Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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Ḳāḍī Muḥammad

(341 words)

Author(s): Edmonds, C.J.
, a Sunnī of the S̲h̲āfiʿī mad̲h̲hab , b. c. 1895, was head of the leading aristocratic and religious family of Mahābād [ q.v.] (the principal town of the Kurdish part of the province of ¶ Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān since separated as the Third Ostan), where there was a tradition of lively Kurdish cultural activity. After succeeding his father, ʿAlī, as ḳāḍī he quickly established a reputation for outstanding competence and incisiveness alike as judge, orator and practical man of affairs. In August 1941 the Anglo-Russian invasion of Persia was followed by a general rising of the Kur…


(7 words)

[see marʾa , sarāy ].


(6 words)

[see al-asmāʾ al-ḥusnā ].

al-Ḳādir Bi’llāh

(1,484 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, 25th caliph of the ʿAbbāsid dynasty, who reigned from 381/991 to 422/1031. Born in 336/947-8, Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Isḥāḳ was the grandson of the Caliph al-Muḳtadir [ q.v.] and cousin of the Caliph al-Ṭāʾiʿ, who was deposed in 381/991 by the amīr Bahāʾ al-Dawla. Called to assume the caliphate by the latter, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās received the regnal name of al-Ḳādir bi’llāh. The amīr, who had met with some vestiges of resistance in al-Ṭāʾiʿ, hoped to find a more tractable ruler in the person of al-Ḳādir, who had had to flee from …


(611 words)

Author(s): Deverdun, G.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. al-Ṭayyīb b. ʿAbd al-Salām al-Ḥasanī al-Ḳādirī , s̲h̲arīf , Moroccan historian and biographer, born in Fās on 7 Rabīʿ I 1124/14 April 1712, died in the same town on 25 S̲h̲aʿbān 1187/11 November 1773. He was a pupil of the leading scholars of his time but, unlike them, throughout his life revealed an almost complete detachment from the good things of this world. Quite early he turned to Ṣūfism and, to make his living, was content to act as an ʿādil (legal witness to a deed). Al-Ḳādirī left a fairly considerable number of writings…

al-Ḳādirī al-Ḥasanī

(264 words)

Author(s): Lakhdar, M.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad al-ʿArabī b. al-Ṭayyīb , Moroccan scholar very learned in history and genealogy. He had eminent teachers in the various branches of knowledge, notably ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Fāsī, his two sons Muḥammad and ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, al-Ḥasan al-Yūsī, and the ḳāḍī Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Fāsī. He frequented well-known mystics, amongst others Ḳāsim al-K̲h̲aṣāṣī, Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh Maʿn al-Andalusī, in whose company he made the pilgrimage, and Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Idrīs al-Yamanī. All his works are devoted to mysticism: al-Ṭurfa fi ’k̲h̲tiṣār al-Tuḥfa (…

al-Ḳādirī al-Ḥasanī

(319 words)

Author(s): Lakhdar, M.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās (and Abu ’l-Faḍāʾil) Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad , Moroccan mystic who was also a man of the pen and of the sword. He owed his education to his stay at the zāwiya of Dilāʾ, profiting from the teaching of qualified masters such as al-Yūsī. He made the pilgrimage twice, in 1083/1673 and in 1100/1689. During his first stay in the East, he followed courses given by doctors learned in Islamic sciences, amongst whom were: ʿAlī al-Ud̲j̲hurī, ʿAbd al-Bāḳī al-Zurḳānī, and Muḥammad al-K̲h̲irs̲h̲ī. At the end of his second journey he composed a riḥla with the title Nasmat al-ā…

al-Kāḍirī al-Ḥasanī

(377 words)

Author(s): Lakhdar, M.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Salām b. al-Ṭayyib , celebrated Moroccan genealogist of the Chorfa. Born at Fez, 10 Ramaḍān 1058/28 Sept. 1648, he followed there the courses of eminent teachers, including ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Fāsī and his two sons, Muḥammad and ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, al-Yūsī, al-ʿArabī b. Aḥmad al-Fis̲h̲tālī, and Aḥmad b. al-ʿArabī b. al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲. He was accomplished in lexicography, rhetoric, logic, dialectic, and ḥadīt̲h̲ and its principles ( ʿuṣūl ). But his speciality was genealogy in general and that of the Banū ¶ Hās̲h̲im and of the ʿAlawī branch i…


(3,408 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, Order ( ṭarīḳa ) of dervishes called after ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḏj̲īlānī [ q.v.]. 1.—Origin. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir (d. 561/1166) was the principal of a school ( madrasa ) of Ḥanbalī law and a ribāṭ in Bag̲h̲dād. His sermons (collected in al-Fatḥ al-Rabbānī ) were delivered sometimes in the one, sometimes in the other; both were notable institutions in the time of Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, and Yāḳūt ( Irs̲h̲ād al-Arīb , v, 274) records a bequest of books made to the former by a man who died in 572/1176-7. Both appear to have come to an end at the sack of Bag̲h̲…


