Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(227 words)

Author(s): Shaki, M.
, Ḥabīb allāh (1808-54) was the greatest Persian poet of the Ḳād̲j̲ār period. He was born at S̲h̲īrāz, lost his father, the poet Guls̲h̲an, at the age of eleven and found a patron in the governor of S̲h̲īrāz, Ḥasan ʿAlī Mīrzā S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ al-Salṭana, who gave him the pen-name of Ḳāʾānī. As a court panegyrist he was granted by Muḥammad S̲h̲āh the title of Ḥassān al-ʿAd̲j̲am . He settled in Tehran shortly before 1848 and was favoured by Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh with the title of Malik al-S̲h̲uʿarāʾ . Ḳāʾānī was a man of erudition, and the first Persian poet to master French. His dīwān


(759 words)

Author(s): Cornevin, R.
, a region of Mali with an area of around 54,000 square km. It is bounded on the north by Mauritanian Hōd̲h̲, on the south by Beledugu and Fuladugu, and on the west by the River Senegal from the western branch of the River Kulu as far as the Baoulé junction. The rivers of this vast schistose plateau tilting to the south east flow into Senegal. The climate is that of the Saharan zone: a brief season of abundant rain followed by a very long dry season. The vegetation is wooded or shrubbed ¶ savannah. The land on the river banks often produces two harvests. The main crops are millet, maize…


(6,726 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J. | Jomier, J.
, the most famous sanctuary of Islam, called the temple or house of God ( Bayt Allāh ). It is situated almost in the centre of the great mosque in Mecca. Muslims throughout the whole world direct their prayers to this sanctuary, where every year hundreds of thousands of pilgrims make the greater ( ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ ) or lesser ( ʿumra ) pilgrimage. Around it they gather and make their ritual circuits; around the Kaʿba the young Muslim community spent the early years of Islam. For the Muslim community the Kaʿba holds a place analogous to that of the temple in Jerusalem for ancient Jewry. I. The Kaʿba and …


(1,416 words)

Author(s): Ferjani, M.Ch.
, Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿUmar (1230-88/1815-71), poet, man of letters and religious figure, and one of the precursors of reform in Tunisia. After having learnt the Ḳurʾān, Arabic language and the rudiments of fiḳh , he left the kuttāb or Ḳurʾān school and plunged into individual readings of the mystics, and especially, the writings of Ibn al-ʿArabī [ q.v.]. Under this influence, he spent his youthful life as a dervish. At the age of 18, his wanderings took him as far as Libya, where at Misrāṭa he met a famed Ṣūfī master, the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Muḥammad āfir al-Madanī (d. 1854). In this s̲h̲ayk…

Kaʿb al-Aḥbār

(738 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, M.
, Abū Iṣhāḳ b. Mātiʿ b. Haysuʿ/Haynūʿ , a Yemenite Jew who became a convert to Islam, probably in 17/638 (al-Ṭabarī, i, 2514), and is considered the oldest authority on Judaeo-Islamic traditions. Ḥibr/ḥabr , from the Hebrew ḥāber , the scholarly title immediately below rabbi current among Babylonian Jewish scholars, is presumed to be equivalent to the Arabic ʿālim (al-K̲h̲awārizmī, Mafātīḥ , 35); in Kaʿb al-Aḥbār the plural is a determinative complement, while in the less frequent Kaʿb al-Ḥabr the latter element is in apposition to Kaʿb. Lidzbarski ( De propheticis ... legendis arabici…

Kabakči̊-Og̲h̲lu Muṣṭafā

(400 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
, chief of the rebellion which overthrew the Ottoman sultan Selīm III. Originally from Kastamuni, a town in north western Anatolia, he was chosen as their leader by the yamaks (supernumerary janissaries) of the Rumelikavak fortresses on the Bosphorus, who rioted on 17 Rabīʿ I 1222/25 May 1807 upon the instigation of the ḳāʾim-maḳam of the grand vizier, Köse Mūsā Pas̲h̲a, and the S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām ʿAṭāʾ Allāh Efendi. He conducted the rebellion in an orderly manner, put to death the principal organizers of the Niẓām-i d̲j̲edīd [ q.v.] and served the aims of the instigators of the …


