15 words)

waḳaʿa (A), or awḳaʿa : in grammar, the nearest thing to ‘transitive’. Sībawayhi

wakāla

(64 words)

wakāla (A) : in law, power of attorney or deputyship. Ṭawāf; Waḳʿa-Nüwīs In mediaeval Islam, a meeting-place in …

waḳf

(308 words)

waḳf (A, pl. awḳāf), or ḥubus, ḥabs : in law, the act of found a charitable trust and hence the trust itse…

wāḳīʿa-niwīs

(4 words)

wāḳīʿa-niwīs Mad̲j̲lis-Niwīs

wāḳif

(69 words)

wāḳif (A), or muḥabbis : the founder of a Waḳf. Waḳf al-wāḳifa, or al-wāḳifiyya lit. t…

wakīl

(246 words)

wakīl (A, pl. wukalāʾ; T wekīl) : agent; in the context of the pilgrimage, the ~ is especially used to de…

wakīr

(43 words)

wakīr (A) : a flock of more than two hundred sheep or goats. When several ~ are joined together with…

waḳḳād

(18 words)

waḳḳād (A, Tun sak̲h̲k̲h̲ān) : the ‘stoker’ of the furnace of a ḥammām ‘steam bath’. Ḥammām

waḳs

(68 words)

waḳs (A) : in prosody, a deviation in the metre because of the loss of both the second consonant of …

waḳt

(9 words)

waḳt (A) : time; and Ṣāḥib Al-Waḳt

wāḳwāḳ

(72 words)

wāḳwāḳ (A) : a name, possibly onomatopoeic, of uncertain origin, found in mediaeval literature to me…

waʿl

(19 words)

waʿl (A) : in zoology, the ibex, on the Arabian peninsula also called badan. Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab; Sayābid̲j̲a

walāʾ

(118 words)

walāʾ (A) : proximity. In law, contractual clientage (syn. muwālāt), a solution in early Islam to the problem…

walāya

(56 words)

walāya (A) : in theology, a term often taken as the equivalent or simply an alternative vocalisation…

wālī

(79 words)

wālī (A, pl. wulāt) : person in authority, governor, prefect, administrator manager. A near-synonym is ḥākim ‘one w…

walī

(218 words)

walī (A, pl. awliyāʾ) : in mysticism, a saint, friend of God, often a mystic in general. Abu ’l-Maʿālī;…

wālide sulṭān

(32 words)

wālide sulṭān (A, T) : in the Ottoman empire, mother of the reigning sultan, used only for the durati…

walīma

(10 words)

walīma (A) : a wedding dinner-party. Ḥarīr; ʿUrs

wangala

(21 words)

wangala : in Mauritania, the custom of slaughtering and sharing, each day, a sheep within a given group. al-Māmaḳānī

wans̲h̲arīs

(20 words)

wans̲h̲arīs (B) : ‘nothing higher’, a reference by local people to a mountain massif in Central Algeria. Wānḳuli̊

waraʿ

(25 words)

waraʿ (A) : in mysticism, the ‘spirit of scruple’, advocated in so-called ‘sober’ ṣūfism. al-Sulamī;…

waraḳ

(46 words)

waraḳ (A) : one of the terms for parchment, later to be reserved for paper. Rāḳid; with waraḳa, the leaf of a tree or…

waras̲h̲ān

(12 words)

waras̲h̲ān (A) : in zoology, a type of bird. al-Warrāḳ

ward

(85 words)

ward (A, s. warda; P d̲j̲ull or Gul) : in botany, Rosa sp., Rosaceae, any flower but generally the rose. Accordin…

ward̲j̲iyya

(19 words)

ward̲j̲iyya (A), and wariyya, huwayriyya : in Kuwayt, the local open boat made from palm fibres. Milāḥa

wariḳ

(74 words)

wariḳ (A) : in numismatics, silver money, distinguished from gold money, ʿayn, and refined silver in bars or ingots, nu…

warrāḳ

(43 words)

warrāḳ (A) : lit. producer or seller of leaves, Waraḳ; in mediaeval Islam, the copyist of manuscript…

wars

(83 words)

wars (A) : a yellow dye from a perennial plant cultivated in Yemen, identified as curcuma. Lombok; or as Memecylon tinc…

wasaḳ

(29 words)

wasaḳ (A, pl. awsuḳ) : a measure of volume, reportedly equivalent to 300 Ṣāʿ according to the ṣāʿ of the Prophet, or …

wasaṭ

(24 words)

wasaṭ (A, pl. awsāṭ) : in astronomy, the mean motion. Zīd̲j̲ wasaṭ al-s̲h̲ams (A) : i…

wasāṭa

(87 words)

wasāṭa (A) : in Fāṭimid administration, a function which involved interposing and interceding betwee…

wasé kuala

(39 words)

wasé kuala : in Aceh in Indonesia, a tax demanded by the shahbandar ‘harbour master’ for disembarking or loading…

waṣf

(41 words)

waṣf (A) : lit. description; in poetry, a literary genre of flattering or embellished description. W…

was̲h̲aḳ

(18 words)

was̲h̲aḳ (A), or kiṭṭ-namir : in zoology, the Serval or Tiger-Cat ( Leptailurus serval). Fahd; lynx. Farw

was̲h̲īd̲j̲

(19 words)

was̲h̲īd̲j̲ (A) : in botany, a tree (ash ?) mentioned as providing wood for spear shafts. Silāḥ

was̲h̲m

(37 words)

was̲h̲m (A) : tattooing; a woman who tattoos other is wās̲h̲ima and a woman who asks to be tattooed is mustaws̲h̲ima, bo…

waṣī

(192 words)

waṣī (A, pl. awṣiyāʾ, waṣiyyūn) : in law, the executor of a will. ʿAbd; Waḳf In s̲h̲īʿī theology, variously rendere…

waṣīf

(29 words)

waṣīf (A) : in the terminology of childhood, ‘[a boy] who has become of full stature and fit for ser…

wāṣil

(47 words)

wāṣil (A) : lit. reaching; in grammar, used by Ibn al-Sarrād̲j̲ to refer to a level of interaction b…

wāsiṭa

(43 words)

wāsiṭa (A) : mediator. al-Suhrawardī; under the Fāṭimids, a minister who was given neither the title…

wasḳ

(34 words)

wasḳ (A) : a measure of capacity which was used in the Ḥid̲j̲āz in the days of Muḥammad, equal to 60…

waṣl

(72 words)

waṣl (A), or ṣila : in prosody, a letter of prolongation following the rawī ‘rhyme letter’. It can also consist o…

waṣla

(21 words)

waṣla (A) : Egyptian musical composition, which combined elements of the earlier local Nawba and the…

wasm

(72 words)

wasm (A, pl. wusūm) : brand, as in camel brands by which Bedouin identify their camels. Brands are some…

wā-sōk̲h̲t

(67 words)

wā-sōk̲h̲t (U, P) : in Perso-Urdu literary criticism, a theme intrinsic to Persian love poetry that …

wasūṭ

(38 words)

wasūṭ (A) : among the pre-Islamic Bedouin, a tent made of hair, generally said to be smaller than th…

waswās

(13 words)

waswās (A) : satanic whispering in the heart, inciting evil. Īlg̲h̲āzī
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