Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

Subscriptions: see Brill.com


(529 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, the seventh letter of the Arabic alphabet, here transcribed as k̲h̲. Its numerical value is 600, according to the eastern order [see abd̲j̲ad ]. Definition: voiceless post-velar fricative. According to the Arabic grammatical tradition: rīk̲h̲wa , mahmūsa , mustaʿliya . For the mak̲h̲rad̲j̲ : min adnā ’l-ḥalḳ (from that part of the throat nearest to the mouth) (al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī, Mufaṣṣal2 , ed. Broch, § 732); Ibn Yaʿīs̲h̲ ( S̲h̲arḥ , ed. G. Jahn, 1460, 1. 6) defines it thus: “the k̲h̲āʾ is nearer to the mouth than the g̲h̲ayn ”. The Arabs accordingly placed the k̲h̲aʾ


(270 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), plural ak̲h̲bār , ak̲h̲ābir , report, piece of information. The word is not used in any special context in the Ḳurʾān. In the ḥadīt̲h̲ it occurs among other passages in the tradition which describes how the d̲j̲inn by eavesdropping obtain information from heaven ( k̲h̲abar min al-samaʾ ) and how they are pelted with fiery meteors to prevent them from doing so (al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Ad̲h̲ān , bāb 105; Muslim, Ṣalāt , tr. 149); al-Tirmid̲h̲ī, Tafsīr , Sūra Ixxii, trad. 1). In his collection al-Buk̲h̲āri has a chapter entitled Ak̲h̲bār al-āḥād , which, as the tard̲j̲ama


(678 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, in Arabic grammar, refers to the constituent parts of the nominal phrase, e.g. Zayd un karīm un “Zayd is noble”; here, Zayd, the first term, is mubtadaʾ , and karīm, the second one, is k̲h̲abar. For the verbal phrase, the corresponding terms are fāʿil agent and fiʿl verb. The Arab grammarians, as can readily be seen, recognised two types of phrase, the nominal and the verbal, in their language. They also recognised clearly the necessity of the ʿaḳd , the nexus linking the two terms of these phrases, and they called it isnād “the act of leaning one thing against another”, the linkage between al-mu…

K̲h̲abar al-Wāḥid

(478 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
Literally, tradition or report going back to one single authority. Synonyms are k̲h̲abar al-āḥād , k̲h̲abar al-infirād and k̲h̲abar al-k̲h̲āṣṣa . According to the generally-accepted definition, a k̲h̲abar al-wāḥid is a report which falls short of the predicate mutawātir [ q.v.] (or, as certain scholars assert, mas̲h̲hūr [ q.v.]) in that it has only one or a few (from two to five) transmitters in every ṭabaḳa of its isnād . The first classical scholar who writes about the k̲h̲abar al-wāḥid is, according to Nawawī (cf. S̲h̲arḥ ṣaḥīḥ Muslim , Cairo 1349, i, 131),…

K̲h̲abbāb b. al-Aratt

(1,364 words)

Author(s): Kister, M.J.
, abū ʿabd allāh or abū yaḥyā or abū muḥammad or abū ʿabd rabbihi , a Companion of the Prophet. Tradition is not unanimous about his origin. Some reports state that his father was captured in a raid launched by the Rabīʿa in the Sawād, sent to Mecca and sold as a slave to Sibāʿ b. ʿAbd al-ʿUẓzā al-K̲h̲uzāʿī, a confederate ( ḥalīf ) of the Banū Zuhra; Sibāʿ (who was later killed by Ḥamza in the battle of Uḥud) gave him as a gift to his daughter Umm Anmār who freed him. In a tradition attributed to ʿAlī he is said to have been the first of the Nabaṭ to embrace Islam. Other tradition…


(5 words)

[see ʿarūḍ ]


(272 words)

Author(s): Vidal, F.S.
(pl. k̲h̲abārī ), a silt flat, as the term is commonly used in the Syrian Desert. This desert, which comprises part of Syria, Jordan, and northern Saudi Arabia, is mostly composed of highly dissected terrain. The rainfall, which usually occurs in the form of sudden cloudbursts, picks up a large amount of material from the erosion remnants and carries it inland downstream at high velocities. When such a stream reaches a gently sloping and wide open area, the ensuing loss in the velocity of the water stream causes the silts to be deposited. A k̲h̲abrāʾ is the resultin…


(634 words)