(2,034 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.) “guarantee”, a juridical term used mainly in connection with fiscal practice, in a manner which is still very difficult to define precisely. The particular field with which this discussion is concerned is a double one—that of the levying of the land-tax, k̲h̲arād̲j̲ [ q.v.], and that of special taxes, mukūs . As was already the case before the Arab conquest both in the Byzantine Empire and under the Sasanids, local communities were held jointly responsible by the Treasury for the payment at the required time of the ful…


(766 words)

Author(s): Salihoǧlu, Hülya
, a Muslim people of the Caucasus. In Russian they are called Kabardintsi̊, in Turkish Kabartaylar; other designation, Käsäg. The name of the Kabards was first mentioned as Cheuerthei by Barbaro, who visited the Caucasus in 1436. Its etymology remains uncertain. The Kabard language belongs to the eastern branch of the Adi̊ghe (Čerkes) linguistic group, which is also referred to as “high Adi̊ghe”. According to the 1926 Soviet census, there were 139,925 Kabards ethnically and 138,925 linguistically. The census of 1939 records 164,000 Kabards. The Kabards live in the basin of Uppe…


(249 words)

Author(s): Lakhdar, M.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḥusayn al-Tamgrūtī al-Darʿī al-Raḳḳī (from al-Raḳḳa [ q.v.], his native town), a very famous Moroccan saint. Born in the zāwiya of Sayyid al-Nās as it was called (from the name of the Prophet), the founder of which was Abū Isḥāḳ al-Anṣārī, known under the name of Sayyidī Ibrāhīm al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲, he grew up there in prayer and asceticism. Accompanied by the son of this latter, Aḥmad, he went to the zāwiya of Tamgrūt, founded by Abū Ḥafṣ, ʿUmar b. Aḥmad al-Anṣārī, in Ramaḍān 983/Dec.-Jan. 1575-76, and settled there until his death on Friday 12 …


(5 words)

[see mīzān ].


(900 words)

Author(s): Stoetzer, W.
, Nizār Tawfīḳ (1923-98), the most widely read and, with over 18,000 lines of verse, the most prolific 20th-century Arabic poet, an important innovator of form and content. Ḳabbānī became a diplomat in 1945 after finishing his law studies in his native Damascus, but he left the service in 1966 so as to devote himself to full-time writing in Beirut, where he started his own publishing house (Dār Mans̲h̲ūrāt Nizār Ḳabbānī) in 1967. He died in London, where, after a short spell in Geneva, he had spent his last years. He was laid to rest in Damascus. Ḳabbānī’s highly poeti…

Kaʿb b. al-As̲h̲raf

(386 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, opponent of Muḥammad at Medina, reckoned to belong to his mother’s clan al-Naḍīr, though his father was an Arab of the Nabhān section of Ṭayyiʾ. He presumably followed the Jewish custom of taking his religion from his mother, but it is doubtful if he was a scholar, as the words in a poem sayyid al-aḥbār (Ibn His̲h̲ām, 659, 12) would imply, if the poem were genuine. Aroused by the deaths of many leading Meccans at Badr, he went to Mecca and used his considerable poetic gifts (he is called faḥl faṣiḥ in K. al-Ag̲h̲ānī ) to incite Ḳurays̲h̲ to fight the Muslims. On hi…

Kaʿb b. Ḏj̲uʿayl al-Tag̲h̲labī

(726 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, a minor Arab poet of the 1st/7th century whom Ibn Sallām ( Ṭabaḳāt , 485-9) places in the 3rd rank of Islamic poets. His genealogy varies with the different authors (Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Tab. 165, no doubt provides the most accurate one), and very little is known of his life. Probably born during the earliest years of the Hid̲j̲ra , he made his appearance at the time of the battle of Ṣiffīn (37/657) as an intimate of Muʿāwiya, of whom, like most of the Tag̲h̲lib [ q.v.], he was a passionate supporter. The conflict with ʿAlī inspired him to write a number of poems, in particular…

