Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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Ḳoč Ḥiṣār

(1,087 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, a name of several towns and villages in Asia Minor, derived from Ḳod̲j̲a-Ḥiṣar; compare such names as Ḳoč Ḥiṣāri̊, Ḳoyun Ḥiṣāri̊, Ḳoyul Ḥiṣāri̊, Keči Ḥiṣārī and Ṭoḳlu Ḥiṣāri̊ Confusion is often prevented by the addition of the name of the nearby provincial capital or of another word, e.g. Čanki̊ri̊ Ḳoč-Ḥiṣāri̊, S̲h̲erefli Koč Ḥiṣār. For the same reason, the toponyms of places with this name have been changed in recent times. I. S̲h̲erefli Ḳoč Ḥiṣāri̊ (in modern usage Şerefli Koçhisarı , centre of an ilçe (previously ḳaḍāʾ ) formerly called Esb-kes̲h̲ān, in …

Ḳoči Beg

(1,382 words)

Author(s): Imber, C.H.
, also called Görid̲j̲eli Ḳod̲j̲a Muṣṭafā Beg , Ottoman writer of treatises on statecraft. Ḳoči Beg was a native of Görid̲j̲e (Gorča, Korytza) in Macedonia. He entered the Palace service as a devs̲h̲irme [ q.v.] during the reign of Aḥmed I and served under successive sultans until his retirement to his native place in the early years of Meḥemmed IV’s reign. He seems never to have served in any capacity outside the Palace. He gained the especial confidence of Murād IV and Ibrāhīm, and it is for his memoranda to these sultans that he is famous. He was also tutor to the historian Naʿīmā [ q.v.] (for a…

Ḳočo

(755 words)

Author(s): van Donzel, E.
(Khocho, Chotscho, Kōśō) (Uyg̲h̲ur; in Chinese Kao-Ch’ang), also known as Idiḳut-s̲h̲ahri, and locally as “Asus (Ephesus), the town of Daḳyānūs”, i.e. the Roman emperor Decius ( regn . 249-51) [see aṣḥāb al-kahf ] (cf. A. Von Le Coq, Auf Hellas’ Spuren , 41), the name of an Uyg̲h̲ur state (850-1250) and of an ancient, walled city, now in ruins, ¶ adjoining Ḳarak̲h̲od̲j̲a in the desert to the east of Turfān [ q.v.] in Eastern Sinkiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. According to Von Gabain, the name is neither Turkish nor Chinese, but an ancient, indigenous one, meaning “h…

Ḳod̲j̲a Eli

(577 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, modern Turkish Kocaeli: a region between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara, covering a part of ancient Bithynia with its centre Izmīd [ q.v.] (ancient Nicomedia), and the name of a sand̲j̲aḳ of the Ottoman empire. Nowadays it is the name of a province ( il) of Turkey (population 385,408 in 1970), with Izmit as its capital. In 1954 the eastern part of the province Kocaeli was separated to form the Sakarya (Saḳārya) province with its capital Adapazari. Since this administrative reform, Kocaeli has comprised the ilces (formerly ḳaḍāʾs ) of (Izmit-) Merkez, Gebze…

Kōhāt

(982 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(p., “mountains”), a directly-administered District of what was the North West Frontier Province of British India and of Pakistan till 1955, covering some 2,694 sq. miles and with its administrative centre at the town of Kōhāt. The District is bounded by the Khyber Agency [see k̲h̲aybar Pass] on the north, by the Kurram and North Wāziristān Agencies in the west, by the Bannū District [ q.v.] on the south, and by the Indus River and the ʿĪsā K̲h̲ēl taḥṣīl of the Pand̲j̲āb on the east. The terrain of the District is that of a rugged tableland lying at an average of 2,000 ft., with…

al-Kōhēn al-ʿAṭṭār

(733 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, A.
, Abu ’l-Munā (Dāwūd) b. Abī naṣr b. Ḥaffāẓ al-Isrāʾīlī al-Hārūnī , Jewish pharmacist who in 658/1260 wrote in Cairo “for himself and his son” a pharmacopoeia under the title (changing slightly in the manuscripts) Minhād̲j̲ al-dukkān wa-dustūr al-aʿyān fī tarkīb al-adwiya al-nāfiʿa li’l-abdān , which became very widely spread. About his life almost nothing is known, and his relation to Abū Manṣūr Sulaymān b. Ḥaffāẓ al-Kōhēn, the author of a muntak̲h̲ab from which al-Kōhēn al-ʿAṭṭār quotes, is uncertain (see Steinschneider, Die arabische Literatur der Juden , 233 f.; M. Plessner, in Ori…

al-Kōhīn

(5 words)

[see al-kūhīn ].

