Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(227 words)

Author(s): Shaki, M.
, Ḥabīb allāh (1808-54) was the greatest Persian poet of the Ḳād̲j̲ār period. He was born at S̲h̲īrāz, lost his father, the poet Guls̲h̲an, at the age of eleven and found a patron in the governor of S̲h̲īrāz, Ḥasan ʿAlī Mīrzā S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ al-Salṭana, who gave him the pen-name of Ḳāʾānī. As a court panegyrist he was granted by Muḥammad S̲h̲āh the title of Ḥassān al-ʿAd̲j̲am . He settled in Tehran shortly before 1848 and was favoured by Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh with the title of Malik al-S̲h̲uʿarāʾ . Ḳāʾānī was a man of erudition, and the first Persian poet to master French. His dīwān


(759 words)

Author(s): Cornevin, R.
, a region of Mali with an area of around 54,000 square km. It is bounded on the north by Mauritanian Hōd̲h̲, on the south by Beledugu and Fuladugu, and on the west by the River Senegal from the western branch of the River Kulu as far as the Baoulé junction. The rivers of this vast schistose plateau tilting to the south east flow into Senegal. The climate is that of the Saharan zone: a brief season of abundant rain followed by a very long dry season. The vegetation is wooded or shrubbed ¶ savannah. The land on the river banks often produces two harvests. The main crops are millet, maize…


(6,726 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J. | Jomier, J.
, the most famous sanctuary of Islam, called the temple or house of God ( Bayt Allāh ). It is situated almost in the centre of the great mosque in Mecca. Muslims throughout the whole world direct their prayers to this sanctuary, where every year hundreds of thousands of pilgrims make the greater ( ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ ) or lesser ( ʿumra ) pilgrimage. Around it they gather and make their ritual circuits; around the Kaʿba the young Muslim community spent the early years of Islam. For the Muslim community the Kaʿba holds a place analogous to that of the temple in Jerusalem for ancient Jewry. I. The Kaʿba and …


(1,416 words)

Author(s): Ferjani, M.Ch.
, Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿUmar (1230-88/1815-71), poet, man of letters and religious figure, and one of the precursors of reform in Tunisia. After having learnt the Ḳurʾān, Arabic language and the rudiments of fiḳh , he left the kuttāb or Ḳurʾān school and plunged into individual readings of the mystics, and especially, the writings of Ibn al-ʿArabī [ q.v.]. Under this influence, he spent his youthful life as a dervish. At the age of 18, his wanderings took him as far as Libya, where at Misrāṭa he met a famed Ṣūfī master, the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Muḥammad āfir al-Madanī (d. 1854). In this s̲h̲ayk…

Kaʿb al-Aḥbār

(738 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, M.
, Abū Iṣhāḳ b. Mātiʿ b. Haysuʿ/Haynūʿ , a Yemenite Jew who became a convert to Islam, probably in 17/638 (al-Ṭabarī, i, 2514), and is considered the oldest authority on Judaeo-Islamic traditions. Ḥibr/ḥabr , from the Hebrew ḥāber , the scholarly title immediately below rabbi current among Babylonian Jewish scholars, is presumed to be equivalent to the Arabic ʿālim (al-K̲h̲awārizmī, Mafātīḥ , 35); in Kaʿb al-Aḥbār the plural is a determinative complement, while in the less frequent Kaʿb al-Ḥabr the latter element is in apposition to Kaʿb. Lidzbarski ( De propheticis ... legendis arabici…

Kabakči̊-Og̲h̲lu Muṣṭafā

(400 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
, chief of the rebellion which overthrew the Ottoman sultan Selīm III. Originally from Kastamuni, a town in north western Anatolia, he was chosen as their leader by the yamaks (supernumerary janissaries) of the Rumelikavak fortresses on the Bosphorus, who rioted on 17 Rabīʿ I 1222/25 May 1807 upon the instigation of the ḳāʾim-maḳam of the grand vizier, Köse Mūsā Pas̲h̲a, and the S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām ʿAṭāʾ Allāh Efendi. He conducted the rebellion in an orderly manner, put to death the principal organizers of the Niẓām-i d̲j̲edīd [ q.v.] and served the aims of the instigators of the …


(2,034 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.) “guarantee”, a juridical term used mainly in connection with fiscal practice, in a manner which is still very difficult to define precisely. The particular field with which this discussion is concerned is a double one—that of the levying of the land-tax, k̲h̲arād̲j̲ [ q.v.], and that of special taxes, mukūs . As was already the case before the Arab conquest both in the Byzantine Empire and under the Sasanids, local communities were held jointly responsible by the Treasury for the payment at the required time of the ful…


(766 words)

Author(s): Salihoǧlu, Hülya
, a Muslim people of the Caucasus. In Russian they are called Kabardintsi̊, in Turkish Kabartaylar; other designation, Käsäg. The name of the Kabards was first mentioned as Cheuerthei by Barbaro, who visited the Caucasus in 1436. Its etymology remains uncertain. The Kabard language belongs to the eastern branch of the Adi̊ghe (Čerkes) linguistic group, which is also referred to as “high Adi̊ghe”. According to the 1926 Soviet census, there were 139,925 Kabards ethnically and 138,925 linguistically. The census of 1939 records 164,000 Kabards. The Kabards live in the basin of Uppe…


(249 words)

Author(s): Lakhdar, M.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḥusayn al-Tamgrūtī al-Darʿī al-Raḳḳī (from al-Raḳḳa [ q.v.], his native town), a very famous Moroccan saint. Born in the zāwiya of Sayyid al-Nās as it was called (from the name of the Prophet), the founder of which was Abū Isḥāḳ al-Anṣārī, known under the name of Sayyidī Ibrāhīm al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲, he grew up there in prayer and asceticism. Accompanied by the son of this latter, Aḥmad, he went to the zāwiya of Tamgrūt, founded by Abū Ḥafṣ, ʿUmar b. Aḥmad al-Anṣārī, in Ramaḍān 983/Dec.-Jan. 1575-76, and settled there until his death on Friday 12 …


(5 words)

[see mīzān ].


