Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(5 words)

[see ok̲h̲ri ].

Oirats, Oyrat

(8 words)

[see kalmuk ; wāfidiyya ].


(341 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, meḥmed s̲h̲āh beg (970-1039/1562-1630), Ottoman nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ and prose stylist. Oḳču-zāde Meḥmed S̲h̲āh (or S̲h̲āhī) Beg was born in 970/1562, the son of a long-serving Ottoman chancery official, later beglerbegi [ q.v.] Oḳču-zāde Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a (d. ca. 995/1587). His own chancery career spanned 44 years. Appointed kātib of the dīwān-i hümāyūn [ q.v.] (988/1580), he held office as reʾīs ül-küttāb (1005/1596), defter emīni (1006/1597), and nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ [ q.vv.] (1007-10/1599-1601). He then served as defterdār [ q.v.] of Egypt with the rank of sālyāne begi


(4,299 words)

Author(s): Kiel, M.
, ohrid , a former Ottoman sand̲j̲aḳ capital and centre of an extensive ḳaḍāʾ , today a town of ca. 20,000 inhabitants situated in the southwesternmost part of the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia. The Ottoman name of Ok̲h̲rī derives from the Slav Ohrid, which in turn goes back to the antique name Likhnidos. Throughout recorded history it was a major centre of Slav Christianity, the seat of an autocephalous patriarchate (976-1767 A.D.) and from 971 to 1018 capital of the West Bulgarian or Slav-Macedonian empi…


(5 words)

[see ögedey ].

Oktay Ri̇fat

(322 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çİğdem
( horozcu ), Turkish author and poet, born in Trabzon in 1914. He was the son of Samih Rifat, author and poet and Governor of Trabzon. He finished at the Faculty of Law in 1936 and was sent to Paris on a government grant to further his studies. After three years he had to come back to Turkey without completing his doctorate because of the start of World War II (1940). He worked at the Directorate of Press and Information and later practiced law. He died in Istanbul on 18 April 1988. His friendship with Orhan Veli, whom he met at secondary school, continued until his death. He wrote onl…


(353 words)

Author(s): Hale, W.
, ʿalī fetḥī (1880-1943), Turkish statesman and diplomat, was born and brought up in Macedonia, then under Ottoman rule. He entered the War College and Staff College in Istanbul, graduating as a Staff Captain in 1904. At the War College, he formed a lifelong friendship with Muṣṭafā Kemāl [Atatürk]. During service with the 3rd Army, he joined the Committee of Union and Progress [see ittiḥād we teraḳḳī d̲j̲emʿiyyeti ], which brought about the revolution of 1908. He was then posted as Military Attaché in Paris (1908-11) before returning to ser…


(764 words)

Author(s): Morgan, D.O.
, G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Muḥammad Ḵh̲ar-(later K̲h̲udā-) Banda Öld̲j̲eytü Sulṭān, eighth Mongol Īlk̲h̲ān of Persia and the penultimate direct descendant of Hülegü to rule (704-16/1304-16). Born in 680/1282, he was like his predecessor G̲h̲azan a son of Arg̲h̲un, the fourth Īlk̲h̲ān. He succeeded his brother without serious difficulty, and began a reign which was unusually peaceful by Mongol standards. Öld̲j̲eytü does not appear to have been a notable soldier, and his reign saw only three major milit…


(950 words)

Author(s): Kiel, M.
, Ottoman form of the Greek Lidoriki, a small borough in the central Greek Eparchy of Doridos, Nomos Efthiotis, 46 km west of Amphissa/Salona (16 km as the crow flies) and only urban centre of a large and particularly mountainous rural area. In Ottoman times it was the centre of a ḳāḍīli̊ḳ , first of the sand̲j̲aḳ of Tirhala, after 1530 of Inebak̲h̲ti̊-Lepanto, which after that date was organised as a separate sand̲j̲aḳ. It would remain within Inebak̲h̲ti̊ until the end of the Ottoman period (here 1827). In the 17th and 18th centuries it was an Islamic centre of local importance. Olendirek is s…

