Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(6,423 words)

Author(s): Isnard, H. | Tourneau, R. le
, a mountainous region in the Algerian Tell. The word Kabylia, coined by the French, means “land of the Kabyles” ( bilād al-Ḳabāʾil ). This name is of fairly recent origin, however, for it is not found in the works of Arabic historians and geographers; it is probably of oral origin and intended for use by foreigners, i.e., Europeans; it seems to have been introduced into geographic nomenclature by European writers from the 16th century onwards. The word “Kabyle”, the etymology of which is sometimes questioned, seems to correspond to the Arabic word ḳabāʾil , plural of ḳabīla

Kaččhī or Kaččh Gandāwa

(424 words)

Author(s): Longworth Dames, M.
, province of Pākistānī Balūčistān extending from 27° 53′ to 29° 35′ N. and from 67° 11′ to 68° 28′ E. It forms a level plain enclosed on the north and east by the southern Sulaymān range and on the west by the Kirthār Ranges. To the south it is open, being bounded by the plain of northern Sindh. The history of the region is more closely connected with that of Sindh than that of Balūčistān. Its chief town, Kandābīl (probably Gandāwa) is said to have been taken by the Brāhman Rāy Čač in the 7th century A.D., and to have been despoiled by the Arabs many times after the conquest. The region later ¶ passed into…


(799 words)

Author(s): Káldy-Nagy, Gy.
(a.), originally meaning “decision”, has in the Ḳurʾān different meanings, according to the different contexts: e.g., “doomsday” (XLV, 17; X, 93), “jurisdiction” (XXVII, 78; XXXIX, 69; XL, 20), “revelation of the truth” (XXVIII, 44) and “predestination, determination, decree” (XL, 68) (cf. E. Tyan, Histoire de l’organisation judiciaire en pays d’Islam 2, Leiden 1960, 65). In A Dictionary of Islam (London 1885, 479), T. P. Hughes gives the following concise definitions of the word: (1) the office of a ḳāḍī [ q.v.], or judge; (2) the sentence of a ḳāḍī; (3) repeating prayers to make …


(386 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a. and p.), literally “place of the [imprint of the] foot”, a village in K̲h̲urāsān, on the highway to Mas̲h̲had and some 20 km/12 miles ¶ east of Nīs̲h̲āpūr at the southern edge of the Kūh-i Bīnālūd (lat. 36° 07′ N., long. 59° 00′ E.). It is locally famed as a ziyāratgāh or place of pilgrimage, since the Eighth Imām of the S̲h̲īʿa, ʿAlī al-Riḍā [ q.v.], is said to have halted there and left the imprint of his foot on a stone, henceforth to be regarded with reverence; see Bess A. Donaldson, The wild rue. A study of Muhammadan magic and folklore in Iran , London 1938, 59, 148-9). The concept of sacred i…

Ḳadam S̲h̲arīf

(1,039 words)

Author(s): Arnold, T.W. | Burton-Page, J.
( Ḳadam Rasūl Allāh ). Among the miracles ( muʿd̲j̲izāt ) popularly attributed to Muḥammad was the fact that when he trod on a rock, his foot sank into the stone and left its impress there. This miracle is usually referred to along with others, e.g., that he cast no shadow, that if one of his hairs fell in the fire, it was not burnt, that flies did not settle on his clothes etc. (cf. al-Ḥalabī, al-Sīra al-Ḥalabiyya , Būlāḳ, 1292, iii, 407), or that his sandals left no imprint on the sand (cf. Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar al-Haytamī, commentary on al-Ḳaṣīda al-Ḥamziyya , 1. 176. (Ind. Off,…


(7 words)

[see al-ḳaḍāʾ wa ’l-ḳadar ].


