Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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(720 words)

Author(s): Rippin, Andrew
Aaron is the biblical name for the brother of Moses, who is known as Hārūn b. ʿImrān in the Qurʾān and in Muslim tradition, with the Arabic form of the Hebrew name Aharōn likely resulting from transmission through Syriac in pre-Islamic times. Mentioned by name twenty times in the Qurʾān, revelation of the furqān (“criterion”) is given to him and Moses (Q 21:48; also see 19:53, 7:122, 23:45, 37:114–20 and 20:70; also 26:48, with the phrase “We believe in the Lord of Moses and Aaron”). His name appears within lists of prophetic figures: with Jesus, …
Date: 2020-06-10

Aaron ben Elijah of Nicomedia

(757 words)

Author(s): Frank, Daniel
Aaron ben Elijah of Nicomedia (d. 771/1369) was a Karaite religious philosopher, legal authority, exegete, and poet, active in Constantinople during the mid-eighth/fourteenth century. Biographical details are limited and unreliable. He or his family hailed from Nicomedia (present-day İzmit, Turkey). His teachers included an uncle and his father-in-law, both mentioned in his writings. Aaron relied exclusively on Hebrew sources—both original compositions and translations—but his thought is thoroughly …
Date: 2020-06-10


(355 words)

Author(s): Hobbs, Joseph J.
The ʿAbābda, who live between the Nile Valley and Red Sea coast of Egypt, are the northernmost tribe of the six subgroups of the Beja (Ar. Buja), whose other members are Ummarār, Bishārīn, Hadanduwa, Banī ʿĀmir Beja, and Banī ʿĀmir Tigre. ʿAbābda territory once included all of Egypt's northern Eastern Desert but by 1850 the Maʿāza Bedouin, originally of northwestern Arabia, drove them south to the Qifṭ-Quṣayr road, which still serves as the northern border of ʿAbābda territory. In the south, ʿAbā…
Date: 2020-06-10


(572 words)

Author(s): Kirişçioğlu, M. Fatih
Abaginskiy was the pen-name of Kudrin Arxip Georgiyeviç, a Sakha (Yakut) poet, translator, and member of the writer’s union. An active socialist, he wrote a number of poems that were celebrated because of their original style, and also translated many Russian works into Sakha. He was born in 1907 in the village of Abaga, in the Olekminsky district of Yakutia, in the Russian Empire. In his youth he was a teacher at the village’s schools, but also wrote for the Bolşevik Eder (“Young Bolshevik”) and Belem Buol (“Be Prepared”) newspapers, as well as working for the Yakutia Publicatio…
Date: 2020-06-10

Abān b. ʿUthmān b. ʿAffān

(1,791 words)

Author(s): Athamina, Khalil
Abān b. ʿUthmān b. ʿAffān (d. between 101/719 and 105/723) was the son of the third Rightly Guided Caliph, ʿUthmān b. ʿAffān (r. 23–35/644–55), and an early author of maghāzī, accounts of the military campaigns of the Prophet. He is considered a member of the jīl al-tābiʿīn or Successors (of the Companions of the Prophet), the second generation of the early Muslim community. His mother, Umm ʿAmr, was not of Qurayshī origin; she was descended from the Daws, a subgroup of the Azd tribe, and sources portray her as a silly woman. When his fathe…
Date: 2020-06-10


(1,768 words)

Author(s): Ricklefs, M. C.
Abangan refers to nominal or non-practising Muslims within Javanese society. From about the middle of the nineteenth century, there emerged in Javanese society a category of people who were defined by their failure—in the eyes of the more pious—to behave as proper Muslims. These were the abangan, a term that derives from the “Low Javanese” (ngoko) word abang, meaning the colour red or brown. At the time, the usual terms were bangsa abangan (“the red/brown people”) or wong abangan (“the red/brown people”). In “High Javanese” (krama) the word for red or brown was abrit and these people we…
Date: 2020-06-10

Abān al-Lāḥiqī

(477 words)

Author(s): Seidensticker, Tilman
Abān b. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd al-Lāḥiqī al-Raqāshī (d. c.200/815) was an Arab poet of the early ʿAbbāsid period. His ancestors are said to have been Jews from Fasā in the province of Fārs. He was born in Basra and later emigrated to Baghdad, where he managed to attach himself to the Barmakids, who made him the official arbiter of poets at their court. As such, he incurred the enmity of other poets: Abū Nuwās wrote a lampoon against Abān in which he accused him of heretical views, obviously without foundation. Both his brother ʿAbdallāh and his son Ḥamdān were also poets. In addition to lampoons of his…
Date: 2020-06-10