Koil

(5 words)

[see koyl ].

Kökbüri

(5 words)

[see begtegīnids ].

Kokča

(5 words)

[see badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān ].

Ḳōmis

(5 words)

[see ḳūmis ].

Komoten

(6 words)

[see gümüld̲j̲īne in Suppl.].

Ḳomul

(859 words)

Author(s): van Donzel, E.
(Uyg̲h̲ur; Chin. Ha-mi), a town and oasis in Eastern Sinkiang Uyg̲h̲ur Autonomous Region, China (42° 47′ N., 93° 32′ E.). The Chinese name Ha-mi is derived from K̲h̲amil, the Mongolian rendering of Uyg̲h̲ur Ḳomul. This important stage on the northern branch of the Silk Route was occupied by the Chinese under the Han dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D. 220) in A.D. 73 and again in 86. In the 5th century the Tarim Basin [ q.v.], probably including Ḳomul, was dominated by the White Huns or Hephthalites [see hayāṭila ]. During the so-called “forward policy” towards the west …

Konakry

(693 words)

Author(s): Alata, J.P.
(usual orthography, Conakry), capital of the Republic of Guinea. With its site fixed in the tables of latitudes of Ptolemy, Konakry has only been regularly inhabited since the second half of the 18th century. It is situated on the west coast of Africa in lat. 9° 31′ N. and long. 13° 43′ W., and occupies three distinct natural sites: part of the Kaloum peninsula, the island of Tumbo and the archipelago of Loos. Manga Damba, chief of the Susu people, founded Kapo…

Kong

(912 words)

Author(s): Cornevin, R.
, corruption of Kpon , name of a place in the northern part of the Ivory Coast near to the watershed between the basins of the Comoé and that of the Nzi which flows into the Bandama. Kpon was founded in a very ancient period by the Senoufo of the Falafala tribe who to this day have retained their predominant rights over the land, while playing now only an unobtrusive role. Kong is an illustration of the advance of the Malinka towards the south and towards the regions producing gold and kola. This immigration took place in the period following the 16th century and t…

Konkan

(329 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the coastal region of the western Deccan or Peninsular India lying roughly between Thālnēr and Bombay in the north and Goa in the south, i.e. between latitudes 19° 30′ and 15° 30′ N., and extending for some 560 km/350 miles. It has been known under this name in both mediaeval Islamic and modern times. Within British India, it was formerly in the Bombay Presidency, later Province, and is now in Maharashtra State of the Indian Union. It comprises a highly-forested, low-lying plain between the Arabian Sea and the inland mountain barrier of the Western Ghats. In medieval Islamic times, the T…

Konya

(3,077 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Goodwin, G.
(Arabic and Turkish orthography, Ḳūniya), known in antiquity as Iconium, an important town lying on the edge of the Anatolian plateau, on a diagonal line connecting the Dardanelles with the Taurus passes leading into Syria. 1. History. Konya was, during the centuries of Arab invasion, a Byzantine military base which the attackers seem for this reason to have more or less deliberately avoided and circumvented, in preference either for Tarsus [see ṭarsūs ] to the south or especially for Cappadocia by the northern routes; this would seem to explai…

Kopak

(5 words)

[see sikka ].

Köprü

(6 words)

[see vezīr köprü ].

Köprü Ḥiṣāri̊

(120 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
“fortress of the bridge”, a village in the Ottoman province of K̲h̲udāwendigār [ q.v.] in northwestern Anatolia, and situated on the Čürük Ṣū river near Yeñis̲h̲ehir. It owes its historical fame to its being the site of a Byzantine fortress taken in 688/1289 by ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Ertog̲h̲rul, chief of the ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ group of Türkmens based on Eskis̲h̲ehir, after the previous capture of Biled̲j̲ik and during the course of the extension of Ottoman influence within the province towards Bursa [ q.v.]; cf. H. A. Gibbons, The foundation of the Ottoman empire, Oxford 1916, 32-3. (Cl. Huart) Bibliogr…
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