Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(5 words)

[see ḳabra ]


(809 words)

Author(s): Friedmann, Y.
, a Persian history of the Arab incursions into Sind in the 1st/7th and 8th centuries, with an introductory chapter concerning the history ¶ of the province on the eve of the Arab conquest (ed. Dāʾūdpota, New Delhi 1939, 14-72) and an epilogue describing the tragic end of the Arab commander ¶ Muḥammad b. al-Ḳāsim and of the two daughters of Dāhir, the defeated king of Sind ( ibid., 243-7). According to the author, ʿAlī b. Ḥāmid b. Abī Bakr Kūfī (about whom see Storey, i, 650), the Čač-Nāma is a translation of an Arabic book which Kūfī found some time after 613/1216-17 in the possession of the ḳāḍī


(3,895 words)

Author(s): Levtzion, N.
, Chad , a region of Inner Africa. The Republic of Chad (area: 1, 284,000 km2; population: about 4,000,000 in 1975) is one of the four states which emerged from the former French Equatorial Africa. The country stretches over 1,600 km.…


(5 words)

[see ḳādis ]


(9 words)

[see ḳaysariyya , kayseri , s̲h̲ars̲h̲al ]


(1,044 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(Arabic rendering: Ṣag̲h̲āniyān). In the early Middle Ages this was the name given to the district of the Čag̲h̲ān-Rūd [ q.v.] valley. This river is the northernmost tributary of the river Āmū-Daryā [ q.v.]. The district lies to the north of the town of Tirmid̲h̲ [ q.v.], the area of which, however, (including Čamangān) did not form part of Čag̲h̲āniyān either politically or administratively (Ibn Ḵh̲urradād̲h̲bih, 39). Wē/ais̲h̲agirt (= Fayḍābād) was regarded as the boundary with the district of Ḵh̲uttalān ([


(211 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
( Čag̲h̲ān-Rōd̲h̲…

Čag̲h̲atay K̲h̲ān

(875 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
, founder of the Čag̲h̲atay Ḵh̲anate [ q.v.], the second son of Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān and his chief wife Börte Fud̲j̲in. Already in his father’s lifetime he was regarded as the greatest authority on the Yasa (the tribal laws of the Mongols as codified by Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān). Like his brothers he took part in his father’s campaigns against China (1211-1216) and against the kingdom of the Ḵh̲wārizm-S̲h̲āh (1219-1224). Urgānd̲j̲, the latter’s capital, was besieged by the three princes Ḏj̲oči, Čag̲h̲atay and Ögedey and taken in Ṣafar 618/27th March-24th April 1221. In the same year Čag̲h̲atay’s eldest son Mö’etüken was slain before Bāmiyān. After the battle on the Indus (according to Nasawī, transl. Houdas, 83, on Wednesday 7 S̲h̲awwāl 618, probably 24 Novem…

Čag̲h̲atay K̲h̲ānate

(1,526 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
The Central Asian Ḵh̲ānate to which Čag̲h̲atay gave his name was re…


(1,519 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
Dāwūd b. Mīk̲h̲āʾīl b. Sald̲j̲ūḳ was the brother of Ṭug̲h̲ri̊l-Beg [ q.v.], and the co-founder with him of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid dynasty. The careers of both brothers were, for the most part, inextricably bound together. It is difficult to ascertain which was the elder brother. They seem to have been born about 380-385/990-995, and there is no evidence whether their family was already, or only later became, Muslim. Little is known about their life before the year 416/1025. They were orphaned at an early age, and must have been brought up, …

Čahār Aymaḳ

(252 words)

Author(s): Frye, R.N.
, four semi-nomadic tribes in western Afg̲h̲ānistān [see aymaḳ ]. There is little inform…

Čahār Maḳāla

(8 words)

[see niẓāmī ʿarūḍī samarḳandī ]


(142 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, chief falconer, a high official of the Ottoman court. In the Ḳānūnnāme of Meḥemmed II ( TOEM Supp. 1330 A.H., 12) he is mentioned among the ag̲h̲a s of the stirrup, immediately before the čas̲h̲nagīr-bas̲h̲i̊ [ q.v.]. During the 16th century the numbers and sub-divisions of the ag̲h̲as of the hunt ( s̲h̲ikār ag̲h̲alari̊ ) increased greatly, and the Čaki̊rd̲j̲i̊-bas̲h̲i̊ is joined by separate officers in charge of the peregrines, lanners, and sparrow-hawks ( S̲h̲ahind̲j̲i-bas̲h̲i̊ , Dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊-bas̲h̲i̊ , and Atmad̲j̲ad̲j̲i̊-bas̲h̲i̊ ). Until the ti…


(401 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Mustafa Fevzi , also called Kavak̲lı, marshal in the Turkish army. Born in Istanbul in 1876, he was the son of an artillery colonel. He entered the war academy (Harbiye, [ q.v.]) where he became a lieutenant in 1895, joined the staff course, and was gazetted as a staff captain in 1898. After …


(585 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Sayf al-Din , Sultan of Egypt, was in his youth enrolled among the Mamlūks of Sulṭān Barḳūḳ. He gradually rose, till under Sulṭān Barsbāy he became Chief ḥād̲j̲ib [ q.v.]. Chief Master of the Horse, and finally Atābeg (Commander-in-Chief). On his deathbed in 842/1438, Barsbāy appointed him regent to his infant son al-Malik al-ʿAzīz Yūsuf. The various divisions of the Mamlūks, originating in the bodyguards of the Sulṭāns Barḳūḳ, Nāṣir Farad̲j̲, Muʾayyad S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ and Barsbāy, were at enmity with one another…


(762 words)

Author(s): Hasan, Mohibbul
, a tribal group which emigrated to Kas̲h̲mīr from Dardistān under their leader Lankar Čak during the reign of Rād̲j̲ā Sūhadeva (1301-20). S̲h̲ams al-Dīn (739-42/1339-42), the founder of the Sultanate in Kas̲h̲mīr, made Lankar Čak his commander-in-chief, patronising the Čaks in order to counteract the power of the feudal chiefs. During the early part of Sulṭān Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn’s reign, Pāndū, the leader of the Čaks, organised a strike as a protest against corvée labour, and set fire to the Sulṭān’s palace and some government buildings. As a puni…
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