(4,755 words)

Author(s): Amitai, Reuven
Abāqā (d. 681/1282) was the eldest son of Hülegü Khān and succeeded him in 663/1265, being the second ruler of the Mongol Īlkhānid dynasty in Iran and the surrounding countries. His name is derived from the Mongol abaγa (“paternal uncle”) and is usually rendered “Abaghā” or “Abāqā” in Arabic and Persian. In his long reign, Abāqā was responsible for the ongoing institutionalisation of the Īlkhānate, its relative internal stability and prosperity, and an active, even aggressive policy vis-à-vis other Mongol states and the Mamlūks to …
Date: 2020-06-10


(377 words)

Author(s): Daryaee, Touraj
Abarqubādh was a ṭassūj (sub-district) in lower Iraq, located east of the Tigris between Wāsiṭ and Baṣra. Its main city was Fasī (Yaʿqūbī, 101). Its name is said to be derived from the Middle Persian Abar-kawad, meaning “Superior is Qubād,” referring to the Sāsānian king Kawādh I (Ar. Kubādh or Pers. Kavād, r. 488–96/499–531), who made administrative reforms in the area (Gyselen, 76). According to Yāqūt (d. 626/1229), Abarqubādh was one of the four ṭassūj of Maysān (Middle Pers. Mēshān, al-Madhār) (Morony, 35), along with Bahman Ardashīr (al-Furāt), Dasht-ī Maysān, an…
Date: 2020-06-10


(514 words)

Author(s): Daryaee, Touraj
Abarqūh is a town first mentioned in the 4th H./10th Century C.E., in the northeastern province of Fārs, belonging to the khurra (district) of Iṣṭakhr (al-Iṣṭakhrī, 96). The road from Isfahan to Shiraz, in the south, went through Abarqūh, both north to Isfahan and east to Yazd. The town was located by hills of ash, which were believed to have been the location of the “Fire of Nimrod,” associated with the story of the burning of Abraham (Ibn Ḥawqal, 291; al-Iṣṭakhrī, 131–2). The town is described as having fair weath…
Date: 2020-06-10


(723 words)

Author(s): Daryaee, Touraj
Abarshahr was the northeastern province (Middle Persian shahr) of Sāsānid and early Islamic Iran. Its principal city was Nīshāpūr (Middle Persian Nēw-Shābuhr, “Brave is Shāpūr”; Arabic Naysābūr), established by Shāpūr I (d. 272 C.E.) (Daryaee, 39). In the Islamic period “Nīshāpūr” replaced “Abarshahr” as the name of the main city. Two etymologies have been advanced for the name of the province. The first derives the name from * Aparn-xšahr (Parthian ’prhštr), “land of the Aparnak or Aparni,” the leading tribe of the Dahae confederation, who established the Parthia…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbāṭa, Muḥammad Ḥasan

(750 words)

Author(s): Hoffman, Valerie J.
Muḥammad Ḥasan ʿAbāṭa (d. 1941) was an Egyptian Ṣūfī and patron saint of Bayt ʿAbāṭa, an Egyptian branch of the Rifāʿiyya, a Ṣūfī order founded in lower Iraq by Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-Rifāʿī (d. 578/1182). ʿAbāṭa is recognised as a majdhūb (lit. “attracted”, a term referring to an eccentric, ecstatic, and love-maddened mystic). ʿAbāṭa (“stupidity”) is a nickname attributed to Muḥammad Ḥasan because of his foolishness during his years of jadhba (“attraction”), a mental derangement resulting from the shock of mystical revelation. He wore his hair long and in braids and so…
Date: 2020-06-10

Abay Qunanbayuli

(682 words)

Author(s): Kirchner, Mark
Abay Qunanbayuli (Russified as Abaĭ Qūnanbaev) (1845–1904) is considered the first and greatest Kazakh writer and the founder of modern Kazakh literature. He was born in 1845 in the district of Semey (Semipalatinsk) in northeastern Kazakhstan, where he also passed away in 1904. Son of a Kazakh local leader at a time when Russian influence in the internal affairs of Muslim Kazakh cattle breeders steadily increased, Abay Qunanbayuli was educated both in medreses and Russian schools. While serving in the local administration, he became acquainted with Russian dissident…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbādān (Ābādān)

(1,408 words)