Kaʿb b. Mālik

(484 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh or Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān , one of the poets supporting Muḥammad, was an Anṣārī of the clan of Salima of the tribe of al-K̲h̲azrad̲j̲ [see al-anṣār ]. He must have been born before 600 A.D., since he is said to have taken part in the internal fighting in Medina before the Hid̲j̲ra, and to have been present at the second ʿAḳaba [ q.v.], when allegiance was sworn to Muḥammad. He was not present at Badr, but took part in most of the subsequent expeditions led by Muḥammad. At Uḥud he received several wounds and was the first to recognize Muḥammad after the rumour ¶ that he had been killed. S…

Kaʿb b. Zuhayr

(463 words)

Author(s): Basset, R.
, an Arab poet and contemporary of the Prophet. A son of Zubayr b. Abī Sulmā [ q.v.], he seems to have given proof of his poetic talent at an early age; although belonging to the Muzayna, he lived with the D̲h̲ubyān and was involved in the wars of his tribe against the Ṭayyiʾ, the Ḳurays̲h̲ and the K̲h̲azrad̲j̲. His brother Bud̲j̲ayr was converted shortly before year 7 of the Hid̲j̲ra , but he refused vehemently to follow suit and wrote some satirical verses attacking Muḥammad. The latter officially sanctioned his murder. From that day, “the e…


(1,523 words)

Author(s): Linant de Bellefonds, Y. | Lings, M. | Ben Cheneb, Moh. | Bonebakker, S.A.
(a.), verbal noun meaning “seizure”, “grasping”, “contraction”, “abstention”, etc., and used in the special vocabulary of various disciplines. i.—In fiḳh the word signifies taking possession of, handing over. In Mālikī law ḥiyāza is more frequently used. Tasallum is also employed to mean the act of handing over. Taking possession is accomplished by the material transfer of the thing when movable goods are involved; by occupation when it is a question of real estate, but also symbolically by the handing over of the keys or title deeds of the property. Ḳabḍ only …


(8,033 words)

Author(s): Rodinson, M.
(according to lexicographers the only correct form) or Kabd , Kibd , “the liver”. 1. Names for the liver and their semantic field. The Muslim peoples, like all others, recognised the internal organs of the human body and identified them with the analogous organs of animals. They also attributed to them one or another physiological and psychosomatic function based on observations which they interpreted according to mental structures that are only partially clear to us. Language itself testifies to these early identifications. As E. Bargheer says, “these are significant …


(583 words)

Author(s): Yurdaydin, Hüseyin G.
(?—934/1527), heretic of the early 10th/16th century. Originally from Persia, he came to Istanbul, where he was educated. In 934/1527 he was publicly maintaining, in different parts of the city, that the Ḳurʾān depended in large measure upon the Old and New Testaments, and that Jesus was superior to Muḥammad. Complaints being made to the authorities, on 8 Ṣafar 934/3 November 1527 Ḳābiḍ was brought before the imperial dīwān , where he was interrogated by the ḳāḍīʿaskers of Rumeli (Fenārīzade Muḥyī al-Dīn) and Anatolia (Ḳādirī Čelebi). He defended h…


(5 words)

[see hābīl ].


(2,113 words)

Author(s): Chelhod, J.
(a.) denotes a large agnatic group, the members of which claim to be descended from one common ancestor; this word is generally understood in the sense of tribe. It derives from the Arabic root ḳ-b-l , of which the form ḳābala signifies to meet, to be face to face with. The definition given by al-Nuwayrī ( Nihāya , ii, 269), the only one, we believe, which refers to its morphology, refers specifically to this etymology: “the ḳabīla was so named because its component parts are placed face to face and in equal numbers”. Its structure seems indeed to …


(563 words)