Author(s): Lassner, J.
, the name of two rivers. (i) The larger K̲h̲ābūr is one of the chief affluents of the Euphrates, which it joins at Ḳarḳisiyya [ q.v.]. It originates in the Northern Mesopotamian mountains, flows through the plain of Mesopotamia, passes ¶ between D̲j̲abal ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz and the Sind̲j̲ār mountains, where it takes a southern direction, which it changes in the last part of its course into a southwestern one. Its springs, as well as those of its numerous tributaries, are chiefly connected with three important towns, Raʾs al-ʿAyn (Res̲h̲ʿayna of the Syrians) in the no…


(688 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, first wife of Muḥammad, daughter of K̲h̲uwaylid of the clan of Asad of the tribe of Ḳurays̲h̲ in Mecca. Before her marriage to Muḥammad she had been married twice, to Abū Hāla al-Tamīmī, a client of the Meccan clan of ʿAbd al-Dār, and to ʿUtayyiḳ (or ʿAtīḳ) b. ʿĀʾid̲h̲ (incorrectly ʿĀbid) b. ʿAbd Allāh of the Meccan clan of Mak̲h̲zūm. The order of these marriages is disputed, as is also the ism of Abū Hāla and his genealogy. To Abū Hāla she is mostly said to have borne two sons with the (usually feminine) names of Hind and Hāla, and to ʿUtayy…


(839 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
, from Arabic k̲h̲adama “to serve (a master)”, means properly “servant, domestic”, but it has acquired the euphemistic sense, first in Arabic and then in the other Islamic languages, of “eunuch”; hence the word is often ambiguous. In this article, only servants of free status are covered; for slaves, see ʿabd and for eunuchs k̲h̲aṣī . At the side of the slaves, there have always been free servants (coll. k̲h̲adam , pl. k̲h̲uddām ). Anas b. Mālik [ q.v.] entered Muḥammad’s service as a youth (al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Ḏj̲ihād , bāb 74 etc.) and he records it to his master’…

K̲h̲ādim al-Ḥaramayn

(960 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
(a.), “servant of the two holy places” (sc. Mecca and Medina), a title used by a number of Muslim monarchs. Adopted by the Ottoman Sultan Selīm I after the conquest of Egypt in 922/1517 and used by some of his successors, it was regarded in late Ottoman times as a Caliphal title, and was said to have been taken over by Selīm from the last ʿAbbāsid caliph in Cairo. This does not correspond with the evidence, and appears to be part of the mythology of the Ottoman caliphate. As far as can be ascert…

K̲h̲ādi̊m Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a Ṣoḳolli̊

(828 words)

Author(s): Aktepe, M. Münir
, Ottoman Grand-Vizier. We have no information about his origin, but he was brought as part of the devs̲h̲irme [ q.v.] to the Imperial Palace and given a post in the Ḥarem in the department of the white eunuchs; later, he became chief treasurer of the Inner Palace or Enderūn. In D̲j̲umādā I 988/June 1580, he was appointed governor of Egypt in place of Mesīḥ Pas̲h̲a, but after complaints about him, dismissed in Rabīʿ II 991/May 1583, and on arrival in Istanbul imprisoned in Yedikule. However, he was pardoned and rel…

K̲h̲ādi̊m Süleymān Pas̲h̲a

(1,355 words)

Author(s): Orhonlu, Cengiz
(? - 954/1547), Ottoman governor of Egypt, commander of the campaign of 945/1538 against the Portuguese in India and Grand Vizier. When Selīm I died in 926/1520, Süleymān Pas̲h̲a was holding the office of odabas̲h̲i̊ at the Imperial Palace. In addition to this, on the accession to the throne of Ḳānūnī Sulṭan Süleymān, he was given the office of k̲h̲azīnedār-bas̲h̲i̊ procured for him through the favour of the historian Saʿd al-Dīn (Saʿd al-Dīn, Tād̲j̲ al-tewārīk̲h̲ , Istanbul 1279, ii, 395 5 Koca Hüseyin, Bedāyiʾü ’l-weḳāyiʿ , ed. Tveritinova, Moscow 1961, i…


(139 words)

Author(s): Melkonian, V.
, d̲j̲azīrat , a name given by the Arabs to Abbādān [ q.v.], because al-K̲h̲aḍir [ q.v.] is supposed to have appeared there. According to a legend, a ragged man appeared on the bank of the Bahmāns̲h̲īr canal and asked the master of a passing sailing-boat to ferry him across. The master refused. Thereupon the stranger ordered the boat to come to the spot where he was standing, pulled it out of the water by the anchor chain, and left it high and dry. Then he disappeared. Farmers of the neighbourhood built a mud w…


