Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(7,941 words)

Author(s): Arendonk, C. Van | K. N. Chaudhuri
, an Arabic word of uncertain etymology, which is the basis of the usual words for coffee in various languages. Originally a name for wine, found already in the old poetry (see Landberg, Etudes ii, 1057 and al-Ag̲h̲ānī , 1st ed., vi, 1107, viii, 7916, xx, 1808), this word was transferred towards the end of the 8th/14th century in the Yemen to the beverage made from the berry of the coffee tree. The assumption of such a transference of meaning is not, it is true, accepted by some who consider ḳahwa —at least in the sense of coffee—as a word of African origin and …

Kaḥyā (Ketk̲h̲udā)or Ḏj̲enāze Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a

(471 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
, Ottoman grand vizier under Sultan Selīm III. A slave of Circassian origin, he served different Ottoman dignitaries until he became kaḥyā ( ketk̲h̲udā [ q.v.]) of Melek Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], thus being known later as Ketk̲h̲udā Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a. His military skill first became evident during the Greek rebellion in Morea, when as mütesellim of Tripolitza he defeated the rebels besieging the town on 23 D̲h̲u’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1183/19 April 1770. He was appointed commander of the fortress Vidīn with the title of vizier in Muḥarram 1202/November 1787 while Melek Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a became serʿasker…


(771 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S.
(A.), an imprecise term, but one always used to designate a military leader whose rank might vary from captain to general. Semantically, it is the equivalent of the Latin dux . The plural most frequently employed by historians is ḳuwwād . For the army in Muslim Spain, this title corresponded to general or even commander-in-chief. In the navy, ḳāʾid al-usṭūl (= ḳāʾid ʿala ’l-usṭūl ) or ḳāʾid al-baḥr (= ḳāʾid ʿala ’l-baḥr , ḳāʾid fi ’l-baḥr ) was equivalent to “admiral”. But Ibn K̲h̲aldūn intimates that the term current among sailors of his day was al-miland (pronounced with a back lām


(5 words)

[see ḳiyāfa ].


(2,068 words)

Author(s): Dachraoui, F.
(bi-amr Allāh ), second caliph of the Fāṭimid [ q.v.] dynasty. One of the less illustrious members of the dynasty, his name evokes the memory of grave defeats and is eclipsed by that of the “man on the donkey”, the famous Abū Yazīd [ q.v.]. As a ruler, however, al-Ḳāʾim does not appear to have been inadequate for his task nor to have lacked energy in exercising authority. Before his accession to power in 322/934, he had already had long experience of public affairs since from his youth he had been entrusted by al-Mahdī [ q.v.] with a share in governing Ifrīḳiya. While still a child, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim…

Ḳāʾim Āl Muḥammad

(743 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
, “the Ḳāʾim of the family of Muḥammad”, in S̲h̲īʿī terminology commonly denotes the Mahdī [ q.v.]. The term ḳāʾim , “riser”, was used in S̲h̲īʿī circles at least from the early 2nd/8th century on in referring to the member of the family of the Prophet who was expected to rise against the illegitimate regime and restore justice on earth, evidently in contrast to the ḳāʿid , or “sitting”, members of the family, who refused to be drawn into ventures of armed revolt. The term thus was often qualified as al-Ḳāʾim bi ’l-sayf , “the one who shall rise with the sword”. It…

al-Ḳāʾim Bi-Amr Allāh

(1,439 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, 26th ʿAbbāsid caliph, whose rule lasted from 422/1031 to 467/1075, corresponding with the end of the Buwayhid period and the beginnnig of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ period in ʿIrāḳ. Born in 391/1001, the son of an Armenian concubine, he was named heir shortly before the death of his father, al-Ḳādir [ q.v.] and succeeded to the throne unopposed. The usual oath of allegiance was taken on 13 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 422/12 December 1031. At this period, although the caliph had only very limited personal resources at his command, he had recovered a measure of freedom, to the extent …


(1,312 words)