Author(s): Asani, Ali S.
, North Indian mystic and poet (d. ca. 1448). Although Kabīr is regarded as one of the most influential saint-poets of mediaeval Northern India, there is very little authentic information concerning his life. We can reliably state that he was born in Benares to a family of low-caste Muslim weavers called d̲j̲ulāhā s, probably in the opening years of the 9th/15th century. Beyond this, various hagiographies of Kabīr, depending on the authors’ sectarian affiliation, make competing claims that he was a Muslim Ṣūfī, a Hindu with …


(58 words)

(a., pl. kabāʾir ), a term of Islamic theology meaning “grave [sin]”, occurring in Ḳurʾān, II, 42/39, 138/143 and passim . It was the stimulus for much discussion amongst theologians and sectaries like the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ites [ q.v.] on what constituted a grave sin and how committing one affected a man’s salvation. For a discussion, see k̲h̲aṭīʾa .

Kabīr Panthīs

(5 words)

[see Supplement].


(5,740 words)

Author(s): Talbi, M.
(Gabès), a town in Tunisia on the gulf of the same name (the Little Syrte of antiquity), 404 km. to the south of Tunis and 150 km. from Gafsa [see ḳafsa ]; it has 40,000 inhabitants, of whom 1,200 are Europeans, and is the chief town of a governorate with a population of 204,000 (1966 census). The town of Gabès, divided since 1957 into four districts, includes the old townships of Manzil, situated higher up the Oued-Gabès, and D̲j̲āra, situated downstream, localities which have always been divided by fie…


(495 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
(or Ibn al-Ḳābiṣī ), Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. K̲h̲alaf al-Maʿāfirī (324/935-403/1012), one of the principal representatives of the Mālikī school of Ḳayrawān, of which he was the leader after the death of Ibn Abī Zayd (d. 386/996). His father, a native of al-Maʿāfiriyyīn in the neighbourhood of Gabès, had married a woman from Ḳayrawān. An oral tradition affirms that al-Ḳābisī, Ibn Abī Zayd and Sīdī Maḥrez (Muḥriz b. K̲h̲alaf) were first cousins, since their fathers had married …


(811 words)

Author(s): Pingree, D.
, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAlī , Abu ’l-Ṣaḳr , astrologer, came from one of two towns called Ḳabīṣa (Yaḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am al-buldān , iv, 308 of the Beirut ed.), the one two farsak̲h̲s east of Mawṣil and the other near Sāmarrā. He is said by Ibn al-Nadīm (ed. Flügel, 265; quoted by Ibn al-Ḳifṭī, ed. Lippert, 64) to have studied Ptolemy’s Almagest under ʿAlī b. Aḥmad al-ʿImrānī of Mawṣil (d. 344/955-6) “in our time”; Ibn al-Ḳifṭī adds that this refers to 370/980-1. Al-Ḳabīṣī is in fact cited by al-ʿImrānī in his In electionibus horarum (J. M. Millás Vallicrosa, Las traducciones orientales, Mad…


(19,985 words)

Author(s): Gammer, M. | Knysh, A.
History. 1. For the early Islamic period up to the Mongol and Tīmūrid periods, see Vol. III, 343-50. 2. The period 1500-1800. Compared to previous and later epochs, these three centuries are among the least studied periods in the history of the Caucasus. The main reason for that lies not in the unavailability of sources but rather in their inaccessibility until the recent past. The Russian ¶ archives the most used ones are far from having been fully scrutinised. In the Ottoman archives, only the surface has been scratched, chiefly due to the efforts of French …


(11,847 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | MacKenzie, D.N.
, D̲j̲abal al-Ḳabḳ (the most common rendering), al-Ḳabk̲h̲ ( e.g., Masʿūdī) or al-Ḳabd̲j̲ ( e.g. Ṭabarī, Yāḳūt), Turkish Kavkaz, the name given by the Muslims to the Caucasus Mountains. The form ḳabḳ may derive from Middle Persian kāfkōh “the mountain of Kāf”, Armenian kapkoh ; in Firdawsī we find the Caucasus called kūh-i ḳāf (Hübschmann, Armenische Grammatik , i, 45, cf. Marquart, Ērānšahr , 94). A village called Ḳabḳ is also mentioned by Ibn Rusta, 173, tr. Wiet, 201, as being the first stage on the road from Harāt to Isfizār and Sīstān. 1. Topography and ethnology. The Caucasus became k…


