Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(217 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(self-designation—Kwantl hekua or Bagolal; Russian designation—Bagulali̊, but Kvanadinskiy yazi̊k for language), a people of the eastern Caucasus. Kwanadi forms, with Andi, Ak̲h̲wak̲h̲, Botlik̲h̲, Čamalal, Godoberi, Ḳarata and Tindi, the Andi division of the Avar-Andi-Dido group of the Ibero-Caucasian languages. Their population was 3,054 according to the 1926 Soviet census. The Kwanadi inhabit the auls of K̲h̲us̲h̲tada, Kwanada (Tsumada region), Gimerso, Tisi, Tlibis̲h̲o (Ak̲h̲wak̲h̲ region) south of the bend of the Andi Ḳoysu in the Dāg̲h̲is…


(1,582 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Quetta , a town and district of northern Balūčistān, now in Pakistan. In both the former British India and now in Pakistan, Quetta and Pīs̲h̲īn, some 20 miles to its north, have formed an administrative district. The region is geologically complex and is very mountainous, with peaks rising up to nearly 12,000 feet/3,850 metres, and it is centred upon the basin of the Pīs̲h̲īn-Lora river and its tributaries. The climate is temperate, with cold winters. Crops—wheat being the chief rabīʿ or spring crop and sorghum the chief k̲h̲arīf or autumn one—can only be gr…