(900 words)

Author(s): Stoetzer, W.
, Nizār Tawfīḳ (1923-98), the most widely read and, with over 18,000 lines of verse, the most prolific 20th-century Arabic poet, an important innovator of form and content. Ḳabbānī became a diplomat in 1945 after finishing his law studies in his native Damascus, but he left the service in 1966 so as to devote himself to full-time writing in Beirut, where he started his own publishing house (Dār Mans̲h̲ūrāt Nizār Ḳabbānī) in 1967. He …

Kaʿb b. al-As̲h̲raf

(386 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, opponent of Muḥammad at Medina, reckoned to belong to his mother’s clan al-Naḍīr, though his father was an Arab of the Nabhān section of Ṭayyiʾ. He presumably followed the Jewish custom of taking his religion from his mother, but it is doubtful if he was a scholar, as the words in a poem sayyid al-aḥbār (Ibn His̲h̲ām, 659, 12) would imply, if the poem were genuine. Aroused by the deaths of many leading Meccans at Badr, he went to Mecca and used his considerable poetic gifts (he is called faḥl faṣiḥ in K. al-Ag̲h̲ānī ) to incite Ḳurays̲h̲ to fight the Muslims. On hi…

Kaʿb b. Ḏj̲uʿayl al-Tag̲h̲labī

(726 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, a minor Arab poet of the 1st/7th century whom Ibn Sallām ( Ṭabaḳāt , 485-9) places in the 3rd rank of Islamic poets. His genealogy varies with the different authors (Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Tab. 165, no doubt provides the most accurate one), and very little is known of his life. Probably born during the earliest years of the Hid̲j̲ra , he made his appearance at the time of the battle of Ṣiffīn (37/657) as an intimate of Muʿāwiya, of whom, like most of the Tag̲h̲lib [ q.v.], he was a passionate supporter. The conflict with ʿAlī inspired him to write a number of poems, in particular…

Kaʿb b. Mālik

(484 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh or Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān , one of the poets supporting Muḥammad, was an Anṣārī of the clan of Salima of the tribe of al-K̲h̲azrad̲j̲ [see al-anṣār ]. He must have been born before 600 A.D., since he is said to have taken part in the internal fighting in Medina before the Hid̲j̲ra, and to have been present at the second ʿAḳaba [ q.v.], when allegiance was sworn to Muḥammad. He was not present at Badr, but took part in most of the subsequent expeditions led by Muḥammad. At Uḥud he received seve…

Kaʿb b. Zuhayr

(463 words)

Author(s): Basset, R.
, an Arab poet and contemporary of the Prophet. A son of Zubayr b. Abī Sulmā [ q.v.], he seems to have given proof of his poetic talent at an early age; although belonging to the Muzayna, he lived with the D̲h̲ubyān and was involved in the wars of his tribe against the Ṭayyiʾ, the Ḳurays̲h̲ and the K̲h̲azrad̲j̲. His brother Bud̲j̲ayr was converted shortly before year 7 of the


(1,523 words)

Author(s): Linant de Bellefonds, Y. | Lings, M. | Ben Cheneb, Moh. | Bonebakker, S.A.
(a.), verbal noun meaning “seizure”, “grasping”, “contraction”, “abstention”, etc., and used in the special vocabulary of various disciplines. i.—In fiḳh the word signifies taking possession of, handing over. In Mālikī law ḥiyāza is more frequently used. Tasallum is also employed to mean the act of handing over. Taking possession is accomplished by the material transfer of the thing when movable goods are involved; by occupation when it is a question of real estate, but also symbolically by the handing over of the keys or title deeds of the property. Ḳabḍ only …


(8,033 words)

Author(s): Rodinson, M.
(according to lexicographers the only correct form) or Kabd , Kibd , “the liver”. 1. Names for the liver and their semantic field. The Muslim peoples, like all others, recognised the internal organs of the human body and identified them with the analogous organs of animals. They also attributed to them one or another physiological and psychosomatic function based on observations which they interpreted according to mental structures that are only partially clear to us. Language itself testifies to these early identifications. As E. Bargheer says, “these are significant …


(583 words)

Author(s): Yurdaydin, Hüseyin G.
(?—934/1527), heretic of the early 10th/16th century. Originally from Persia, he came to Istanbul, where he was educated. In 934/1527 he was publicly maintaining, in different parts of the city, that the Ḳurʾān depended in large measure upon the Old and New Testaments, and that Jesus was superior to Muḥammad. Complaints being made to the authorities, on 8 Ṣafar 934/3 November 1527 Ḳābiḍ was brought before the imperial dīwān , where he was interrogated by the ḳāḍīʿaskers of Rumeli (Fenārīzade Muḥyī al-Dīn) and Anatolia (Ḳādirī Čelebi). He …


(5 words)

[see hābīl ].


(2,113 words)

Author(s): Chelhod, J.
(a.) denotes a large agnatic group, the members of which claim to be descended from one common ancestor; this word is generally understood in the sense of tribe. It derives from the Arabic root ḳ-b-l , of which the form ḳābala signifies to meet, to be face to face with. The definition given by al-Nuwayrī ( Nihāya , ii, 269), the only one, we believe, which refers to its morphology, refers specifically to this etymology: “the ḳabīla was so named because its component parts are placed face to face and in equal numbers”. Its structure seems indeed to …


(563 words)

Author(s): Asani, Ali S.
, North Indian mystic and poet (d. ca. 1448). Although Kabīr is regarded as one of the most influential saint-poets of mediaeval Northern India, there is very little authentic information concerning his life. We can reliably state that he was born in Benares to a family of low-caste Muslim weavers called d̲j̲ulāhā s, probably in the opening years of the 9th/15th century. Beyond this, various hagiographies of Kabīr, depending on the authors’ sectarian affiliation, make competing claims that he was a Muslim Ṣūfī, a Hindu with …


(58 words)

(a., pl. kabāʾir ), a term of Islamic theology meaning “grave [sin]”, occurring in Ḳurʾān, II, 42/39, 138/143 and passim . It was the stimulus for much discussion amongst theologians and sectaries like the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ites [ q.v.] on what constituted a grave sin and how committing one affected a man’s salvation. For a discussion, see k̲h̲aṭīʾa .

Kabīr Panthīs

(5 words)

[see Supplement].


