Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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John The Baptist

(7 words)

[see yaḥyā ].


(5 words)

[see yūnus ].


(5 words)

[see urdunn ].


(5 words)

[see yūsuf ].


(5 words)

[see yūs̲h̲aʿ ].


(9,734 words)

Author(s): Cohen, D. | Blau, J. | Vajda, G.
, the usual name for the spoken—or in some cases the written—language of the Jews in the Arabic-speaking countries. i. judaeo-arabic dialects. The traditional term “Judaeo-Arabic” has certainly less justification when used in connection with the spoken usage than with the written usage defined above. It suggests the erroneous idea of a form of speech common to all Arabic-speaking Jews, and offering characteristics linked in some way to religious or ethnic facts. Now though it cannot be denied that the religious facto…


(904 words)

Author(s): Zafrani, H.
The Berber-speaking Jews of the S̲h̲leuḥ and Tamazig̲h̲t regions had their own living dialects, and a folklore that was in no way inferior to that of their Muslim neighbours [see berbers ], as well as an oral traditional and religious literature of which unfortunately only a few vestiges remain. These have been collected recently by the author of the present article. Living in the valleys of the Atlas, in the Sous and on the borders of the Sahara (and in all likelihood in certain parts of Algeria and Tunisia), they formed small communities grouped in mellahs and had …


(5,539 words)

Author(s): Fischel, W.J. | Lazard, G.
, New-Persian written in Hebrew characters. i.—literature If we define as Judaeo-Persian literature strictly “literary” works composed by Jews in the Persian language but in Hebrew characters, then the first fruits of such literary endeavours could have emerged only when the Persian language had penetrated deeply enough into the life of Persian Jews to become a vehicle for their literary expression. This condition for the birth and growth of a genuine Judaeo-Persian literature seemed to have been fulfi…


(5 words)

[see ḳāḍī ].


(5 words)

[see ḥukm ].


(5 words)

[see fiḳh ].


(16 words)

[see ʿadl ]. For other words generally written in English with J, see D̲j̲.