(4,746 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, a name commonly used by Islamists to denote a group of theologians, not in itself homogeneous, who represented in one form or another the principle of liberum arbitrium (free will) in the early period of Islam, from about 70/690 ¶ to the definitive consolidation of the Muʿtazila [ q.v.] at the beginning of the 3rd/9th century. In Islamic sources the notion is ambivalent; only authors of a determinist standpoint use it in the above sense (in later works the term can also refer to the Muʿtazila). Authors of a non-determinist standpoint, on the…


(458 words)

Author(s): Chelhod, J.
(a.), a neologism of comparatively recent creation, generally understood in the sense of holiness. The word does not occur either in the Ḳurʾān or in ḥadīt̲h̲ , and the LA ignores it. On the other hand, the root ḳ-d-s is well known to the Arab lexicographers; the Ḳurʾān (II, 30, 87, 253; V, 21, no; XVI, 102; XX, 12; LIX, 23; LXII, 1; LXXIX, 16) and ḥadīt̲h̲ (Wensinck, Concordance ) use it sporadically. Basically, it is used to denote beings and objects that are pure, wholly unsullied or in touch with the divine. This religious meaning seems to be alien to Arabic and borrowed from Aramai…

al-Ḳaḍāʾ Wa ’l-Ḳadar

(2,598 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
When combined into one expression, these two words have the overall meaning of the Decree of God, both the eternal Decree (the most frequent meaning of ḳaḍāʾ) and the Decree given existence in time (the most frequent sense of ḳadar). Other translations are possible: for example, ḳaḍāʾ, predetermination (usually eternal but according to some schools operating within time); ḳadar, decree (usually operating within time but according to some schools eternal) or fate, destiny, in the sense of determined or fixed. It is also possible ¶ to use ḳaḍāʾ alone for Decree in its broadest sense…

Ḳaddūra al-Ḏj̲azāʾirī

(122 words)

Author(s): Lakhdar, M.
Of Tunisian ancestry, but settled in Algeria, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Saʿīd was, like his father, Saʿīd b. Ibrāhīm (d. S̲h̲awwāl 1066/July-Aug. 1656), the most learned man and greatest mufti of Algeria of his time. Amongst his most brilliant disciples was Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Muḥammad Ibn Zākūr al-Fāsī, to whom he was the last to grant an id̲j̲āza (beginning of Rad̲j̲ab 1094/26 June 1683). He died at Algiers on 15 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1098/12 Oct. 1687. (M. Lakhdar) Bibliography E. Lévi-Provençal, Chorfa, 288 and n. 5 Ḳādirī, Nas̲h̲r, ii, 93 idem, Iltiḳāṭ, fol. 40r idem, al-Nas̲h̲r al-kabīr, i…

Ḳaddūr al-ʿAlamī

(385 words)

Author(s): Lakhdar, M.
, the name by which is known the famous Moroccan popular poet ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Abi-lʾḲāsim al-Idrīsī al-ʿAlamī al-Ḥamdānī al-Ṭālibī al-ʿAbd al-Salāmī . He grew up in Meknes in an austere atmosphere, renouncing the pleasures of this world, spending his time visiting the tombs of the saints and enjoying the company of the pious. His teachers were al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ al-Muk̲h̲tār al-Baḳḳālī, ʿAlī b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān known as al-Ḏj̲amal. Mawlāy al-Ṭayyib al-Wazzānī, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Ṣiḳ…


(524 words)

Author(s): Linant de Bellefonds, Y.
(a.), slanderous accusation of fornication ( zināʾ [ q.v.]), or of illegitimate descent; in this latter case, it amounts to accusing the mother of fornication. The guilty party is punished by a fixed penalty ( ḥadd ) of 80 lashes, laid down by the Ḳurʾān (XXIV, 4). A slave guilty of the same crime therefore receives only 40 lashes, on account of the general principles of fiḳh . According to the majority of fuḳahāʾ , ḳad̲h̲f only occurs if the expressions used by the slanderer expressly relate to the fornication or illegitimate descent of the person who is slandered. The Mālikīs alone consider as ḳ…