(5,740 words)

Author(s): Talbi, M.
(Gabès), a town in Tunisia on the gulf of the same name (the Little Syrte of antiquity), 404 km. to the south of Tunis and 150 km. from Gafsa [see ḳafsa…


(811 words)

Author(s): Pingree, D.
, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAlī , Abu ’l-Ṣaḳr , astrologer, came from one of two towns called Ḳabīṣa (Yaḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am al-buldān , iv, 308 of the Beirut ed.), the one two farsak̲h̲s east of Mawṣil and the other near Sāmarrā. He is said by Ibn al-Nadīm (ed. Flügel, 265; quoted by Ibn al-Ḳifṭī, ed. Lippert, 64) to have studied Ptolemy’s Almagest under ʿAlī b. Aḥmad al-ʿImrānī of Mawṣil (d. 344/955-6) “in our time”; Ibn al-Ḳifṭī adds that this refers to 370/980-1. Al-Ḳabīṣī is in fact cited by al-ʿImrānī in his In electionibus horarum (J. M. Millás Vallicrosa, Las traducciones orientales, Mad…


(11,847 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | MacKenzie, D.N.
, D̲j̲abal al-Ḳabḳ (the most common rendering), al-Ḳabk̲h̲ ( e.g., Masʿūdī) or al-Ḳabd̲j̲ ( e.g. Ṭabarī, Yāḳūt), Turkish Kavkaz, the name given by the Muslims to the Caucasus Mountains. The form


(19,985 words)

Author(s): Gammer, M. | Knysh, A.
History. 1. For the early Islamic period up to the Mongol and Tīmūrid periods, see Vol. III, 343-50. 2. The period 1500-1800. Compared to previous and later epochs, these three centuries are among the least studied periods in the history of the Caucasus. The main reason for that lies not in the unavailability of sources but rather in their inaccessibility until the recent past. The Russian ¶ archives the most used ones are far from having been fully scrutinised. In the Ottoman archives, only the surface has been scratched, chiefly due to the efforts of French …


(391 words)

Author(s): Cornevin, R.
, alocality in Togo(9° 25′N., 0° 50′E.), 24 km. to the north of Bassari, an important market whose prosperity, in pre-colonial times, was based ¶ partly on the barter of crude iron given to the Kabre iron-smiths of Lama-Kara in exchange for slaves, and partly on its function as a halting place on the kolacaravan routes. The presence in Kabou of Muslim outsiders (particularly Ḥawsa and D̲j̲erma) was therefore not unusual. It was a certain Oukpane, a native of K…


(3,530 words)

Author(s): Sourdel-Thomine, J. | Y. Linant de Bellefonds
(a.), tomb was first applied to the pit used as a burial place for a corpse, as was the term ḍarīḥ , giving rise to its habitual use in the text of numerous epitaphs containing the expression hād̲h̲ā ḳabru ... “This is the grave of . . .”. Originally distinguished from the term ṣandūḳ , “cenotaph” (cf., J. Sauvaget, “ Les perles choisiesd’Ibn ach-Chihna , Beirut 1933, 212 and “ Les trésors d’orde Sibt al-ʿAjamī , Beirut 1950, 184), it had the more general meaning of the tumulus or construction covering the grave to bring it to notice, a custom c…


(464 words)

Author(s): Arié, R.
, in Spanish Cabra, a town in a mountainous region of Andalusia to the south-east of Cordoba, situated at an altitude of 448 m. on the slopes of the Sierra de Cabra; at present it is the centre of a partido judicial of the province of Cordoba and has a population of 20,000. The Muslim town of Ḳabra, which succeeded the Roman Igabrum — one of the principal cities of Baetica according to Pliny — ranked as one of the fortresses of al-Andalus. Colonised by the d̲j̲und


(471 words)

Author(s): Hila, M.H. el-
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim K̲h̲alaf b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-G̲h̲āfiḳī , poet and letter-writer, from the island in the Guadalquivir called Ḳabtawra or Ḳabtūra (formerly Caput Tauri, Ibn K̲h̲aldūn—de Slane, Hist . des Berbères , ii, 113; today Isla Mayor, south of Seville). The son of a Sevillian scholar, he was born in S̲h̲awwāl 615/December 1218-January 1219. After the fall of Seville (646/1248) he moved to Ceuta, where he became head of the chancellery of the ʿAzafid emirate; following the death of the amīr Abu ’l-Ḳāsim al-ʿAzafī he left Ceuta for Tunis and there taught


(296 words)

Author(s): Ferrando, I.
, Banu ’l -, a family of 5th/11th-century al-Andalus whose Arabic nasab was the Banū Saʿīd. They comprised three brothers who were poets and also secretaries to the Afṭasid prince of Badajoz, Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar al-Mutawakkil (464-88/1072-95 [ q.v. and afṭasids ]), and then were subsequently in the chancery of the Almoravids. The laḳab of al-Ḳabṭūrnuh (according to other sources, al-Ḳabṭūrnah or al-Ḳubṭūrnuh) suggests an Hispanic origin, probably one stemming from the Low Latin * capiturnus “having a large head”. The first of the …


(2,050 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
1. A river of Afg̲h̲ānistān and the Northwest Frontier region of Pākistān, 700 km. long and rising near the Unai Pass in lat. 34° 21′ N. and long. 68° 20′ E. It receives the affluents of the Pand̲j̲hīr, Alingar, Kunar and Swat Rivers from the north, and the Lōgar from the south, and flows eastwards to the Indian plain, joining the Indus at Atak (Attack). The Ḥudūd al-ʿālam (end of 4th/10th century) calls it “the River of Lamg̲h̲ān”, and describes it as flowing from the mountains bordering on Lamg̲h̲ān and Dunpūr, passing by Nangrahār (sc. …


(5 words)

[see bayʿ ].


