Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(874 words)

Author(s): Nikitine, B.
, urmar , modem Turkish Oramar, a district ( nahiye ) of the extreme south-east of Turkey, just to the north of the frontier with ʿIrāḳ, and in the modern ilçe or district of Gawar (Yüksekova) in the il or province of Hakkari, with its chef-lieu of the same name (lat. 37°23′ N., long. 44°04′ E., altitude 1,450 m/4,756 ft.). In 1955 the settlement of Oramar itself had a population of 943, whilst the nine villages comprising the nahiye had a total population of 3,632. The boundaries of Orāmār are on the north Is̲h̲tāzin and Gawar; on the south Rēkān; on the west D̲j̲ilū, Bāz and T…


(5 words)

[see wahrān ].

Orbay, Ḥüseyin Raʾūf

(363 words)

Author(s): Hale, W.
(1881-1964), Turkish naval commander, statesman and diplomat, was educated as a naval officer. He served in the Turco-Italian war of 1911, before winning national fame in the Balkan wars of 1912-13 as the commander of the cruiser Ḥamīdiyye which carried out daring raids on enemy ports and warships. During the Great War he served as Chief of Naval Staff, becoming Minister of Marine in October 1918. In the same month, he headed the Ottoman delegation which signed the armistice of Mudros [see mondros ]. He resigned from the navy in May 1919, and joined Muṣṭa…


(735 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Morgan, D.O.
(t.), thence in Mongolian, orda , “the royal tent or residence, the royal encampment”, a term which became widespread in the mediaeval Turco-Mongol and then in the Persian worlds, acquiring from the second meaning that of “army camp”. 1. In early Turkish and then Islamic usage The word ordu appears in some of the earliest known texts of Turkish, sc. in the Kül-tigin inscription (Talât Tekin, A grammar of Orkhon Turkish , Bloomington 1968, 237), and may have passed from such an Inner Asian people as the Hsiung-nu into Chinese as wo-lu-to (* oludu = ordu) (G. Doerfer, Türkische und mongolische El…


(245 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town in eastern Transcaucasia on the left bank of the middle course of the Araxes or Aras River, lying in lat. 38°54′ N. and long. 46° 01′ E. and at an altitude of 948 m/2,930 ft. The Turco-Persian name “army town” implies a probable foundation during the period of the Mongol ¶ invasions or of the ensuing Il-K̲h̲ānids, especially as the latter made Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān the centre of their power. Certainly, Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī (mid-8th/14th century) describes it as a provincial town, one of the five making up the tūmān of Nak̲h̲čiwān [ q.v.], watered by a stream coming down from Mount Ḳub…

Ören Ḳalʿe

(1,321 words)

Author(s): Rogers, J.M.
, in Russian Orenkale, a site in the southern part of the modern Azerbaijan Republic, in the mediaeval Islamic province of Arrān [ q.v.]. It lies in lat. 39° 50ʹ N., long. 47° 30ʹ E. above the confluence of the Kur and Araxes rivers, close to an ancient canal, the Gyaur Ark̲h̲ [see mūḳān , at Vol. VII, 498b]. The site marks the mediaeval Islamic ¶ town of Baylaḳān [ q.v.] conclusively established by the discovery of wasters of spheroconic vessels, stamped with the inscription ʿamal Faḍlūn bi ’l-Baylaḳān , in the course of excavations which began there in 1953 a…

Örik, Nahīd Ṣi̊rrī

(301 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çİğdem
(Nahit Sirri Örik), Turkish author, journalist and literary researcher, born on 22 May 1894 in Istanbul, died in 1960. He was the grandson of Aḥmed Nāfid̲h̲ Pas̲h̲a of Olti, who was also a poet and the son of Örik Ag̲h̲asi̊-zāde Ḥasan Ṣi̊rrī, who was a government official and translator. Nahit Sirri attended Galatasaray lycée, graduating in 1913. He lived in Europe until 1928, and after his return to Turkey, worked as a correspondent for the newspaper Cumhuriyet and as a translator for the Ministry of Education. He travelled in Anatolia and wrote a…


(5 words)

[see urisa ].