Author(s): Knysh, Alexander D.
ʿAbbādān (modern-day Ābādān) is an island and city in the Shaṭṭ al-ʿArab, in the province of Khūzistān, in southwestern Iran. Located thirty-three miles (fifty-three kilometres) from the head of the Persian Gulf, it constitutes part of the combined delta of the Kārūn, Tigris, and Euphrates rivers, along with their numerous tributaries. The island is forty-two miles long (sixty-eight kilometres) and ranges from two to twelve miles wide (three to nineteen kilometres), although it must have been much…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbād b. Salmān

(939 words)

Author(s): Mourad, Suleiman A.
Abū Sahl ʿ Abbād b. Salmān (or Sulaymān) b. ʿAlī al-Ṣaymarī was a Muʿtazilī theologian who flourished in Basra in the third/ninth century. His nisba, al-Ṣaymarī, refers to his original home-town of Ṣaymara, near Khūzistān in the Jibāl region. ʿAbbād studied with Hishām al-Fuwaṭī (d. before 218/833), and his theology was part of a trend, started by his teacher, that was later marginalised in Muʿtazilī thought, especially that of Basra. His views can be reconstructed only on the basis of refutations of them in Sunnī and even some Muʿtazilī sources. ʿAbbād categorically rejected anthrop…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbād b. Ziyād b. Abī Sufyān

(452 words)

Author(s): Keshk, Khaled M. G.
ʿAbbād b. Ziyād b. Abī Sufyān (d. 100/718; sometimes designated by the sources as Ibn Sumayya and other times, but more rarely, as Ibn Abī Sufyān) was one of four sons of Ziyād b. Abīhi (d. 53/673), ʿUbaydallāh (d. 67/686), ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, and Salm (d. 73/692) being the others. All four brothers served as generals or governors under the Sufyānids. It is not certain how old ʿAbbād was at the time of his death in 100/718 (Ibn ʿAsākir, 26:234; al-Dhahabī, 398), but from the following accounts it can be assumed he was at least in his early seventies. In 41/6…
Date: 2020-06-10


(593 words)

Author(s): Ephrat, Daphna
Abū ʿĀṣim Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAbbād al-ʿAbbādī (375–458/985–1066), often called al-Qāḍī l-Harawī, was a Shāfiʿī jurisconsult and judge and a celebrated scholar of his school of law (madhhab) in the first half of the fifth/eleventh century. Born in Herat (hence his nisba al-Harawī), he studied jurisprudence in his hometown, under the judge (qāḍī) Abū Manṣūr al-Azdī, and in Nīshāpūr, under the local judge. In common with other contemporary seekers of religious knowledge, he journeyed far to meet many scholars, studied under th…
Date: 2020-06-10


(2,384 words)

Author(s): Soravia, Bruna
The ʿAbbādids (Banū ʿAbbād) were a dynasty (of Lakhmid stock), which reigned over southwestern al-Andalus—with Seville as its capital—from 417/1027 to 484/1091–2, during the period of the mulūk al-ṭawāʾif (party kings; the singular noun ṭāʾifa, which means literally “party, faction,” refers by extension to each of the small, independent kingdoms that arose in Muslim Spain after the fall of the caliphate of Córdoba in 1031, and “Taifa” is used in English to refer to the era and the dynasties of those kingdoms). The ʿAbbādids desc…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbāsa bt. al-Mahdī

(923 words)

Author(s): Hámori, András P.
ʿAbbāsa bt. al-Mahdī was the half-sister of Hārūn al-Rashīd (Ibn Qutayba, Maʿārif, ed. Tharwat ʿUkāsha, Cairo 1960, 380; Ibn ʿAbd Rabbihi, al-ʿIqd al-farīd, ed. Aḥmad Amīn, Aḥmad al-Zayn, and Ibrāhīm al-Ibyārī, Cairo 1965, 5:115). Beginning with the history of al-Ṭabarī (d. 310/923), her name is linked in chronicles and adab to that of the minister Jaʿfar al-Barmakī, in a story told to explain his and his family’s ruin. Hārūn, it is said, loved the company of both ʿAbbāsa and Jaʿfar, and in order that Jaʿfar might join her at the caliphal plea…
Date: 2020-06-10

al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib

(973 words)