(112 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the upper basin of the Kābul River (see preceding article), vaguely defined in early Islamic times as the region between Bāmiyān in the west and Lamg̲h̲ān in the east. The geographer Muḳaddāsī (c. 375/985) includes within it all the country north of G̲h̲azna and Zābulistān, i.e., the Lōgar valley, cf. Le Strange, Lands of the Eastern Caliphate , 349; and it is only about this time that the term “Kābul” becomes specialised for the name of the town rather than being applied to the whole region of Kābulistān. In contemporary Afg̲h̲…

Ḳābūs b. Wus̲h̲magīr b. Ziyār

(901 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, S̲h̲ams al-Maʿālī Abu’l-Ḥasan (reigned 366-71/977-81 and ¶ 388-403/998 to 1012-13), fourth ruler of the Ziyārid dynasty which had been founded by Mardāwīd̲j̲ b. Ziyār [ q.v.] and which ruled in Ṭabaristān and Gurgān (Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān). Like other families rising to prominence in the “Daylamī interlude” of Persian history, the Ziyārids endeavoured to attach themselves to the pre-Islamic Iranian past, and Ḳābūs’s grandson Kay Kāʾūs makes Ḳābūs’s ancestors rulers of Gīlān in the time of Kay K̲h̲usraw ( Ḳābūs-nāma , Preface). As under his predecessors, suze…


(6 words)

[see kay kāʾūs ].


(6,423 words)

Author(s): Isnard, H. | Tourneau, R. le
, a mountainous region in the Algerian Tell. The word Kabylia, coined by the French, means “land of the Kabyles” ( bilād al-Ḳabāʾil ). This name is of fairly recent origin, however, for it is not found in the works of Arabic historians and geographers; it is probably of oral origin and intended for use by foreigners, i.e., Europeans; it seems to have been introduced into geographic nomenclature by European writers from the 16th century onwards. The word “Kabyle”, the etymology of which is sometimes questioned, seems to correspond to the Arabic word ḳabāʾil , plural of ḳabīla

Kaččhī or Kaččh Gandāwa

(424 words)

Author(s): Longworth Dames, M.
, province of Pākistānī Balūčistān extending from 27° 53′ to 29° 35′ N. and from 67° 11′ to 68° 28′ E. It forms a level plain enclosed on the north and east by the southern Sulaymān range and on the west by the Kirthār Ranges. To the south it is open, being bounded by the plain of northern Sindh. The history of the region is more closely connected with that of Sindh than that of Balūčistān. Its chief town, Kandābīl (probably Gandāwa) is said to have been taken by the Brāhman Rāy Čač in the 7th century A.D., and to have been despoiled by the Arabs many times after the conquest. The region later ¶ passed into…


(799 words)

Author(s): Káldy-Nagy, Gy.
(a.), originally meaning “decision”, has in the Ḳurʾān different meanings, according to the different contexts: e.g., “doomsday” (XLV, 17; X, 93), “jurisdiction” (XXVII, 78; XXXIX, 69; XL, 20), “revelation of the truth” (XXVIII, 44) and “predestination, determination, decree” (XL, 68) (cf. E. Tyan, Histoire de l’organisation judiciaire en pays d’Islam 2, Leiden 1960, 65). In A Dictionary of Islam (London 1885, 479), T. P. Hughes gives the following concise definitions of the word: (1) the office of a ḳāḍī [ q.v.], or judge; (2) the sentence of a ḳāḍī; (3) repeating prayers to make …


(386 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a. and p.), literally “place of the [imprint of the] foot”, a village in K̲h̲urāsān, on the highway to Mas̲h̲had and some 20 km/12 miles ¶ east of Nīs̲h̲āpūr at the southern edge of the Kūh-i Bīnālūd (lat. 36° 07′ N., long. 59° 00′ E.). It is locally famed as a ziyāratgāh or place of pilgrimage, since the Eighth Imām of the S̲h̲īʿa, ʿAlī al-Riḍā [ q.v.], is said to have halted there and left the imprint of his foot on a stone, henceforth to be regarded with reverence; see Bess A. Donaldson, The wild rue. A study of Muhammadan magic and folklore in Iran , London 1938, 59, 148-9). The concept of sacred i…

Ḳadam S̲h̲arīf

(1,039 words)

Author(s): Arnold, T.W. | Burton-Page, J.
( Ḳadam Rasūl Allāh ). Among the miracles ( muʿd̲j̲izāt ) popularly attributed to Muḥammad was the fact that when he trod on a rock, his foot sank into the stone and left its impress there. This miracle is usually referred to along with others, e.g., that he cast no shadow, that if one of his hairs fell in the fire, it was not burnt, that flies did not settle on his clothes etc. (cf. al-Ḥalabī, al-Sīra al-Ḥalabiyya , Būlāḳ, 1292, iii, 407), or that his sandals left no imprint on the sand (cf. Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar al-Haytamī, commentary on al-Ḳaṣīda al-Ḥamziyya , 1. 176. (Ind. Off,…


(7 words)

[see al-ḳaḍāʾ wa ’l-ḳadar ].


(4,746 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, a name commonly used by Islamists to denote a group of theologians, not in itself homogeneous, who represented in one form or another the principle of liberum arbitrium (free will) in the early period of Islam, from about 70/690 ¶ to the definitive consolidation of the Muʿtazila [ q.v.] at the beginning of the 3rd/9th century. In Islamic sources the notion is ambivalent; only authors of a determinist standpoint use it in the above sense (in later works the term can also refer to the Muʿtazila). Authors of a non-determinist standpoint, on the…


(458 words)

Author(s): Chelhod, J.
(a.), a neologism of comparatively recent creation, generally understood in the sense of holiness. The word does not occur either in the Ḳurʾān or in ḥadīt̲h̲ , and the LA ignores it. On the other hand, the root ḳ-d-s is well known to the Arab lexicographers; the Ḳurʾān (II, 30, 87, 253; V, 21, no; XVI, 102; XX, 12; LIX, 23; LXII, 1; LXXIX, 16) and ḥadīt̲h̲ (Wensinck, Concordance ) use it sporadically. Basically, it is used to denote beings and objects that are pure, wholly unsullied or in touch with the divine. This religious meaning seems to be alien to Arabic and borrowed from Aramai…

al-Ḳaḍāʾ Wa ’l-Ḳadar

(2,598 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
When combined into one expression, these two words have the overall meaning of the Decree of God, both the eternal Decree (the most frequent meaning of ḳaḍāʾ) and the Decree given existence in time (the most frequent sense of ḳadar). Other translations are possible: for example, ḳaḍāʾ, predetermination (usually eternal but according to some schools operating within time); ḳadar, decree (usually operating within time but according to some schools eternal) or fate, destiny, in the sense of determined or fixed. It is also possible ¶ to use ḳaḍāʾ alone for Decree in its broadest sense…

Ḳaddūra al-Ḏj̲azāʾirī

(122 words)