(2,660 words)

Author(s): Tyan, E. | Káldy-Nagy, Gy.
(a.), “judge”, a representative of authority, invested with the power of jurisdiction ( ḳaḍāʾ ). In theory, the head of the community, the caliph, is the holder of all powers; like all other state officials, the ḳāḍī , is therefore a delegate ( nāʾib )—direct, if appointed by the Caliph in person, indirect and in varying degrees according to the situation if nominated by intermediate representatives ( wazīr , governor of a province, etc.). But in all cases the delegator retains the power to do justice in person (the principle of ,, retained justice.”) There is a ḳāḍī in the capital and a ḳāḍī in …

Ḳāḍī ʿAskar

(540 words)

Author(s): Káldy-Nagy, Gy.
(a.), “judge of the army”. The first data relating to the institution of the ḳāḍī, ʿaskar date from the 2nd/8th century: Kindī mentions that after Ṣāliḥ b. ʿAlī had become the governor of Egypt (c. 132/750), he organized a military expedition and appointed a judge over each unit of his army (E. Tyan, Histoire de l’organisation judiciaire en pays d’Islam 2, Leiden 1960, 529-30). In the Ayyūbid state the office of the ḳāḍī les̲h̲ker ( i.e., ḳāḍī ʿaskar ) first came into being in Saladin’s time (1138-93) (İ. H. Uzunçarşılı, Osmanlı devleti teşkilâtinamedhal 2, Ankara 1970, 387). The Anato…


(351 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, rod, one of the insignia of sovereignty of the caliph. As early as the Umayyad era, the rod ( ḳaḍīb ) or staff ( ʿaṣā ) was already, along with the seal, one of the badges of rank which was conveyed with speed to the new caliph on the death of his predecessor. This custom was adhered to under the first ʿAbbāsid caliphs, notably after the death of al-Manṣūr, who ended his life at Mecca, and after the deaths of al-Mahdī and Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd, who perished during an expedition to the eastern provinces; in these cases a special messenger, bearing the ḳaḍīb and the seal, was despatched to the heir …

al-Ḳāḍī al-Fāḍil

(966 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C. | Cahen, Cl.
, Abū ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Lak̲h̲mī al-Baysānī al-ʿAsḳalānī , Mūḥyī ( Mud̲j̲īr ) al-Dīn , the famous counsellor and secretary to Saladin, was born on 15 D̲j̲umādā II 529/3 April 1135 at ʿAsḳalān [ q.v.], where his father, a native of Baysān, known as al-Ḳāḍī al-As̲h̲raf, was the judge. He was put by his father into the Dīwān al-ins̲h̲āʾ at Cairo as a trainee, about 543-4/1148-9. Already before 548/1153 he entered the service of the ḳāḍī of Alexandria, Ibn Ḥadīd, as a secretary. As the elegant reports he drafted there bro…

al-Ḳāḍī al-Harawī

(6 words)

[see al-ʿabbādī ].

Ḳāḍī K̲h̲ān

(301 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th.W. | Linant de Bellefonds, Y.
, Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al-Ḥasan b. Manṣūr al-Farg̲h̲ānī . 6th/12th century Ḥanafī jurist (d. Ramaḍān 592/August 1196), a native of Transoxania, who wrote commentaries on those works of Muḥammad al-S̲h̲aybānī, Abū Ḥanīfa’s disciple, recognized as ẓāhir al-riwāya (authentic version). A few manuscript copies of his commentaries are extant, notably a S̲h̲arḥ al-D̲j̲āmiʿ al-ṣag̲h̲īr and a S̲h̲arḥ al-Ziyādāt in the Cairo National Library. Ḳāḍī K̲h̲ān’s fame rests on his Fatāwā , also called al-Fatāwā al-k̲h̲āniyya , not, as the name would seem to suggest, a…


(5 words)

[see ḳidam ].
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