Author(s): Görke, Andreas
Al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib (d. c. 32/653) was an uncle of the prophet Muḥammad and the eponym of the ʿAbbāsid dynasty. al-ʿAbbās was a half-brother of the Prophet's father ʿAbdallāh. His mother was Nutayla bt. Janāb from al-Namir, a tribe of the Rabīʿa confederation. al-ʿAbbās was the youngest son of ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib and was born two or three years prior to his nephew Muḥammad, i.e., around 567 C.E. He died during the caliphate of ʿUthmān b. ʿAffān (r. 23–35/644–56), aged about 88 (lunar) years. The ʿAbbāsids were descendants of al-ʿAbbās through his son ʿAbdallāh. It is particularly …
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbās b. Abī l-Futūḥ

(1,386 words)

Author(s): Walker, Paul E.
ʿAbbās b. Abī l-Futūḥ b. Tamīm b. Muʿizz b. Bādīs al-Ṣinhājī (d. 549/1154) was wazīr for slightly more than a year, 548–9/1153–4, first under the Fāṭimid caliph al-Ẓāfir (r. 544-9/1149-54), then briefly under his successor, al-Fāʾiz (r. 549-55/1154-60). His father, Abū l-Futūḥ, had been a ranking member of the Zīrid royal family but was suspected of involvement in an attempted assassination of the ruler, his brother Yaḥyā. He was imprisoned, along with his wife, Bullāra, ʿAbbās’s mother, in the Maghrib from 5…
Date: 2020-06-10

al-ʿAbbās b. al-Aḥnaf

(1,252 words)

Author(s): Enderwitz, Susanne
Abū l-Faḍl al-ʿAbbās b. al-Aḥnaf (c. 133–92/750–807) was an author of love poetry in early ʿAbbāsid Iraq. His family belonged to the Arab clan of Ḥanīfa, from the district of Basra, but had emigrated toKhurāsān. His father was buried in Basra in 150/767, when al-ʿAbbās was about seventeen—as we can infer from the report that he died before his sixtieth birthday—perhaps indicating that the family had returned to Iraq, where they owned several houses. We do not know much about the social and material …
Date: 2020-06-10

al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAmr al-Ghanawī

(574 words)

Author(s): Canard, Marius | revised by, ¨ | Gordon, Matthew S.
Al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAmr al-Ghanawī (fl. end of the third century/ninth century) was an ʿAbbāsid commander and governor. The sources say nothing directly about his origins, although Yāqūt describes a “Qaṣr al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAmr al-Ghanawī” (4:359–60), located between Naṣībīn and Sinjār, which lie in Diyār Rabīʿa. He first appears in historical accounts on campaign in 286/899, against tribesmen of the Banū Shaybān in al-Anbār, during the reign of the caliph al-Muʿtaḍid (r. 279–89/892–902), then later against other Arab tribal forces in southern Iraq. The sources know al-ʿAbbās best in re…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbās b. Firnās

(716 words)

Author(s): Garulo, Teresa
Abū l-Qāsim ʿAbbās b. Firnās b. Wardūs (d. 274/887) was an Andalusī poet and astrologer at the Umayyad court of Córdoba. All of the available biographical information about him derives from al-Muqtabis by Ibn Ḥayyān (d. 469/1076), in which he is described as a mawlā (client) of the Umayyad family, of Berber ancestry, whose family was originally settled in the district of Tākurunnā (Ronda, Málaga), although the poet and anthologist ʿUbāda b. Māʾ al-Samāʾ (d. 421/1030) claims that he was a muwallad (an Arabised native Hispano-Roman). ʿAbbās b. Firnās studied in Córdoba, where …
Date: 2020-08-13

ʿAbbās b. al-Ḥusayn al-Shīrāzī

(534 words)

Author(s): Hachmeier, Klaus
Abū l-Faḍl ʿAbbās b. al-Ḥusayn al-Shīrāzī (b. 303/915–6, d. 363/973–4) was a leading official and wazīr under the Būyid amīrs Muʿizz al-Dawla and ʿIzz al-Dawla Bakhtīyār in Baghdad. Born in Shīrāz, he was in the entourage of Muʿizz al-Dawla (r. 320–56/932–67) when the latter took Baghdad in 334/945–6. His fortunes rose under the wazīr al-Muhallabī, whose daughter he married in 349/960–1. After al-Muhallabī’s death in Shaʿbān 352/August 963, Abū l-Faḍl and Abū l-Faraj Muḥammad b. al-ʿAbbās b. Fasānjus (d. after 366/977) were jointly charged with th…
Date: 2020-06-10

al-ʿAbbās b. al-Maʾmūn

(935 words)