Author(s): Lakhdar, M.
Of Tunisian ancestry, but settled in Algeria, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Saʿīd was, like his father, Saʿīd b. Ibrāhīm (d. S̲h̲awwāl 1066/July-Aug. 1656), the most learned man and greatest mufti of Algeria of his time. Amongst his most brilliant disciples was Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Muḥammad Ibn Zākūr al-Fāsī, to whom he was the last to grant an id̲j̲āza (beginning of Rad̲j̲ab 1094/26 June 1683). He died at Algiers on 15 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1098/12 Oct. 1687. (M. Lakhdar) Bibliography E. Lévi-Provençal, Chorfa, 288 and n. 5 Ḳādirī, Nas̲h̲r, ii, 93 idem, Iltiḳāṭ, fol. 40r idem, al-Nas̲h̲r al-kabīr, i…

Ḳaddūr al-ʿAlamī

(385 words)

Author(s): Lakhdar, M.
, the name by which is known the famous Moroccan popular poet ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Abi-lʾḲāsim al-Idrīsī al-ʿAlamī al-Ḥamdānī al-Ṭālibī al-ʿAbd al-Salāmī . He grew up in Meknes in an austere atmosphere, renouncing the pleasures of this world, spending his time visiting the tombs of the saints and enjoying the company of the pious. His teachers were al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ al-Muk̲h̲tār al-Baḳḳālī, ʿAlī b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān known as al-Ḏj̲amal. Mawlāy al-Ṭayyib al-Wazzānī, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Ṣiḳ…


(524 words)

Author(s): Linant de Bellefonds, Y.
(a.), slanderous accusation of fornication ( zināʾ [ q.v.]), or of illegitimate descent; in this latter case, it amounts to accusing the mother of fornication. The guilty party is punished by a fixed penalty ( ḥadd ) of 80 lashes, laid down by the Ḳurʾān (XXIV, 4). A slave guilty of the same crime therefore receives only 40 lashes, on account of the general principles of fiḳh . According to the majority of fuḳahāʾ , ḳad̲h̲f only occurs if the expressions used by the slanderer expressly relate to the fornication or illegitimate descent of the person who is slandered. The Mālikīs alone consider as ḳ…


(2,660 words)

Author(s): Tyan, E. | Káldy-Nagy, Gy.
(a.), “judge”, a representative of authority, invested with the power of jurisdiction ( ḳaḍāʾ ). In theory, the head of the community, the caliph, is the holder of all powers; like all other state officials, the ḳāḍī , is therefore a delegate ( nāʾib )—direct, if appointed by the Caliph in person, indirect and in varying degrees according to the situation if nominated by intermediate representatives ( wazīr , governor of a province, etc.). But in all cases the delegator retains the power to do justice in person (the principle of ,, retained justice.”) There is a ḳāḍī in the capital and a ḳāḍī in …

Ḳāḍī ʿAskar

(540 words)

Author(s): Káldy-Nagy, Gy.
(a.), “judge of the army”. The first data relating to the institution of the ḳāḍī, ʿaskar date from the 2nd/8th century: Kindī mentions that after Ṣāliḥ b. ʿAlī had become the governor of Egypt (c. 132/750), he organized a military expedition and appointed a judge over each unit of his army (E. Tyan, Histoire de l’organisation judiciaire en pays d’Islam 2, Leiden 1960, 529-30). In the Ayyūbid state the office of the ḳāḍī les̲h̲ker ( i.e., ḳāḍī ʿaskar ) first came into being in Saladin’s time (1138-93) (İ. H. Uzunçarşılı, Osmanlı devleti teşkilâtinamedhal 2, Ankara 1970, 387). The Anato…


(351 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, rod, one of the insignia of sovereignty of the caliph. As early as the Umayyad era, the rod ( ḳaḍīb ) or staff ( ʿaṣā ) was already, along with the seal, one of the badges of rank which was conveyed with speed to the new caliph on the death of his predecessor. This custom was adhered to under the first ʿAbbāsid caliphs, notably after the death of al-Manṣūr, who ended his life at Mecca, and after the deaths of al-Mahdī and Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd, who perished during an expedition to the eastern provinces; in these cases a special messenger, bearing the ḳaḍīb and the seal, was despatched to the heir …

al-Ḳāḍī al-Fāḍil

(966 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C. | Cahen, Cl.
, Abū ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Lak̲h̲mī al-Baysānī al-ʿAsḳalānī , Mūḥyī ( Mud̲j̲īr ) al-Dīn , the famous counsellor and secretary to Saladin, was born on 15 D̲j̲umādā II 529/3 April 1135 at ʿAsḳalān [ q.v.], where his father, a native of Baysān, known as al-Ḳāḍī al-As̲h̲raf, was the judge. He was put by his father into the Dīwān al-ins̲h̲āʾ at Cairo as a trainee, about 543-4/1148-9. Already before 548/1153 he entered the service of the ḳāḍī of Alexandria, Ibn Ḥadīd, as a secretary. As the elegant reports he drafted there bro…

al-Ḳāḍī al-Harawī

(6 words)

[see al-ʿabbādī ].

Ḳāḍī K̲h̲ān

(301 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th.W. | Linant de Bellefonds, Y.
, Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al-Ḥasan b. Manṣūr al-Farg̲h̲ānī . 6th/12th century Ḥanafī jurist (d. Ramaḍān 592/August 1196), a native of Transoxania, who wrote commentaries on those works of Muḥammad al-S̲h̲aybānī, Abū Ḥanīfa’s disciple, recognized as ẓāhir al-riwāya (authentic version). A few manuscript copies of his commentaries are extant, notably a S̲h̲arḥ al-D̲j̲āmiʿ al-ṣag̲h̲īr and a S̲h̲arḥ al-Ziyādāt in the Cairo National Library. Ḳāḍī K̲h̲ān’s fame rests on his Fatāwā , also called al-Fatāwā al-k̲h̲āniyya , not, as the name would seem to suggest, a…


(5 words)

[see ḳidam ].