Author(s): Davison, R.H.
(t., originally a.; cf. Ḳāʾim ), the name formerly used for paper money in Turkey, an abbreviation for ḳāʾime-i muʿtebere . The word ḳāʾime was originally used of official documents written on one large, long sheet of paper; the first paper money was also manuscript on large sheets, and was also known as sehim ḳāʾimesi , ḳāʾime-i naḳdiyye , ewrāḳ-i naḳdiye , and ewraḳ-i muʿtebere . Although in the 20th century bank notes have been called ḳāʾime, this term was not used for notes of the Imperial Ottoman Bank, a private bank under government charter, but only for paper iss…


(424 words)

Author(s): Samic, Jasna
, Ḥasan Baba (d. 1102/1691), Bosnian Muslim poet of the 11th/17th century. After the Ottoman conquest of the 9th/15th century, Slavs converted to Islam began to write in the Islamic languages of Turkish, Persian and Arabic, whilst some authors continued to write in Slavonic but in Arabic characters ( alhamiado ). Ḥasan Baba, with the mak̲h̲laṣ of Ḳāʾimī, was the most celebrated poet of his time in Bosnia and the Balkans in general. Little is known of his life, but he seems to have been in easy circumstances and to have lived most of his life in Sarajevo [ q.v.], where he was born by 1039/1630…


(714 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E. | P. M. Holt
In the Ottoman Empire the title of Ḳāʾim-maḳām was borne by a number of different officials, the most important of whom was the ṣadāret ḳāʾim-maḳāmi̊ or ḳāʾim-maḳām pas̲h̲a who stayed in the capital as deputy when the grand vizier had to leave for a military campaign. The appointment of a ḳāʾim-maḳām seems to have begun in the 10th/16th or even in the 9th/15th century and it lasted until the end of the Empire. The ḳāʾim-maḳām enjoyed almost all the authority of the grand vizier, issuing firmans and nominating functionaries, but he was not allowed to intervene in the a…

Ḳāʾim-Maḳām-i Farāhānī

(486 words)

Author(s): Zarrinkoob, A.H.
In the early Ḳād̲j̲ār [ q.v.] period the title of Ḳāʾim-maḳām [see above] was held by two statesmen, Mīrzā ʿĪsā Farāhānī, better known as Mīrzā Buzurg ( b. ca . 1167/1753-4 d. 1237/1822), and his son Mīrzā Abu ’l-Ḳāsim-i Farāhānī (1193/1779-1251/1835), both of whom were ministers of the crown prince ʿAbbās Mīrzā [ q.v.]. A quasi-official title, Ḳāʾim-maḳām signified the representative of the Ṣadr-i aʿẓam [ q.v.] at the petty court of the crown prince in Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. Both father and son were of energetic and incorruptible character, but the latter was more…


(939 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, conventionally Qayen, etc., a town of eastern Persia (lat. 33° 43′ N., long. 59° 06′ E.), now in the administrative province of K̲h̲urāsān but in mediaeval Islamic times falling within the region known as Ḳūhistān [ q.v.]. It lies on the road connecting the urban centres of northern K̲h̲urāsān (Mas̲h̲had, Turbat-i Ḥaydariyya, etc.) with Bird̲j̲and, Persian Sīstān and Zāhidān. Ḳāʾin must be an ancient town, but virtually nothing is known of it before the descriptions of the 4th/10th century geographers. The 8th century Armenian geo…

Ḳāʾit Bāy

(1,406 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M. | Ashtor, E.
, al-Malik al-As̲h̲raf Abu ’l-Naṣr Sayf al-dīn al-Maḥmūdī al-Ẓāhirī , sultan of Egypt and Syria (872/1468-901/1496), was purchased by Barsbāy [ q.v.], manumitted by Sultan Ḏj̲aḳmaḳ, became a life-guard, then Dawādār Ṣag̲h̲īr , i.e., assistant dawādār in the office of the Grand Dawādār [see dawādār ], then amīr of 10 Mamlūks under Īnāl [ q.v.], Ṭablak̲h̲āna ( i.e., amīr with the right to have a band accompanying him), under Sultan K̲h̲us̲h̲ḳadam [ q.v.], inspector of houses of refreshment and shortly afterwards commander of a thousand ( Muḳaddam Alf ). In 872/1467-8 he became Raʾs nawbat…