Author(s): Turner, John P.
Al-ʿAbbās b. al-Maʾmūn (d. 223/838) was the son of the caliph al-Maʾmūn (r. 198–218/813–33) and his concubine, Sundus. It is unclear whether he was ever formally designated heir apparent, but he was positioned to make a claim on the throne when his father died in 218/833. He first appears in al-Ṭabarī, who reports al-Maʾmūn’s reaction to the news of the death of the caliph al-Amīn (r. 193–8/809–13) (3:1065). In 213/828 al-Maʾmūn made al-ʿAbbās governor of the provinces adjoining the Byzantine Empi…
Date: 2020-06-10

al-ʿAbbās b. Mirdās

(526 words)

Author(s): von Grunebaum, Gustav E. | Tamer, Georges
Al-ʿAbbās b. Mirdās b. Abī ʿĀmir (d. between 18/639 and 35/656), of Sulaym, was an Arabian poet of the mukhaḍramūn, the class of pagan poets who died after the proclamation of Islam. A sayyid in his tribe, he won renown as a warrior as well as a poet. The celebrated marāthī poet al-Khansāʾ is said to have been his mother or stepmother. His poetical achievements surpassed those of his brothers and sister, all of whom displayed literary talent. Impelled, so the story goes, by dream experiences or epiphanies in which his family idol, Ḍimār, announ…
Date: 2020-06-10

al-ʿAbbās b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī

(604 words)

Author(s): Bernheimer, Teresa
Al-ʿAbbās b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī (b. ʿAbdallāh b. al-ʿAbbās; d. 186/802) was the younger brother of the first two ʿAbbāsid caliphs, al-Saffāḥ (r. 132–6/749–54) and al-Manṣūr (r. 136–58/754–75). Al-ʿAbbās was a prominent figure in the early ʿAbbāsid period and played an important role in the establishment of ʿAbbāsid authority on the Byzantine frontier, helping to retake Malaṭya, a major frontier fort in eastern Anatolia, from the Byzantines in 139/756. He was appointed governor of al-Jazīra and the neighbouring frontier regions (al-thughūr) in 142/759 and led several summer ra…
Date: 2020-06-10

al-ʿAbbās b. al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik

(594 words)

Author(s): Blankinship, Khalid Yahya
Al-ʿAbbās b. al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik (d. 132/750) was a famous general of the Umayyad house. He was the eldest son of the caliph al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān (al-Walīd I, r. 86–96/705–15) and was perhaps born around 65–70/685–690. His career as a commander began alongside the premier Umayyad general, his uncle, Maslama b. ʿAbd al-Malik (d. 121/738) on a summer expedition of the campaign of 88/707 or that of 89/708. The expedition captured Ṭuwāna (Tyana) in Anatolia, setting al-ʿAbbās on his …
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbās Efendī

(796 words)

Author(s): Lawson, Todd
ʿAbbās Efendī (1844–1921), better known especially among Bahāʾīs as ʿAbd al-Bahāʾ (Servant of Bahāʾ), was the tireless and gifted exponent of the religion founded by his father, Bahāʾ Allāh. After his father's death in 1892, ʿAbbās became the leader of the religion, in accordance with his father's written instructions, viz., “Centre of the Covenant” ( markaz-i mīthāq). In Bahāʾī teachings, he is the “perfect exemplar” of the religious life. Born in Tehran, ʿAbbās Efendī assumed, at about the age of 18, the role of chief disciple and secretary to his father, who, …
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbās Ḥilmī I

(803 words)

Author(s): Cuno, Kenneth M.
ʿAbbās Ḥilmī I (1813–54) was viceroy (khedive) of Egypt from 1849 until his death. He was a son of Aḥmad Ṭūsūn Pasha (1783–1816) and a grandson of the founder of the khedival dynasty, Muḥammad ʿAlī Pasha (r. 1805–48), who concerned himself with his grandson’s education and appointed him to a number of military and administrative posts. His was the last generation of princes to receive a purely Ottoman education; younger princes had European tutors and learned French. In the Syrian campaign of 1831–3 h…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbās Ḥilmī II

(711 words)

Author(s): Gershoni, Israel
ʿAbbās Ḥilmī II (1874–1944), third and last khedive of Egypt, ruled the country from 1892 to 1914. ʿAbbās came to the throne at the age of 18 in January 1892 after his father, Khedive Tawfīq (r. 1879–92), died unexpectedly. Unlike his weak father, considered a puppet of British colonial rule, ʿAbbās strove to restore the original status of the khedive as sovereign ruler, patterned after the model established by his grandfather Ismāʿīl (r. 1863–79), and to assert Egypt's unique status as a semi-aut…
Date: 2020-06-10