Olg̲h̲un, Meḥmed Ṭāhir

(201 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çİğdem
(Tahir Olgun, Tâhir-ül Mevlevî), Turkish writer and literary critic, born in Istanbul on 13 September 1877, died in 1951. He graduated from the Gülk̲h̲āne Rüshdiyye-i ʿAskeriyyesi (military high school) and Mens̲h̲eʾ-i küttāb-i ʿaskeriyye. While working as a secretary at the War Ministry, he attended the Fātiḥ Mosque medrese and received his id̲j̲āzet-nāme from Met̲h̲newīk̲h̲wān Selānikli Meḥmed Esʿad Dede Efendi, whence his name Tâhir-ül Mevlevî. After 1903 he taught Persian, the history of Islam, history and literature in many schools, including…

ʿOmar K̲h̲ayyām

(7 words)

[see ʿumar-i k̲h̲ayyām ].


(836 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
( umm durmān ), a t own on the west bank of the Nile at the confluence of the Blue and White Niles (lat. 15°38′ N., long. 32°30′ E.), now linked with Khartoum ( al-k̲h̲urṭūm [ q.v.]) and Khartoum North as the principal conurbation of the Republic of the Sudan. The etymology of the name is unknown, although several fanciful explanations have been given. Omdurman is first mentioned as the village of a holy man, Ḥamad b. Muḥammad al-Mas̲h̲yak̲h̲ī, known as Wad (i.e. Walad) Umm Maryūm (1055-1142/1645-6 to 1729-30) (see Ibn Ḍayf Allāh, Kitāb al-Ṭabaḳāt , ed. Yūsuf Faḍl Ḥasan, 2Khartoum 1974, 174-82…

ʿÖmer ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳ

(718 words)

Author(s): Kut, Günay Alpay
famous Ottoman Turkish saz poet of the 11th/17th century, d. 1119/1707. Apart from one or two sources, information on him stems mainly from what he says in his own dīwān . Basing themselves on such statements, some scholars (Bursali̊ Meḥmed Ṭāhir, Fuad Köprülü and Cahit Öztelli) have regarded him as coming from Gözleve (Gezlevi) in Konya province, whilst others (S. Nüzhet Ergun and, especially, Şükrü Elçin) place his home at Gözleve in the Crimea. Information in the Menāḳi̊b-nāme of Ketk̲h̲udāzāde ʿĀrif (94), in a poem discovered by Üsküdārli̊ Ṭalʿat (Ergun, 6), in the Med̲j̲mūʿa-yi tew…

ʿÖmer Efendi

(366 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an Ottoman historian, according to popular tradition originally called Elkazović or Čaušević, who belonged to Bosna-Novi (Bosanski-Novi). Of his career we only know that he was acting as ḳāḍī in his native town when fierce fighting broke out on Bosnian soil between the Imperial troops and those of Ḥekīm-Og̲h̲lu ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a (1150/1737). ʿÖmer Efendi at this time wrote a vivid account of the happenings in Bosnia from the beginning of Muḥarram 1149/May 1736 to the end of D̲j̲umādā I 1152/end of March 1…

ʿÖmer Seyf ül-Dīn

(445 words)

Author(s): Halman, Talat Sait
(Ömer Seyfeddin), late Ottoman and early modern Turkish writer (1884-1920). A major figure of Turkish fiction, ʿÖmer Seyf ül-Dīn (modem rendering Seyfeddin or Seyfettin) was a pioneer of realism and the use of the common idiom. A 1903 graduate of the Istanbul War College, he served as an officer, saw action, fell captive, and retired upon his release in 1913. Having published poems, short stories and essays since 1900, he joined his nationalist colleagues ʿAlī D̲j̲ānib and Ḍiyā (Ziyā) Gökalp in Salonica (1911) where they published the influential magazine Genč Ḳalemler

On Iki Ada

(813 words)

Author(s): Soucek, S.
, Turkish rendering of the Dodecanese (Dodekanesos, “Twelve Islands”), the greater part of the Southern Sporades archipelago; they are grouped in a north-west to south-east direction in the south-eastern segment of the Aegean along the Turkish coast. The concept and even the number is somewhat artificial and underwent different interpretations and political expressions in the course of history, hence the relativity of the definition as to how many and which islands constitute this archipelago. T…