(469 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Arabic term for a man whose foot-joints can be heard cracking when he walks, but often found as a proper name in the first days of Islam and particularly among the Tamīmīs; the last to bear this name seems to have been al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ b. Ḍirār al-Tamīmī, chief of police for ʿĪsā b. Mūsā [ q.v.], governor of Kūfa from 132/750 to 147/764 (Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, ii, 465; al-Ṭabarī, iii, 131, 347). Among those who bore this name, apart from al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ b. ʿAmr [see the following article] and the poets cited by al-Marzubānī ( Muʿd̲j̲am , 329-30), especially noteworthy was the Co…

al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ b. ʿAmr

(296 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Mālik al-Tamīmī , a warrior of the early Islamic period who, after the death of the Prophet, joined Sad̲j̲āḥ [ q.v.] for a time and became the lieutenant of K̲h̲ālid b. al-Walīd [ q.v.], taking part in the battle of Buzāk̲h̲a [ q.v.] as early as 11/632. After the capture of al-Ḥīra, he commanded a detachment which won a victory over the Persians in the region of al-Anbār, probably in 12/633. In Rad̲j̲ab 13/August-September 635, he took part in the conquest of Damascus and the following year led a troop of cavalry at the battle of Yarmūk [ q.v.]. He fought with distinction at al-Ḳādisiyya [ q.v.], …


(284 words)

Author(s): Hanifi, Shah Mahmoud
, a G̲h̲arg̲h̲us̲h̲t Pas̲h̲tūn tribe concentrated in southeastern Afg̲h̲ānistān and Pākistānī Balūčistān. Though not prominent among Afg̲h̲ān [ q.v.] groups migrating to India during the early Dihlī Sultanate [ q.v.], Kāka s are noticeable among military and political élites during the Lōdī, Sūrī and early Mug̲h̲al [ q.vv.] periods. Ḥaybat K̲h̲ān Kākā, patron and collector of materials for Niʿmat Allāh’s Mak̲h̲zān-i Afg̲h̲ānī , demonstrates Kāka participation in Mug̲h̲al literary production. Kākaṛistān designates territory on and between the Tūba and Sulaymā mount…


(708 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, a fortress, now an imposing ruin, which stands on a precipitous ridge dominating the ancient site of Arsaneia in Commagene, recently identified by F. Dörner; the name does not appear before the 6th/12th century. The region, of which Gerger, on the upper reaches of the Euphrates at the mouth of the gorges, was in reality the chief centre, played only a minimal role in the Arab-Byzantine wars during the first centuries of Islam, since the main passes lie further to the west or north, and there was ¶ no need for the fortress of Kak̲h̲tā, which commanded the outlet of a valley in the…


(2,266 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, or Kākwayhids , a dynasty of Daylamī origin which ruled over part of D̲j̲ibāl or west-central Persia during the first half of the 5th/11th century as virtually independent sovereigns, and thereafter for more than a century as local lords of Yazd, tributary to the Sald̲j̲ūḳs. The rise of the Kākūyids is one aspect of the “Daylamī interlude” of Iranian history, during which hitherto submerged Daylamī and Kurdish elements rose to prominence. Under the dynamic leadership of the …


(13 words)

[see agadir , burd̲j̲ , ḥiṣār , ḥiṣn , ḳaṣaba ].


(153 words)

Author(s): Huici Miranda, A.
(a.), castle, fortress, a word which has passed into Spanish in the simple form Alcalá, and as Cala—or Calat—in compounds, occurs as a place-name throughout the entire peninsula— e.g., Alcalá de Henares, Alcalá la Real (also named after Ibn Zayd), Alcalá de Guadaira, or Calahorra (castle of Hurra), Calatrava (Ḳalʿat Rabāḥ [ q.v.]=ʿAlī b. Rabāḥ?), Calatayud (Ḳalʿat Ayyūb [ q.v.]), Calatorao (from turāb =land, as in Madīnat al-turāb=Valencia), Calatañazor (Ḳalʿat al-nusūr, the site of the alleged defeat of al-Manṣūr). The dimunitive Alcolea (from the Arabic al-ḳulayʿa
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