(1,386 words)

Author(s): Floor, Willem
The ʿ abbāsī is a four- shāhī silver coin struck by the Ṣafavid ruler of Iran Shāh ʿAbbās I (r. 995–1038/1587–1629) in 995/1587, which dominated Iranian coinage until the middle of the twelfth/eighteenth century. (The shāhī is a Ṣafavid term for a coin equal to 50 dīnārs (golden coin, from Lat. denarius, first struck in 907/1501). The ʿabbāsī came to be known as shāhī-yi ʿabbāsī, or just ʿabbāsī. Two types were struck, one of 120 grains and another of 144 grains, or 1.66 and 2 mithqāl, an Arabic “weight,” originally set at about 4.25 grams, but varying in later periods from less…
Date: 2020-06-10


(367 words)

Author(s): van Gelder, Geert Jan
Badr al-Din ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad al-ʿAbbāsī (869–963/1463–1556) was an Egyptian philologist and poet. He was born in Cairo and studied religious and philological sciences there (al-Suyūṭī was one of his teachers), as well as in Syria and Constantinople. Asked to teach ḥadīth in Constantinople, he would have preferred to return to Cairo but nevertheless settled in Constantinople after the Ottoman conquest of the Arab lands. Most of his reputedly many works, among them a commentary on al-Bukhārī’s Ṣaḥīḥ, are lost. Three have survived, two of them preserved …
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbās I

(2,715 words)

Author(s): Newman, Andrew J.
ʿAbbās I (r. 995–1038/1587–1629) was one of three sons of Muḥammad Khudābanda (d. 1003–5/1595–6) and the grandson of Ṭahmāsp I (r. 930–84/1524–76) and great-grandson of the first Ṣafavid ruler, Ismāʿīl I (r. 907–30/1501–24). Born in 978/1571, he is understood to have become shah in 995/1587, when leaders of two of the most important Kizilbāsh tribes swore allegiance to him, in preference to his father, who had become shah in 985/1577. ʿAbbās died in Māzandarān on 24 Jumāḍā I 1038/19 January 1629. Western historians often highlight the forceful personality of ʿAbbās, often st…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbāsid art and architecture

(6,616 words)

Author(s): Northedge, Alastair E.
ʿAbbāsid art and architecture was the visual culture of the ʿAbbāsid caliphate at its height (132–320/750–932). The architecture was mainly a Mesopotamian tradition of unfired and fired brick but also included other techniques and styles in Iran, Central Asia, and the Mediterranean. Nevertheless, the building types developed from the requirements of an Islamic society originating in the Arabian Peninsula. Decoration began to include styles from outside the Middle East, notably Central Asia, while c…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbāsid music

(2,793 words)

Author(s): Sawa, George Dimitri
ʿAbbāsid music was that of the ʿAbbāsid dynastic period (132–656/750–1258). Little is known of ʿAbbāsid musical repertoire save for an ʿ ūd (lute) exercise by the philosopher al-Kindī (d. after 256/870), in which the notation is expressed in terms of fingers and frets, and transcriptions in the later ʿAbbāsid era by Ṣafī al-Dīn al-Urmawī (d. 693/1294) of songs and pieces in which durations and pitches are given [Illustration 1]. 1. Notation Musical notation in the early ʿAbbāsid era was apparently precise yet rarely used. We know of only two anecdotes touching the …
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbāsid Revolution

(3,997 words)

Author(s): Daniel, Elton L.
ʿAbbāsid Revolution is the term used to describe the process that led to the fall of the Umayyads and the establishment of the ʿAbbāsid dynasty in the mid-second/eighth century. 1. The daʿwa Information about the origins and development of the ʿAbbāsid Revolution may be found in the usual corpus of classical Islamic historical texts, with the most important account still being that of al-Ṭabarī, although it can now be supplemented in important ways by texts that have been more recently edited and published, notably al-Balādhurī's Ansāb al-ashrāf (vol. 3, ed. ʿAbd al- ʿAzīz al-Dūr…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbās, Iḥsān

(971 words)