(735 words)

Author(s): Huici Miranda, A.
(Spanish: Cádiz; English: Cadiz; French: Cadix), the capital (pop. 117, 871) of the province of the same name, the most southerly ¶ in Spain; it prides itself on being the oldest town in the West, since it is said to have been founded by the Phoenicians in about 1500 B.C.; in Phoenician, it is named Gad(d)ir [cf. agadir], from which the Greeks derived the name Γάδειρα, the Romans Gadir and Gades, and the Arabs Ḳādis. Under the domination first of the Greeks and later the Carthaginians (after 500 B.C.), it became the most important place in the south o…


(3,762 words)

Author(s): Streck, M. | Lassner, J. | Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, the name of several places in ʿIrāḳ and al-D̲j̲azīra. The Mus̲h̲tarik of Yāḳūt (337) lists five places of that name of which the two most important were situated near Sāmarrā and al-Kūfa. The history of these places is most difficult to trace. 1. A town in ʿIrāḳ, on the Eastern bank of the Tigris, 8 miles S.E. of Sāmarrā. It seems to have been closely connected with the latter in its period of prosperity. We do not know what special part al-Ḳādisiyya played at that time. Herzfeld, ( Reise , i, 107) suggests it is really identical with the town of al-Ḳātūl whic…

Ḳāḍī-Zāde Rūmī

(537 words)

Author(s): Ragep, F.J.
, Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Mūsā b. Muḥammad b. Maḥmūd al-Rūmī, usually referred to as Ḳāḍī-zāde al-Rūmī or Mūsā Ḳāḍī-zāde al-Rūmī, lived ca. 760- ca. 835/1359-1432, dates derived from an early work written in 784/1382-3 and from his having outlived G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn al-Kās̲h̲ī (d. 832/1429 [ q.v.]), noted astronomer/mathematician from Bursa who played a substantial role in the Samarḳand observatory [see marṣad ] of Ulug̲h̲ Beg [ q.v.] and whose commentaries were used extensively as teaching texts for mathematics and astronomy. After studying for a time in his native Bursa, where his …


(674 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, Turcoman tribe, from which sprang a ruling dynasty of Persia (see next article). There is no foundation for the statements of later historians that the Ḳād̲j̲ār tribe entered Iran with Hūlāgū [ q.v.]. In the 9th/15th century they formed part of the Boz Ok branch of the Turcomans of Anatolia, dwelling in the Kayseri-Sivas region and recognizing the suzerainty of the D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳadr rulers. They probably take their name from a leader named Ḳarāçar (=Ḳarçar). In the 9th/15th century they were divided into four sub-tribes ( oba ): Ag̲h̲ča Koyunlu, Ag̲h̲čalu, S̲h̲ā…


(12,370 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
( kačar “marching quickly”, cf. Sulaymān Efendī, Lug̲h̲at-i Čag̲h̲atai , Istanbul 1298, 214; P. Pelliot, Notes sur l’histoire de la horde d’or, Paris 1950, 203-4), a Turcoman tribe, to which the Ḳād̲j̲ār dynasty of Persia belonged; also a village in the Lītkūh district of Āmul [ q.v.]. Nineteenth century Persian historians assert that the Ḳād̲j̲ār took their name from Ḳād̲j̲ār Noyān b. Sirtāḳ Noyān. The latter was the son of Sābā Noyān b. D̲j̲alāʾir, and was appointed atabeg [ q.v.] to Arg̲h̲ūn (Riḍā Ḳulī K̲h̲ān Hidāyat, Tāʾrīk̲h̲-i rawḍat al-ṣafā-yi nāṣirī , Te…


(7 words)

[see ḳaḍā , ramaḍān ].


(176 words)

Author(s): Mohaghegh, M.
, Persian poet born at S̲h̲īrāz, who flourished in the first half of the 11th/17th century (and is not to be confused with his namesake Ḳadrī S̲h̲īrāzī, active in India during the reign of Akbar). The account of his early years is given by Taḳī al-Dīn Kās̲h̲ī in the K̲h̲ulāṣat al-as̲h̲ʿār . He is known for two short epic poems, Ḏj̲angnāma-yi Ḳis̲h̲m and D̲j̲ārānnāma , commemorating the conquest of the island of Ḳis̲h̲m and the town of Hormūz by Imām Ḳulī K̲h̲ān of S̲h̲īrāz during the reign of ʿAbbās I in 1032/1623. A manuscript of the first, brought to Italy by Pietro della Valle, was …


(1,976 words)

Author(s): Talbi, M.
, (El-Kef), a town in Tunisia (pop. 18,000), capital of an administrative district with a population of 306,000 (census of 3 May 1966), situated in the region of Haut-Tell about 30 km. from the Algerian border; the altitude varies from 700 to 850 m. Since 1962, an effort has been made to replace the traditional cereal cultivation with a greater agricultural diversification, although the attempt at co-operative collectivization of the land was abandoned in September 1969. The town has also benefit…
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