Ḳāḍī Muḥammad

(341 words)

Author(s): Edmonds, C.J.
, a Sunnī of the S̲h̲āfiʿī mad̲h̲hab , b. c. 1895, was head of the leading aristocratic and religious family of Mahābād [ q.v.] (the principal town of the Kurdish part of the province of ¶ Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān since separated as the Third Ostan), where there was a tradition of lively Kurdish cultural activity. After succeeding his father, ʿAlī, as ḳāḍī he quickly established a reputation for outstanding competence and incisiveness alike as judge, orator and practical man of affairs. In August 1941 the Anglo-Russian invasion of Persia was followed by a general rising of the Kur…


(7 words)

[see marʾa , sarāy ].


(6 words)

[see al-asmāʾ al-ḥusnā ].

al-Ḳādir Bi’llāh

(1,484 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, 25th caliph of the ʿAbbāsid dynasty, who reigned from 381/991 to 422/1031. Born in 336/947-8, Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Isḥāḳ was the grandson of the Caliph al-Muḳtadir [ q.v.] and cousin of the Caliph al-Ṭāʾiʿ, who was deposed in 381/991 by the amīr Bahāʾ al-Dawla. Called to assume the caliphate by the latter, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās received the regnal name of al-Ḳādir bi’llāh. The amīr, who had met with some vestiges of resistance in al-Ṭāʾiʿ, hoped to find a more tractable ruler in the person of al-Ḳādir, who had had to flee from …


(611 words)

Author(s): Deverdun, G.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. al-Ṭayyīb b. ʿAbd al-Salām al-Ḥasanī al-Ḳādirī , s̲h̲arīf , Moroccan historian and biographer, born in Fās on 7 Rabīʿ I 1124/14 April 1712, died in the same town on 25 S̲h̲aʿbān 1187/11 November 1773. He was a pupil of the leading scholars of his time but, unlike them, throughout his life revealed an almost complete detachment from the good things of this world. Quite early he turned to Ṣūfism and, to make his living, was content to act as an ʿādil (legal witness to a deed). Al-Ḳādirī left a fairly considerable number of writings…

al-Ḳādirī al-Ḥasanī

(264 words)

Author(s): Lakhdar, M.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad al-ʿArabī b. al-Ṭayyīb , Moroccan scholar very learned in history and genealogy. He had eminent teachers in the various branches of knowledge, notably ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Fāsī, his two sons Muḥammad and ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, al-Ḥasan al-Yūsī, and the ḳāḍī Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Fāsī. He frequented well-known mystics, amongst others Ḳāsim al-K̲h̲aṣāṣī, Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh Maʿn al-Andalusī, in whose company he made the pilgrimage, and Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Idrīs al-Yamanī. All his works are devoted to mysticism: al-Ṭurfa fi ’k̲h̲tiṣār al-Tuḥfa (…

al-Ḳādirī al-Ḥasanī

(319 words)

Author(s): Lakhdar, M.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās (and Abu ’l-Faḍāʾil) Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad , Moroccan mystic who was also a man of the pen and of the sword. He owed his education to his stay at the zāwiya of Dilāʾ, profiting from the teaching of qualified masters such as al-Yūsī. He made the pilgrimage twice, in 1083/1673 and in 1100/1689. During his first stay in the East, he followed courses given by doctors learned in Islamic sciences, amongst whom were: ʿAlī al-Ud̲j̲hurī, ʿAbd al-Bāḳī al-Zurḳānī, and Muḥammad al-K̲h̲irs̲h̲ī. At the end of his second journey he composed a riḥla with the title Nasmat al-ā…

al-Kāḍirī al-Ḥasanī

(377 words)

Author(s): Lakhdar, M.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Salām b. al-Ṭayyib , celebrated Moroccan genealogist of the Chorfa. Born at Fez, 10 Ramaḍān 1058/28 Sept. 1648, he followed there the courses of eminent teachers, including ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Fāsī and his two sons, Muḥammad and ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, al-Yūsī, al-ʿArabī b. Aḥmad al-Fis̲h̲tālī, and Aḥmad b. al-ʿArabī b. al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲. He was accomplished in lexicography, rhetoric, logic, dialectic, and ḥadīt̲h̲ and its principles ( ʿuṣūl ). But his speciality was genealogy in general and that of the Banū ¶ Hās̲h̲im and of the ʿAlawī branch i…


(3,408 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, Order ( ṭarīḳa ) of dervishes called after ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḏj̲īlānī [ q.v.]. 1.—Origin. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir (d. 561/1166) was the principal of a school ( madrasa ) of Ḥanbalī law and a ribāṭ in Bag̲h̲dād. His sermons (collected in al-Fatḥ al-Rabbānī ) were delivered sometimes in the one, sometimes in the other; both were notable institutions in the time of Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, and Yāḳūt ( Irs̲h̲ād al-Arīb , v, 274) records a bequest of books made to the former by a man who died in 572/1176-7. Both appear to have come to an end at the sack of Bag̲h̲…


(735 words)

Author(s): Huici Miranda, A.
(Spanish: Cádiz; English: Cadiz; French: Cadix), the capital (pop. 117, 871) of the province of the same name, the most southerly ¶ in Spain; it prides itself on being the oldest town in the West, since it is said to have been founded by the Phoenicians in about 1500 B.C.; in Phoenician, it is named Gad(d)ir [cf. agadir], from which the Greeks derived the name Γάδειρα, the Romans Gadir and Gades, and the Arabs Ḳādis. Under the domination first of the Greeks and later the Carthaginians (after 500 B.C.), it became the most important place in the south o…


(3,762 words)

Author(s): Streck, M. | Lassner, J. | Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, the name of several places in ʿIrāḳ and al-D̲j̲azīra. The Mus̲h̲tarik of Yāḳūt (337) lists five places of that name of which the two most important were situated near Sāmarrā and al-Kūfa. The history of these places is most difficult to trace. 1. A town in ʿIrāḳ, on the Eastern bank of the Tigris, 8 miles S.E. of Sāmarrā. It seems to have been closely connected with the latter in its period of prosperity. We do not know what special part al-Ḳādisiyya played at that time. Herzfeld, ( Reise , i, 107) suggests it is really identical with the town of al-Ḳātūl whic…

Ḳāḍī-Zāde Rūmī

(537 words)