Author(s): al-Qāḍī, Wadād
Iḥsān ʿAbbās (1920–2003) was the most influential, prolific, and internationally recognised Arab educator and scholar of Arabic literature in the second half of the twentieth century. His works laid the foundation for the systematic study of Andalusian literature, the scientific editing of mediaeval Arabic manuscripts, the avant–garde understanding of literary criticism (especially of modern Arabic poetry), and the research–based translation of world literature. He was a member of several academi…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbās II

(1,836 words)

Author(s): Matthee, Rudolph P.
ʿAbbās II (r. 1052–77/1642–66) was the seventh ruler of the Ṣafavid dynasty. The eldest son of Shāh Ṣafī I (r. 1038–52/1629–42), he was originally named Sulṭān Muḥammad Mīrzā born in 1042/1633—most likely on January 1—ʿAbbās II succeeded his father upon the latter's premature death on 12 Ṣafar 1052/12 May 1642. The transition of power was peaceful. The stability needed for this nonviolent accession was secured through the payment of a large sum by way of wages in arrears to the military and a substantial tax reprieve to peasants. The killing of the shāh's four siblings and the executio…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbās III

(302 words)

Author(s): Tucker, Ernest
ʿ Abbās III (r. 1145–9/1732–6) was the last shah of the Ṣafavid dynasty. At first protected by Ṭahmāsp Qulī Khān (1100–60/1688–1747, the future ruler Nādir Shāh), ʿAbbas III was then deposed by Nādir Shāh and later murdered on the orders of his son. When he made the eight-month-old ʿAbbās III his monarch, Nādir dropped his own previous title, Ṭahmāsp Qulī Ḳhān, now preferring to be referred to as vakīl al-dawla (lit. ‘administrator of the state’, i.e., prime minister) or nāʾib al-salṭana (viceroy). ʿAbbās III was deposed in 1148/1736, when Nādir (r. 1147–60/1736–47) became …
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbāsī, Shaykh

(480 words)

Author(s): Farhad, Massumeh
Shaykh ʿAbbāsī was an eleventh/seventeenth-century Ṣafavid painter who introduced a new hybrid style, inspired largely by Indian pictorial conventions. His works are dated between 1057/1647 and 1095/1684 and are often signed in minute characters with the phrase bahā girift chu gardīd Shaykh ʿAbbāsī, “it [or he] achieved worth because he became Shaykh ʿAbbāsī.” According to Robert Skelton (ʿAbbāsī, Šayk̲, EIr, 87–8), the signature implies that he and/or his work gained value because his patron ʿAbbās II (r. 1052–77/1642–66) allowed him to use the nisba “ʿAbbāsī” (indicating his…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbās Mīrzā

(1,982 words)

Author(s): Werner, Christoph
Nāyib al-Salṭana ʿAbbās Mīrzā (1203–49/1789–1833) was the fourth son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shāh Qājār (r. 1797–1834). He was heir apparent (valī ʿahd) to the Qājār throne of Iran and, as governor of Azerbaijan, played a leading role in the two Russo-Persian wars in the Caucasus (1804–13 and 1826–8). With his ministers Mīrzā ʿĪsā Buzurg (d. 1822) and Mīrzā Abū l-Qāsim Qāʾim Maqām (d. 1835), he is credited with making the first efforts at reform and modernisation in Iran. He was born in Navā (in Māzandarān) on 4 Dhū l-Ḥijja 1203/26 August 1789 and died in Mashhad on 10 Jumada II 1249/25 October 1833. ʿAbbā…
Date: 2020-06-10

Abbasquluağa Bakıxanov

(496 words)

Author(s): Heß, Michael R.
Abbasquluağa Bakıxanov (Qüdsi) (b. 3 July 1794, d. mid-December 1846 N.S.) was a Russian officer and diplomat and an Azerbaijani poet, writer, and translator. Abbasqulu’s father, Mirzə Məhəmməd II, was one of the last  khans of Baku. An ally of the Russians from 1803, he assumed the partially Russianised name Bakıxanov. In 1820, he joined the Russian diplomatic and military service and became an adviser on local affairs and translator. His highest military rank was colonel. In 1831, Bakıxanov fell out with the Russian commander-in-chief, G. V. Rozen, and quit the servi…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbās Sarwānī

(707 words)