(391 words)

Author(s): Cornevin, R.
, alocality in Togo(9° 25′N., 0° 50′E.), 24 km. to the north of Bassari, an important market whose prosperity, in pre-colonial times, was based ¶ partly on the barter of crude iron given to the Kabre iron-smiths of Lama-Kara in exchange for slaves, and partly on its function as a halting place on the kolacaravan routes. The presence in Kabou of Muslim outsiders (particularly Ḥawsa and D̲j̲erma) was therefore not unusual. It was a certain Oukpane, a native of Kalanga (about ten km. to the west of Bassari), who founded the village of Kabou, probably during the first …


(3,530 words)

Author(s): Sourdel-Thomine, J. | Y. Linant de Bellefonds
(a.), tomb was first applied to the pit used as a burial place for a corpse, as was the term ḍarīḥ , giving rise to its habitual use in the text of numerous epitaphs containing the expression hād̲h̲ā ḳabru ... “This is the grave of . . .”. Originally distinguished from the term ṣandūḳ , “cenotaph” (cf., J. Sauvaget, “ Les perles choisiesd’Ibn ach-Chihna , Beirut 1933, 212 and “ Les trésors d’orde Sibt al-ʿAjamī , Beirut 1950, 184), it had the more general meaning of the tumulus or construction covering the grave to bring it to notice, a custom c…


(464 words)

Author(s): Arié, R.
, in Spanish Cabra, a town in a mountainous region of Andalusia to the south-east of Cordoba, situated at an altitude of 448 m. on the slopes of the Sierra de Cabra; at present it is the centre of a partido judicial of the province of Cordoba and has a population of 20,000. The Muslim town of Ḳabra, which succeeded the Roman Igabrum — one of the principal cities of Baetica according to Pliny — ranked as one of the fortresses of al-Andalus. Colonised by the d̲j̲und of Wāsiṭ in ʿIrāḳ in the time of the governor Abu ’l-K̲h̲aṭṭār al-Kalbī (125/743-127/745) under…


(12 words)

[see badw (IIa), yürük , zakāt , and silāḥ ].


(471 words)

Author(s): Hila, M.H. el-
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim K̲h̲alaf b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-G̲h̲āfiḳī , poet and letter-writer, from the island in the Guadalquivir called Ḳabtawra or Ḳabtūra (formerly Caput Tauri, Ibn K̲h̲aldūn—de Slane, Hist . des Berbères , ii, 113; today Isla Mayor, south of Seville). The son of a Sevillian scholar, he was born in S̲h̲awwāl 615/December 1218-January 1219. After the fall of Seville (646/1248) he moved to Ceuta, where he became head of the chancellery of the ʿAzafid emirate; following the death of the amīr Abu ’l-Ḳāsim al-ʿAzafī he left Ceuta for Tunis and there taught ḥadīt̲h̲


(296 words)

Author(s): Ferrando, I.
, Banu ’l -, a family of 5th/11th-century al-Andalus whose Arabic nasab was the Banū Saʿīd. They comprised three brothers who were poets and also secretaries to the Afṭasid prince of Badajoz, Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar al-Mutawakkil (464-88/1072-95 [ q.v. and afṭasids ]), and then were subsequently in the chancery of the Almoravids. The laḳab of al-Ḳabṭūrnuh (according to other sources, al-Ḳabṭūrnah or al-Ḳubṭūrnuh) suggests an Hispanic origin, probably one stemming from the Low Latin * capiturnus “having a large head”. The first of the …


(2,050 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
1. A river of Afg̲h̲ānistān and the Northwest Frontier region of Pākistān, 700 km. long and rising near the Unai Pass in lat. 34° 21′ N. and long. 68° 20′ E. It receives the affluents of the Pand̲j̲hīr, Alingar, Kunar and Swat Rivers from the north, and the Lōgar from the south, and flows eastwards to the Indian plain, joining the Indus at Atak (Attack). The Ḥudūd al-ʿālam (end of 4th/10th century) calls it “the River of Lamg̲h̲ān”, and describes it as flowing from the mountains bordering on Lamg̲h̲ān and Dunpūr, passing by Nangrahār (sc. …


(5 words)

[see bayʿ ].