(342 words)

Author(s): Rentz, G.
, banū (sing. K̲h̲aḍīrī). a generic term in Nad̲j̲d [ q.v.] for Arabs of dubious ancestry, i.e. not recognised as descendants of either ʿAdnān or Ḳaḥṭān [see d̲j̲azīrat al-ʿarab. vi. Ethnography]. The derivation of the term is uncertain. ¶ In any case, it is not to be taken as the name of a tribe, though there are sections of Banū K̲h̲aḍīr in various towns of Nad̲j̲d (see the tentative list in Lorimer, ii, 1004). Many of Banū K̲h̲aḍīr are tillers of the soil for Arabs of pure descent who own the land they work. Rarely is a K̲h̲aḍīrī himself a landowner. Banū K̲h̲aḍīr …


(1,140 words)

Author(s): Majed, J.
, muḥammad b. al-ḥusayn (the name al-K̲h̲aḍir/al-K̲h̲iḍr being adopted during his stay in the east), scholar, poet and writer of Tunisian origin. He was born at Nefṭa in 26 Radjab 1293/21 July 1876, and studied first at a Ḳurʾānic school before coming with his family to Tunis in 1888. In 1889 he entered the Great Mosque for his secondary studies and followed the courses of ʿUmar b. S̲h̲ayk̲h̲, Muḥammad Nad̲j̲d̲j̲ār and Sālim Būḥād̲j̲ib, who were known for their reformist ideas. He gained the tatwiʿ or diploma of completion of secondary studies in 1989, an…

al-K̲h̲aḍir (al-K̲h̲iḍr)

(4,132 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
, the name of a popular figure, who plays a prominent part in legend and story. Al-K̲h̲aḍir is properly an epithet (“the green man”); this was in time forgotten and this explains the secondary form K̲h̲iḍr (approximately “the green”), which in many places has displaced the primary form. (i) In the Ḳurʾān and in oriental legend Legends and stories regarding al-K̲h̲aḍir are primarily associated with the Ḳurʾānic story in Sūra XVIII, 59-81, the outline of which is as follows. Mūsā goes on a journey with his servant ( fatā ), the goal of which is the mad̲j̲maʿ al-baḥrayn . …


(1,715 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F. | Dixon, A.A.A.
, a subdivision of the Hawāzin tribe of ʿUḳail b. Kaʿb, which remained as powerful Bedouins longer than most of the other tribes which inhabited the Arabian Peninsula at the dawn of Islām. The genealogists give their affiliation to their kindred clans as K̲h̲afād̲j̲a b. ʿAmr b. ʿUḳayl, and they were subdivided into eleven branches: Muʿāwiya D̲h̲u’l-Ḳarḥ, Kaʿb D̲h̲u’l-Nuwayra, al-Aḳraʿ, Kaʿb al-Aṣg̲h̲ar, ʿĀmir, Mālik, al-Hayt̲h̲am, al-Wāziʿ, ʿAmr, Ḥanz and K̲h̲ālid. According to Ibn al-Kalbī, Jamhara , fol. 132b, the name of K̲h̲afād̲j̲a is Muʿāwiya b. ʿAmr. However, al-Samʿānī, Ans…


(868 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, aḥmad b. muḥammad b. ʿumar al-k̲h̲afād̲j̲ī , called S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn al-Miṣrī al-Ḥanafī, was born near Cairo in ca. 979/1571 and received his earliest education from an uncle on his mother’s side, Abu Bakr al-S̲h̲anawānī. whom he himself calls the Sībawayh of his age, and under him he studied both Ḥanafī and S̲h̲āfīʿī law; the biography of the Prophet entitled al-S̲h̲ifāʾ by the Ḳāḍī ʿIyād [ q.v.] he read under Ibrāhīm al-Alḳamī, and he even studied medicine under Dāwūd al-Baṣīr. Later he made the pilgrimage in the company of his father and took the opportuni…


(134 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.) “protection”, is used, often together with ḥimāya [ q.v.], to designate certain social practices. Originally, it primarily denoted the protection which Arab tribes extended to merchants, travellers and pilgrims crossing their territories, often in return for payment or as part of an agreement [see īlāf ]. Later, the word’s usage became extended to the “protection” in return for an obligatory payment exacted by various social groups from other groups or from richer individuals (e.g., by the ʿayyārūn and futuwwa [ qq.v.] in the towns). Once the military class had assumed …
▲   Back to top   ▲