Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(5 words)

[see Kayl ].


(3,132 words)

Author(s): Talbi, M.
(gafsa), a town in Tunisia 360 km. south-west of Tunis, 200 km from Ḳayrawān, and 100 km from Gabès [see ḳābis ], population 30,000; the chief town of an administrative region with a population of 300,000 whose principal mineral resources ¶ consist of the phosphate deposits of M’Dilla, Metlaoui, Redeyef, and Moularès, which were discovered in 1885. The oasis of Ḳafsa contains about 100,000 palm trees producing dates of second-rate quality, to which must be added orchards of orange trees, lemon trees, apricots and figs, vineyards and, …


(5 words)

[see Libās ]


(959 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, A.
(also ḳāfūr , ḳaf ( f) ūr , see the dictionaries; from Hindu karpūra , kappūra , Malayan kapur ), camphor, the white, translucent substance which is distilled together with camphor oil from the wood of the camphor tree ( Cinnamomum camphora ) indigenous to east Asia (China, Formosa, Japan); it is to be distinguished from the Borneo camphor derived from Dryobalanops aromatica coming from Indonesia (Sumatra, Borneo). Both kinds were used as perfumes and medicines, but the latter, according to the Muslim sources native to Fanṣūr (Ḳanṣūr…


(764 words)

Author(s): Digby, S.
, Malik , known as ʿIzz al-Dawla , Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn and Hazār-dīnārī , eunuch general and minister of Sultan ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad S̲h̲āh K̲h̲ild̲j̲ī [ q.v.] of Dihlī, is stated to have been of Marhat́t́a (Marāt́ha) origin (see ʿIṣāmī, p. 319). In youth he was the slave of a wealthy K̲h̲wād̲j̲a (“K̲h̲od̲j̲a”—sc. Nizārī Ismāʿīlī) of Kanbhāyat (Cambay). In the Muslim conquest of Gud̲j̲arāt of 698/1299 he was taken by the commander Nuṣrat K̲h̲ān and presented to Sultan ʿAlā al-Dīn in Dihlī. Ibn Baṭṭūṭa (iii, 187) may be in error in stating that the epithet Alfī (= Hazār-dīnārī


(735 words)

Author(s): Ehrenkreutz, A.S.
, Abu’l-Misk , a black eunuch (the name al-Lābī, given to him by al-Mutanabbī, suggests his origin from Lāb in Nubia) became the dominant personality of the Ik̲h̲s̲h̲īdid [ q.v.] dynasty in Egypt. Sold to its founder, Muḥammad ibn Ṭug̲h̲d̲j̲ al-Ik̲h̲s̲h̲īd [ q.v.], Kāfūr so impressed his new master that the latter sponsored his rise to positions of political and military influence. As a field commander Kāfūr participated in the Egyptian expedition of 333/945 to Syria; he was also involved in the diplomatic exchanges between al-Ik̲h̲s̲h̲…


(1,021 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Grohmann, A.
, Kāg̲h̲id (from the Persian kāg̲h̲ad̲h̲ perhaps of Chinese origin), paper. In the early period of development of Muslim culture the east was acquainted only with papyrus ( ḳirṭās ) as writing-material. It was Chinese prisoners of war brought to Samarḳand after the battle of Aṭlak̲h̲ near Tālās who first introduced in 134/751 the industry of papermaking from linen, flax or hemp rags after the method used in China. “The various kinds of paper then made were the following: firʿawnī (“Pharaonic”), a kind which was to compete with papyrus even in the land…


(5 words)

[see k̲h̲aḳān ].


(6 words)

[see aṣḥāb al-kahf ]


(7 words)

[see ʿalī b. ʿīsā ].


(493 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
(late 9th century-988/late 15th century-1580), the tak̲h̲alluṣ [ q.v.] or pen-name of an Indo-Muslim poet, Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Muḥammad, who wrote at the courts of the Mug̲h̲al emperors Humāyūn and Akbar [ q.vv.]. According to most writers he was born in Transoxania at Miyānkāl, a district situated between Samarḳand and Buk̲h̲ārā, but stayed a long time in Kābul, whence he is also known as Kābulī. When fifteen years old he is said to have visited D̲j̲āmī (d. 898/1492 [ q.v.]) at Harāt, and spent some seven years in the poet’s company. Subsequently he went to India o…


(2,242 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T.
, a term of controversial origin (cf. T. Fahd, Divination arabe , 91 ff.), belonging to Canaanite, Aramaic and Arab traditions. At the earliest stage known to us it appears to have been used by the “Western Semites” to designate the possessor of a single function with related prerogatives, that is to say, the offering of sacrifices in the name of the group, the representing of this group before the deity, the interpretation of the will of the deity, and in addition the anticipation an…


(1,628 words)