(112 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the upper basin of the Kābul River (see preceding article), vaguely defined in early Islamic times as the region between Bāmiyān in the west and Lamg̲h̲ān in the east. The geographer Muḳaddāsī (c. 375/985) includes within it all the country north of G̲h̲azna and Zābulistān, i.e., the Lōgar valley, cf. Le Strange, Lands of the Eastern Caliphate , 349; and it is only about this time that the term “Kābul” becomes specialised for the name of the town rather than being applied to the whole region of Kābulistān. In contemporary Afg̲h̲…

Ḳābūs b. Wus̲h̲magīr b. Ziyār

(901 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, S̲h̲ams al-Maʿālī Abu’l-Ḥasan (reigned 366-71/977-81 and ¶ 388-403/998 to 1012-13), fourth ruler of the Ziyārid dynasty which had been founded by Mardāwīd̲j̲ b. Ziyār [ q.v.] and which ruled in Ṭabaristān and Gurgān (Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān). Like other families rising to prominence in the “Daylamī interlude” of Persian history, the Ziyārids endeavoured to attach themselves to the pre-Islamic Iranian past, and Ḳābūs’s grandson Kay Kāʾūs makes Ḳābūs’s ancestors rulers of Gīlān in the time of Kay K̲h̲usraw ( Ḳābūs-nāma , Preface). As under his predecessors, suze…


(6 words)

[see kay kāʾūs ].


(6,423 words)

Author(s): Isnard, H. | Tourneau, R. le
, a mountainous region in the Algerian Tell. The word Kabylia, coined by the French, means “land of the Kabyles” ( bilād al-Ḳabāʾil ). This name is of fairly recent origin, however, for it is not found in the works of Arabic historians and geographers; it is probably of oral origin and intended for use by foreigners, i.e., Europeans; it seems to have been introduced into geographic nomenclature by European writers from the 16th century onwards. The word “Kabyle”, the etymology of which is sometimes questioned, seems to correspond to the Arabic word ḳabāʾil , plural of ḳabīla

Kaččhī or Kaččh Gandāwa

(424 words)

Author(s): Longworth Dames, M.
, province of Pākistānī Balūčistān extending from 27° 53′ to 29° 35′ N. and from 67° 11′ to 68° 28′ E. It forms a level plain enclosed on the north and east by the southern Sulaymān range and on the west by the Kirthār Ranges. To the south it is open, being bounded by the plain of northern Sindh. The history of the region is more closely connected with that of Sindh than that of Balūčistān. Its chief town, Kandābīl (probably Gandāwa) is said to have been taken by the Brāhman Rāy Čač in the 7th century A.D., and to have been despoiled by the Arabs many times after the conquest. The region later ¶ passed into…


(799 words)

Author(s): Káldy-Nagy, Gy.
(a.), originally meaning “decision”, has in the Ḳurʾān different meanings, according to the different contexts: e.g., “doomsday” (XLV, 17; X, 93), “jurisdiction” (XXVII, 78; XXXIX, 69; XL, 20), “revelation of the truth” (XXVIII, 44) and “predestination, determination, decree” (XL, 68) (cf. E. Tyan, Histoire de l’organisation judiciaire en pays d’Islam 2, Leiden 1960, 65). In A Dictionary of Islam (London 1885, 479), T. P. Hughes gives the following concise definitions of the word: (1) the office of a ḳāḍī [ q.v.], or judge; (2) the sentence of a ḳāḍī; (3) repeating prayers to make …