Author(s): Ragep, F.J.
, Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Mūsā b. Muḥammad b. Maḥmūd al-Rūmī, usually referred to as Ḳāḍī-zāde al-Rūmī or Mūsā Ḳāḍī-zāde al-Rūmī, lived ca. 760- ca. 835/1359-1432, dates derived from an early work written in 784/1382-3 and from his having outlived G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn al-Kās̲h̲ī (d. 832/1429 [ q.v.]), noted astronomer/mathematician from Bursa who played a substantial role in the Samarḳand observatory [see marṣad ] of Ulug̲h̲ Beg [ q.v.] and whose commentaries were used extensively as teaching texts for mathematics and astronomy. After studying for a time in his native Bursa, where his …


(674 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, Turcoman tribe, from which sprang a ruling dynasty of Persia (see next article). There is no foundation for the statements of later historians that the Ḳād̲j̲ār tribe entered Iran with Hūlāgū [ q.v.]. In the 9th/15th century they formed part of the Boz Ok branch of the Turcomans of Anatolia, dwelling in the Kayseri-Sivas region and recognizing the suzerainty of the D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳadr rulers. They probably take their name from a leader named Ḳarāçar (=Ḳarçar). In the 9th/15th century they were divided into four sub-tribes ( oba ): Ag̲h̲ča Koyunlu, Ag̲h̲čalu, S̲h̲ā…


(12,370 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
( kačar “marching quickly”, cf. Sulaymān Efendī, Lug̲h̲at-i Čag̲h̲atai , Istanbul 1298, 214; P. Pelliot, Notes sur l’histoire de la horde d’or, Paris 1950, 203-4), a Turcoman tribe, to which the Ḳād̲j̲ār dynasty of Persia belonged; also a village in the Lītkūh district of Āmul [ q.v.]. Nineteenth century Persian historians assert that the Ḳād̲j̲ār took their name from Ḳād̲j̲ār Noyān b. Sirtāḳ Noyān. The latter was the son of Sābā Noyān b. D̲j̲alāʾir, and was appointed atabeg [ q.v.] to Arg̲h̲ūn (Riḍā Ḳulī K̲h̲ān Hidāyat, Tāʾrīk̲h̲-i rawḍat al-ṣafā-yi nāṣirī , Te…


(7 words)

[see ḳaḍā , ramaḍān ].


(176 words)

Author(s): Mohaghegh, M.
, Persian poet born at S̲h̲īrāz, who flourished in the first half of the 11th/17th century (and is not to be confused with his namesake Ḳadrī S̲h̲īrāzī, active in India during the reign of Akbar). The account of his early years is given by Taḳī al-Dīn Kās̲h̲ī in the K̲h̲ulāṣat al-as̲h̲ʿār . He is known for two short epic poems, Ḏj̲angnāma-yi Ḳis̲h̲m and D̲j̲ārānnāma , commemorating the conquest of the island of Ḳis̲h̲m and the town of Hormūz by Imām Ḳulī K̲h̲ān of S̲h̲īrāz during the reign of ʿAbbās I in 1032/1623. A manuscript of the first, brought to Italy by Pietro della Valle, was …


(1,976 words)

Author(s): Talbi, M.
, (El-Kef), a town in Tunisia (pop. 18,000), capital of an administrative district with a population of 306,000 (census of 3 May 1966), situated in the region of Haut-Tell about 30 km. from the Algerian border; the altitude varies from 700 to 850 m. Since 1962, an effort has been made to replace the traditional cereal cultivation with a greater agricultural diversification, although the attempt at co-operative collectivization of the land was abandoned in September 1969. The town has also benefit…


(659 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, 22nd letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed k, numerical value 20, according to the eastern order [see abd̲j̲ad ]. ¶ Definition: occlusive , postpalatal , surd; postpalatal, the medial position of k in the variations that it can be subjected to, according to the vowel with which it is in contact (see H. Fleisch, Traité , §2 b). According to the Arab grammatical tradition: s̲h̲adīda , mahmūsa , in mak̲h̲rad̲j̲ : the region a little less further back than that of ḳāf , the furthest back in the mouth (Sībawayhi, ii, 453, 1. 6-7, ed. Paris; al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī, Mufaṣṣal


(884 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, 21st letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed , numerical value 100, according to the eastern order [see abd̲j̲ad ]. Definition: occlusive , uvulovelar , surd . According to the Arab grammatical tradition: s̲h̲adīda , mad̲j̲hūra , in mak̲h̲rad̲j̲ : the rear-most part of the tongue and the highest part of the upper palate (Sībawayhi, ii, 453, 1. 5-6, ed. Paris; al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī, Mufaṣṣal , 188, 1. 16-7, 2nd ed. Broch), that is to say: the root of the tongue is in contact with the very lowest part of the soft palate and the uvula …


(2,269 words)

Author(s): Streck, M. | Miquel, A.
, in Muslim cosmology, the name of the mountain range surrounding the terrestrial world. There is little doubt that this conception is borrowed from Iranian traditions. These make the Alburz [ q.v.] the mythical mountain at the edge of the world, and the home of the gods. All the other mountains in the world have come from the Alburz by underground ramifications. This mountain (the high mountain: Hara-berezayti) surrounds all the world, but also a lake with the name of Wurukas̲h̲a; however, according to the Bundahis̲h̲n , this lake itself, although confined …


(5 words)

[see kefe ].


(821 words)

Author(s): Linant de Bellefonds, Y.
(a.), a term which in common usage signifies at one and the same time equality, parity and aptitude, but in the terminology of fiḳh designates equivalence of social status, fortune and profession (those followed by the husband and by the father-in-law), as well as parity of birth, which should exist between husband and wife, in default of which the marriage is considered ill-matched and, in consequence, liable to break-up. In fact, in fiḳh, kafāʾa works in a single direction and protects only the wife who must not marry beneath her station; it m…


(1,122 words)

Author(s): Linant de Bellefonds, Y.
( ḍamān in all but the Ḥanafī school), aninstitution corresponding to some extent to the surety-bond in Western juridical systems, with the difference that the fuḳahāʾ distinguished two types of surety-bond. On the one hand there is the type for which the surety ( kafīl ) is binding to secure only the appearance in court of the debtor ( aṣīl or makfūl ); this, known as the kafāla bi’l-nafs, is an institution peculiar to Muslim law. There also exists the kafāla bi’l-māl , by means of which the surety stands as a pledge to the creditor ( makfūl lahu) that the obligation of the principal debtor…