(1,858 words)

Author(s): Zachariadou, E.A.
, the son of the founder of the Ottoman dynasty, ʿOt̲h̲mān I [ q.v.], and of the daughter of s̲h̲eyk̲h̲ Edebali, who seems to have exercised considerable influence upon his son-in-law through his connections with the fraternity of the Ak̲h̲ī s [ q.v.] and with the group of dervishes known as the Abdālān-i Rūm . According to the Ottoman tradition, Ork̲h̲an had a brother, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn [ q.v.], who resigned from ¶ their father’s possessions and accepted the office of the vizierate. Litde is known about Ork̲h̲an’s early life as most of the Turkish sources reporting abo…

Ork̲h̲an Kemāl

(728 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çİğdem
, Meḥmed Rās̲h̲id (Orhan Kemâl Öğütçü), Turkish short story writer and novelist, born in Adana, Ceyhan, on 15 September 1914, died in 1970. His father ʿAbd ül-Ḳādir Kemālī was a lawyer who became a first-term MP (1920-3) and Minister of Justice for a while and founded the Ehālī D̲j̲ümhūriyyet party in Adana but was forced to flee to Syria upon the closure of his party. Orhan Kemâl left secondary school and went with his father, and for a year they lived in Syria and Lebanon, where he worked at a printing house (reflected in his later novel Baba evi ). In 1932 his father …

Ork̲h̲an Seyfī

(390 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çİğdem
(Orhan Seyfi Orhon), Turkish poet and journalist, born in 1890 in Istanbul, died in 1972. He was the son of Colonel Emīn and Niʿmet. After finishing Mekteb-i Ḥuḳūḳ (Istanbul Darülfünūn Ḥuḳūk Fakültesi, i.e. Faculty of Law) in 1914, the same year he became a secretary at the Ot̲h̲mānli̊ Med̲j̲lis-i Mebʿūt̲h̲āni̊ until its suspension. In 1913 he published a small book of poems Fi̊rṭi̊na ve ḳār in ʿarūḍ metre. His second book, Peri ḳi̊zi̊ ile čoban ḥikāyesi , a poetic tale with a Turkic theme written in syllabic metre, was published in 1919. He taught…


(198 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a river of the northern part of what is now the Mongolian People’s Republic; it joins the Selenga to flow northwards eventually into Lake Baikal. ¶ For Turcologists, the banks of this river are of supreme importance as the locus for the Old Turkish inscriptions, carved in the middle decades of the 8th century in a so-called “runic” script, in fact derived ultimately from the Aramaic one [see turks. Languages]. These inscriptions are the royal annals of the Köktürk empire, centred on this region till its fall in 744 and supersession by a Uyg̲h̲ur [ q.v.] grouping based on Ḳara Balg̲h̲asun…


(631 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A.
, a people of eastern Africa, partly Islamised, present in Ethiopia but also, although in small numbers only, in Kenya, Somalia and even in the Sudan. Among its constituent groups are the Arssi (Arusi), Boran, Guji, Karayu, Leqa, Mâcha, Raya (Azebo), Tulama, Wello, etc. The Amharas, amongst whom they have become installed, have for a long time given them the name of “Galla”, whose etymology is uncertain. Numerically, the Oromo form one of the leading ethnic groups of Africa. In Ethiopia they represent 40% of the total population, i.e. betw…


(6 words)

(s) [see al-ʿaṣī ].


(227 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), literally “centre”, in Ottoman Turkish military terminology, the equivalent of a company of fighting men in the three divisions (the Segmen , the D̲j̲emāʿat and the Bölük ) of which the Janissary corps was eventually composed [see od̲j̲aḳ and yeñi čeriler ). The number of ortas within the corps varied through the ages, but eventually approached 200; d’Ohsson reckoned the total at 229. The strength of each orta likewise varied; in the time of Meḥemmed II Fātiḥ [ q.v.], they are said to have been composed of 50 men, but in the low hundreds at subsequent periods. The commander of an orta

Ortač, Yūsuf Ḍiyā

(401 words)

Author(s): Balim, Çİğdem
(Yusuf Ziyâ Ortaç), Turkish poet and journalist, born on 23 April 1895 in Istanbul, the son of engineer Süleymān Sāmī and Ḥurriyye, died in 1968. He finished Wefā İʿdādi̊si̊ in 1915. By then he had already showed an interest in writing poetry and had won a prize for one of his poems, which was published in Türk yurdu. He taught literature first in İzmit, then at Galatasaray lycée. His poetry followed the tradition of the nationalist poets of the time. His first book of poems, Aḳi̊ndan aḳi̊na was ¶ published in 1916, followed by D̲j̲enk ufuḳlari̊ in 1917, a work which…

Orta Oyunu

(597 words)

Author(s): Boratav, P.N.
(t.), “entertainment staged in the middle place”, a form of popular Turkish entertainment so-called because it takes place in the open air, palanka , around which the spectators form a circle. One side is reserved for the men, the other for the women. Behind the spectators is found the place where the actors get ready to enter the stage by means of a passage which is left free. The décor consists solely of a chair—or a table—called dükkān “shop, booth” and a folding screen, yeñi dünyā “new world”. An orchestra made up of a zurna , oboe, a čifte naḳḳāre “double drum” and a dawul


(5 words)

[see urud̲j̲ ].

Osman Dan Fodio

(9 words)

[see ʿut̲h̲mān ibn fūdī ].

Osman Digna

(9 words)

[see ʿut̲h̲mān abū bakr digna ].
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