(386 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a. and p.), literally “place of the [imprint of the] foot”, a village in K̲h̲urāsān, on the highway to Mas̲h̲had and some 20 km/12 miles ¶ east of Nīs̲h̲āpūr at the southern edge of the Kūh-i Bīnālūd (lat. 36° 07′ N., long. 59° 00′ E.). It is locally famed as a ziyāratgāh or place of pilgrimage, since the Eighth Imām of the S̲h̲īʿa, ʿAlī al-Riḍā [ q.v.], is said to have halted there and left the imprint of his foot on a stone, henceforth to be regarded with reverence; see Bess A. Donaldson, The wild rue. A study of Muhammadan magic and folklore in Iran , London 1938, 59, 148-9). The concept of sacred i…

Ḳadam S̲h̲arīf

(1,039 words)

Author(s): Arnold, T.W. | Burton-Page, J.
( Ḳadam Rasūl Allāh ). Among the miracles ( muʿd̲j̲izāt ) popularly attributed to Muḥammad was the fact that when he trod on a rock, his foot sank into the stone and left its impress there. This miracle is usually referred to along with others, e.g., that he cast no shadow, that if one of his hairs fell in the fire, it was not burnt, that flies did not settle on his clothes etc. (cf. al-Ḥalabī, al-Sīra al-Ḥalabiyya , Būlāḳ, 1292, iii, 407), or that his sandals left no imprint on the sand (cf. Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar al-Haytamī, commentary on al-Ḳaṣīda al-Ḥamziyya , 1. 176. (Ind. Off,…


(7 words)

[see al-ḳaḍāʾ wa ’l-ḳadar ].


(4,746 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, a name commonly used by Islamists to denote a group of theologians, not in itself homogeneous, who represented in one form or another the principle of liberum arbitrium (free will) in the early period of Islam, from about 70/690 ¶ to the definitive consolidation of the Muʿtazila [ q.v.] at the beginning of the 3rd/9th century. In Islamic sources the notion is ambivalent; only authors of a determinist standpoint use it in the above sense (in later works the term can also refer to the Muʿtazila). Authors of a non-determinist standpoint, on the…


(458 words)

Author(s): Chelhod, J.
(a.), a neologism of comparatively recent creation, generally understood in the sense of holiness. The word does not occur either in the Ḳurʾān or in ḥadīt̲h̲ , and the LA ignores it. On the other hand, the root ḳ-d-s is well known to the Arab lexicographers; the Ḳurʾān (II, 30, 87, 253; V, 21, no; XVI, 102; XX, 12; LIX, 23; LXII, 1; LXXIX, 16) and ḥadīt̲h̲ (Wensinck, Concordance ) use it sporadically. Basically, it is used to denote beings and objects that are pure, wholly unsullied or in touch with the divine. This religious meaning seems to be alien to Arabic and borrowed from Aramai…

al-Ḳaḍāʾ Wa ’l-Ḳadar

(2,598 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
When combined into one expression, these two words have the overall meaning of the Decree of God, both the eternal Decree (the most frequent meaning of ḳaḍāʾ) and the Decree given existence in time (the most frequent sense of ḳadar). Other translations are possible: for example, ḳaḍāʾ, predetermination (usually eternal but according to some schools operating within time); ḳadar, decree (usually operating within time but according to some schools eternal) or fate, destiny, in the sense of determined or fixed. It is also possible ¶ to use ḳaḍāʾ alone for Decree in its broadest sense…

Ḳaddūra al-Ḏj̲azāʾirī

(122 words)

Author(s): Lakhdar, M.
Of Tunisian ancestry, but settled in Algeria, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Saʿīd was, like his father, Saʿīd b. Ibrāhīm (d. S̲h̲awwāl 1066/July-Aug. 1656), the most learned man and greatest mufti of Algeria of his time. Amongst his most brilliant disciples was Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Muḥammad Ibn Zākūr al-Fāsī, to whom he was the last to grant an id̲j̲āza (beginning of Rad̲j̲ab 1094/26 June 1683). He died at Algiers on 15 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1098/12 Oct. 1687. (M. Lakhdar) Bibliography E. Lévi-Provençal, Chorfa, 288 and n. 5 Ḳādirī, Nas̲h̲r, ii, 93 idem, Iltiḳāṭ, fol. 40r idem, al-Nas̲h̲r al-kabīr, i…
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