(872 words)

Author(s): Bianquis, Th.
(a.), “shroud”. In the Islamic world, a dying person was often forewarned of imminent death by a dream, or by a dream that an inhabitant of his town had had during the preceding days, to the effect that the Prophet or some other great figure like Abū Bakr, ʿUmar or ʿAlī, was waiting for him and he should get ready for the meeting. Since death is the natural goal of life, its approach should be managed calmly. When the death agony is imminent, the dying person pronounces the s̲h̲ahāda or profession of faith, whilst raising one finger of the right hand to re-aff…


(2,010 words)

Author(s): Veinstein, G.
(a., t.) “cage”, the popular term in Ottoman Turkish usage for the area of the harem ¶ of the Ṭopḳapi̊ palace in which Ottoman princes of the blood ( s̲h̲eh-zādeler ) were confined from the early 17th century onwards. In a more abstract sense, historians apply the same term to the system whereby the rights of claimants to the Ottoman throne were determined, as opposed to the “law of fratricide” which it was gradually superseding during this period. In the sources, the term is of late usage only (d’Ohsson uses the word in the plural; Tableau de l’Empire ottoman , vii, 101; ʿĀṣi̊m, Tārīk̲h̲


(75 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), verbal noun of the verb kaffa in the sense of “to abstain, desist [from s.th.],” and “to repel [s.o. from s.th.]” (see WbKAS , i, Letter Kāf , 236-9), in a religio-political context refers to the quiescent attitude of some K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ite [ q.v.] groups in early Islam, called ḳaʿada “those who sit down”, i.e. stay at home, in abstaining from overt rebellion and warfare against the ruling authority. See further ḳuʿūd . (Ed.)


(1,138 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T.
( ʿilm-i ), a divinatory process which belongs to the realm of physiognomy [see firāsa ], and designates more specifically chirognomy, or the art of deducing the character of a person according to the shape and appearance of the hands, whereas chiromancy proper is designated by ʿilm al-asārīr (lines of the hand) or k̲h̲uṭūṭ al-yad . One can also say naẓar fi ’l-yad , firāsat al-kaff , ʿalāmāt asārīr al-kaff (cf. T. Fahd, Divination arabe , 393 ff.). But the use of the term ʿilm al-kaff has become general, and this has supplanted the others. It covers both c…


(17 words)

, term used in prosody [see ʿArūḍ ]; term with politico-religious meaning [See Ḳuʿūd ].


(5 words)

[see Kefe ].


(1,172 words)

Author(s): Chelhod, J.
, an expiatory and propitiatory act which grants remission for faults of some gravity. This technical term, which is only employed four times in the Ḳurʾān, is said to have been borrowed from Hebrew kappārā (A. Jeffery, Foreign vocabulary of the Qurʾan , 250; D. S. Margoliouth, art. Expiation and atonement ( Muslim), in Hastings Enc .) For the reasons set out below, this thesis should be considered as unproven. On the other hand the root k f r is undoubtedly Arabic. Speaking strictly etymologically, kaffāra “covers” sins rather than wi…


(5 words)

[see Kafāla ].


(5 words)

[see Tid̲j̲āra ].


(1,956 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.), originally “obliterating, covering”, then, “concealingbenefits received” = “ungrateful”; this meaning is found even in the old Arab poetry and in the Ḳurʾān, Sūra XXVI, 18. In the Ḳurʾān the word is used with reference to God: “concealing God’s blessings” = “ungrateful to God”, see Sūra XVI, 57 and XXX, 33: “That they are ungrateful for our gifts”; cf. also Sūra XVI, 85. The next development— probably under the influence of the Syriac and Aramaic where the corresponding development took pl…


(2,408 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(“land of the unbelievers”), the name of a mountainous region of the Hindu Kush massif in north-eastern Afg̲h̲ānistān, until 1896 very isolated and politically independent, but since the Afg̲h̲ān conquest of that date and the introduction of Islam known as Nūristān (“land of light”). Some older European writers mentioned what might be termed a “greater Kāfiristān”, comprising such regions as Kāfiristān in the restricted sense (see below), Lag̲h̲mān, Čitral, Swāt, Bad̲j̲awr, Gilgit, etc. This cor…


(440 words)

Author(s): Chouémi, M.
, which is recorded only in the plural form kāfirkūbāt , is formed from the Arab word kāfir [ q.v.] (impious, unfaithful) and the present participle of the Persian verb kūbīdan (to strike, to crush). It ¶ denotes a club, literally a “heathen-basher”. The term is testified, in ʿIrāḳ, from the end of the 2nd/8th century, by Arab writers and chroniclers: al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, Abū Ḥanīfa al-Dīnawarī, etc. (see Bibl. below), but al-Ṭabarī already cites it when describing the incidents arising in 66/685 during the revolt of al-Muk̲h̲tār [ q.v.], and his S̲h̲iʿite followers, al-K̲h̲as̲h̲abiyya [ q.v.], w…


(3,383 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
(a.), plur. ḳawāfin , term in prosody, meaning “rhyme”. Goldziher ( Abh . zur Arabischen Philologie , Leiden 1896, i, 83-105; cf. R. Blachère, Deuxième contribution, in Arabica vi (1959), 141) has shown that the word meant originally “lampoon”, then “line of poetry”, “poem” and, that these earlier senses survived in Islamic times after the word had also come to be used in the technical sense of “rhyme”. He derives ḳāfiya from ḳafan , “nape of the neck” (and the corresponding verb ḳafā , “to hit the nape of the neck”) and draws attention to passages in whi…


(507 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, muḥyī al-dīn muḥammad b. sulaymān al-ḥanafī , 9th-15th century scholar and prolific writer on many subjects. Born in, or rather, after, 788/1386-87 in Ṣarūk̲h̲ān [ q.v.] in a place called Kökd̲j̲ekī, apparently situated near Bergama as indicated by the additional nisba al-Barg̲h̲amī, he came to Egypt after 830/1427 and was soon welcomed into the leading scholarly circles there. Čaḳmaḳ appointed him a professor in the Zāwiyat al-As̲h̲raf S̲h̲aʿbān and later promoted him to the academic deanship ( mas̲h̲yak̲h̲at al-tadrīs ) of S̲h̲aʿbān’s Turba. The id…
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