Author(s): Talbi, M.
(“the Sorceress”) was the guiding spirit of Berber resistance to the Arab invaders led by Ḥassān b. al-Nuʿmān [ q.v.] after the collapse of Byzantine power marked by the fall of Carthage (73/692-3). ¶ Her true personality—which must have been highly complex—is very difficult to discern, for only the distorted reflections of her real features can be detected behind the legend. There is no agreement even on her real name, for al-Kāhina is only a nickname given to her by the Arabs. It is said that she was named Dihya—Ibn K̲h̲aldūn (tr. de Slane, Berbères , i, 172) mentions a Berber tribe know…


(22,495 words)

Author(s): Rogers, J.M. | J. M. Rogers | J. Jomier
, capital of Egypt and one of the most important centres of religious, cultural and political life in the Muslim world. The city is situated on both banks on the Nile, at 30°6′ Lat. N. and 31°26′ Long. E. respectively, at ca. 20 km. south of the delta where the Muḳaṭṭam Mountain almost comes down to the river. This strategical point dominating the access to Lower Egypt had been inhabited since early times, but became of primary importance during the arab invasion in 22/643, when ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣ e…

al-Ḳāhir Bi’llāh

(382 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, 19th ʿAbbāsid Caliph, who reigned from 320/932 to 322/934 in succession to his brother al-Muḳtadir [ q.v.]. He had previously been temporarily chosen as caliph after the abortive palace revolution in Muḥarram 317/March 929. Al-Muḳtadir’s death followed after the sortie he made at the head of his troops against the amīr Muʾnis [ q.v.] in 320/932. When the dignitaries came to nominate a new caliph, Muʾnis’s judgement in favour of Aḥmad, the son of al-Muḳtadir, was ignored and Muḥammad, son of al-Muʿtaḍid, was proclaimed on 27 Shawwāl 320/31 October…


(858 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. De
, or Dāstān-i Ḳahramān , a popular romance in prose, several versions of which are known in both Persian and Turkish. It belongs to a series of prose works which develop themes from the Iranian epic tradition, embellishing them with fabulous touches borrowed from folk literature. Like the Hūs̲h̲ang-nāma , the Ṭahmūrat̲h̲-nāma and the Ḳiṣṣa-i Ḏj̲ams̲h̲īd . the story takes place in the earliest period of the legendary history of Iran, the times of the pis̲h̲dādīyān . The central hero is Kahramān, nicknamed Ḳātil, “the slayer”. His name is in fact a c…


(472 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
(also writen as kāhrabāʾ ; for other forms see Wörterbuch der klass. arab. Sprache , s.v. and W. Schmucker, Die pflanzliche una mineralische Materia Medica im Firdaus al-Ḥikma des Ṭabarī , Bonn 1969, 414), yellow amber. The word is of Persian origin (for Pehlevi quotations see G. Jacob, ZDMG, xliii (1889), 358) and means “a strawattracting substance”. It occurs in the Arabic translation of Dioscorides, ed. E. Terés, Tetuan 1952-Barcelona 1957, p. 84, s.v. αἴγειρος (Greek text, ed. Wellmann, i, 82); but since this text, originally translated b…


(2,431 words)

Author(s): Sharon, M.
b. S̲h̲abib b. K̲h̲ālid b. Maʿdān , Abu ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd al-Ṭāʾī of Banū Nabhān ( Ḏj̲amhara , 178; Ak̲h̲bār al-ʿAbbās , 216), an Arab general and one of the most prominent leaders of the ʿAbbāsid daʿwa in K̲h̲urāsān. According to Balād̲h̲urī, his real name was Ziyād, Ḳaḥṭaba being ¶ a nickname derived from the verb ḳ-ḥ-t-b , which means, inter alia, “to strike with a sword” ( LA, s.v.). In one place his kunya is given as Abū Ḥamza ( Muḥabbar , 465); it is quite possible that he had two kunyas , like some other leaders of the daʿwa who took the precaution of adopting a new o…


(1,474 words)

Author(s): Fischer, A. | Irvine, A.K.
, according to the consensus of opinion among Muslim genealogists, historians, and geographers, ¶ and in popular tradition, the ancestor of all the South-Arabian peoples [see yaman ], whence he is sometimes known as “father of all Yaman”, the Yamanīs themselves being called banū Ḳaḥṭān , ḳabāʾil Ḳaḥṭān , or simply Ḳaḥṭān . He thus corresponds to ʿAdnān [ q.v.], the common ancestor of the northern Arabs, though some authorities prefer to contrast him with one or other of ʿAdnān’s descendants, e.g., his son, Maʿadd (al-Dīnawarī, 281; al-Ṭabarī, ii, 1056, 1084; al-Masʿūdī, al-Tanbih


(1,180 words)

Author(s): Robin, Ch.
, Qahtanite , a name which has been proposed for designating the ensemble of graffiti found in pre-Islamic South Arabia but whose use has not yet become generalised. The numerous written documents found in Arabia and dated from pre-Islamic times, may be classed under three headings: (1) monumental inscriptions on stone or other durable materials, meant to be exposed and using varieties of the Arabian alphabet (South Arabian, Dedanite, Liḥyānite and Ḥasaean) or foreign scripts (Aramaic, Greek, Latin and Geʿez); (2) private …
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