Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Glossary and Index of Terms

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs
Assisted by C. Ott, under the patronage of the International Union of Acadamies

Glossary and Index of Terms treats the technical terms in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and other languages or dialects of the Islamic world. As an index, it is of immeasurable importance, in particular for the many terms which are not given an entry but are discussed in the course of an article; and as glossary it is an invaluable source of information for both non-specialist, who is given an insight into the varied and rich vocabulary of Islam, and the specialist, who may discover surprising new contexts in which a term is used.

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(68 words)

awāʾil (A, s. Awwal ‘first’) : a term used to denote e.g. the ‘primary data’ of philosophical or phy…


(28 words)

awārad̲j̲ (A) : in classical Muslim administration, a register showing the debts owed by individual …


(80 words)

ʿawāriḍ (A) : a term used under the Ottomans down to the second quarter of the 19th century to denot…


(34 words)

awārik (A) : ‘eaters of arāk leaves’, the name of a famous breed of white camels raised by the Bedouin li…


(71 words)

ʿawāṣim (A, s. ʿāṣima) : lit. protectresses; strongholds in the frontier zone extended between the Byza…


(15 words)

ʿawbar (A), or hawbar : in zoology, the whelp of the cheetah. Fahd


(24 words)

awbās̲h̲ (A) : ‘riff-raff’, the name given to groups of young men who were considered elements of di…


(32 words)

awd̲j̲ (A, < San učča; pl. awd̲j̲āt) : in astronomy, the apogee, the farthest point in a planet’s orbit. T…


(26 words)

awhāz (A) : attendants (who, al-Hamdānī writes, stood at the gates of the ancient town of Ẓafār in Y…


(36 words)

ʿawl (A) : lit. deviation by excess; in law, the method of increasing the common denominator of the …


(171 words)

awlād (A, s. walad ‘child’) : sons, children; for the many other designations for childhood and its sub…


(13 words)

awmaʾa (A) : to notify with a gesture, syn. as̲h̲āra. Martaba


(133 words)

awtād (A, s. watid ‘tent peg’) : in prosody, one of two pairs of metrical components distinguished by a…


(17 words)

awtār (A, s. watar) : in music, the strings of a musical instrument. Malāhī; ʿŪd


(22 words)

ʿawwāʾ (A) : in mediaeval ʿIrāḳ, a vagabond who begs between sunset and the evening worship, at times singing. Mukaddī


(74 words)

awwal (A, pl. Awāʾil) : first. In philosophy, ~ was brought into Muslim thought by the Arab translators of…


(61 words)

awzān (A, s. Wazn) : in music, a Turkish instrument popular with the Mamlūk sultans of Egypt. Ibn G̲…


(70 words)

āya (A, pl. āyāt) : sign, token; miracle; a verse of the Qurʾān. al-Awzāʿī; al-Ḳurʾān; miracle of the p…


(127 words)

aʿyān (A, s. ʿAyn) : notables, the eminent under the caliphate and subsequent Muslim regimes. Aya Solūk; Dustūr Under …


(13 words)

ʿayb (A) : a fault in a person. K̲h̲āṣṣekī; and Kabāra


(10 words)

ayhuḳān (A) : in botany, wild rocket. Naʿām


(38 words)

ayḳas̲h̲ (A) : a system according to which the ṭālibs ‘students’ of North Africa use the numerical value of l…


(18 words)

aym (A) : in zoology, a large snake, called yaym on the Arabian peninsula. Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab


(222 words)

ʿayn (A) : eye; evil eye; the thing viewed; source. Aymak; a flowing spring. Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab; obs…


(24 words)

ayran (T) : a cool refreshing drink made from Yog̲h̲urt and water, called dūg̲h̲ in Persian and lassi in India. Yi̊ld…


(21 words)

ayt (B) : ‘sons of’, used either in compounds, or before a proper noun to indicate a tribe. ʿAynṭāb


(59 words)

aywaz (T, < A ʿiwaḍ) : a term applied to the footmen employed in great households in the later Ottoman e…


(81 words)

ʿayyār (A) : lit. rascal, tramp, vagabond; a term applied to certain warriors who were grouped toget…


(47 words)

ayyil (A) : in zoology, the mountain goat. The descriptions given by the zoologists, however, apply …


(51 words)

ʿazab (A, T ʿ azeb) : lit. an unmarried man or woman, a virgin; the term applied to several types of fig…


(20 words)

ʿazāba (A, < ʿIṣāba ?) : a headdress with pearls and gold worn in Morocco and Egypt. Tulband


(34 words)

azal (A) : eternity; in philosophy, ~ or azaliyya is a technical term corresponding to ἀγένητος, meaning ung…


(40 words)

azala (A) : a special unit of 100 cubic cubits ‘of balance’, used in mediaeval ʿIrāḳ to count the vo…


(43 words)

azalay (B) : a term for the great caravans made up of several thousand dromedaries which carry the s…


(12 words)

ʿaẓāliyyāt (A) : in zoology, the order of saurians. Timbuktu


(38 words)

ʿazīb (A), or ʿazl, hans̲h̲īr : ‘latifundium’, a form of land tenure in ancient North Africa. Arrān; lan…


(47 words)

ʿazīma (A) : determination, resolution, fixed purpose; in religious law, ~ is an ordinance as interp…


(36 words)

ʿazīz (A) : powerful, respected; in the science of Tradition, a Tradition coming from one man of suf…


(14 words)

ʿazl (A) : coitus interruptus. ʿAzīzī; Tanẓīm al-Nasl, Tanẓīm al-Usra; and ʿAzīb


(21 words)

azraḳ (A) : the colour blue, also having the sense of ‘livid, haggard’. Its plural, zarāḳīm, designates snakes. Lawn


(15 words)

azyab (A) : in Yemen, the southeast wind. Adamawa; the north-east wind. Milāḥa


(69 words)

ʿazzāba (A, s. ʿazzābī) : ‘recluses’, ‘clerks’. Among the Ibāḍiyya, members of a special council, Ḥalḳa, pr…
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