Author(s): Kolff, Dirk H. A.
ʿAbbās Sarwānī was an Afghan historian in Mughal India. He was a member of a Sarwānī Afghan family which had settled in the town of Banūr, in the sarkār of Sirhind, after receiving two thousand bīghās of land as a maintenance grant during the reign of Bahlūl Lodī. Islām Shāh Sūr renewed the grant to shaykh ʿAlī, ʿAbbās’s father; but in 987/1579 the land was reappropriated by the state. ʿAbbās subsequently entered the service of Sayyid Ḥamīd, a scholarly officer of Akbar; and it was on this latter’s instance that, in 990/1582, he wrote his Tuḥfa-yi Akbar Shāhī, generally known as the Tārīkh-i She…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbūd, Mārūn

(373 words)

Author(s): Ruocco, Monica
Mārūn ʿAbbūd (1886–1962), Lebanese literary critic, writer, and poet, was born on 9 February 1886 in ʿAyn Kifāʿ. At the time of his death, he was considered one of the foremost intellectuals of his time. After a religious education—his parents had hoped he would undertake an ecclesiastical career—he continued his studies at the Madrasat al-Ḥikma in Beirut, which provided a milieu more favourable to his literary aspirations. He taught from 1907 to 1957, first at the Université Saint-Joseph and the Collège des Frères Maristes of Be…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbd al-Aḥad Nūrī Sīvāsī

(400 words)

Author(s): Clayer, Nathalie
ʿ Abd al-ʿAḥad Nūrī Sīvāsī (d. in 1061/1650–1), born in Sivas (Sīwās) in central Anatolia in 1003/1594–5 or 1013/1604–5, was son of the muftī of Sivas and nephew of the famous Khalwatī (Halveti) shaykh ʿAbd al-Majīd Sīvāsī (1563–1639), who had been invited by Sulṭān Meḥmed III (1003–12/1595–1603) to the Ottoman capital. He accompanied his uncle to Istanbul, where he studied religious sciences. His uncle initiated him into the Khalwatī ṭarīqa (mystical “way”), founded in Baku by Yaḥya Shirwānī (d. around 864/1460). After receiving the khilāfet (investiture diploma), he was sent …
Date: 2020-06-10

Abdalan-ı Rum, historical

(1,704 words)

Author(s): Beldiceanu, Irène
Abdalan-ı Rum (Ott. Turk. Abdālān-i Rūm, mod. Turk. Rum Abdallarıi, “Abdals of Rum”), is a compound term consisting of the word abdal/abdāl (with the Persian plural suffix -ān ) and the geographical name Rum (Rūm, referring to Anatolia in general and to an Ottoman province in northeastern Anatolia that included Çorum, Tokat, and Sivas). The term was made famous by the historian Aşıkpaşazade (ʿĀşıqpaşazāde) (d. after 896/1491, or, less likely, 908/1502) and was widely used for dervishes and Anatolian and even Rumelian Ṣūfīs…
Date: 2020-06-10

Abdalan-ı Rum, literature

(1,231 words)

Author(s): Heß, Michael R.
Abdalan-ı Rum (Abdālān-ı Rūm, from the Tu. sing.  abdal) refers to “dervishes” coming from Rum, the former Roman territories of Anatolia. They are historical figures who lived from the seventh/thirteenth century until about the end of the ninth/fifteenth century. The  literature about them is often legendary. Of the few of their literary works that have been preserved, most are posthumously recorded hagiographies or utterances only ascribed to individual figures. Much of this literature was apparently handed down orally for some tim…
Date: 2020-06-10


(517 words)

Author(s): Farah, Caesar E.
ʿAbdalī (pl. ʿAbādila) is the tribe of Khawlān b. ʿAmr b. al-Khāf b. Quḍāʿa, which consists of two principal clans, Sallāmī and ʿUzaybī. The ʿAbdalīs became the pre-eminent tribe of South Yemen, centred at Laḥj in the territory of Aden, which they dominated from 1740, when they expelled the dawla who governed in the name of the imām of Ṣanʿāʾ, until World War I. The first chief and ruler of the area, ʿAbd al-Karīm Faḍl (r. 1915–47), adopted the title of sultan and erected a fort at Biʾr Aḥmad. In the early nineteenth century the tribe controlled the k…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAbbās

(7,558 words)

Author(s): Gilliot, Claude
Abū l-ʿAbbās ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAbbās b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib b. Hāshim b. ʿAbd Manāf al-Qurashī al-Hāshimī (d. c. 68/687–8), known usually as Ibn ʿAbbās, was a paternal cousin and a Companion of the Prophet. 1. The life of Ibn ʿAbbās. The making of a Companion—between history and myth The sources tell us much about Ibn ʿAbbās, both historical and mythical. Given the importance attributed to his contribution to religious science, the period of his birth and childhood is surrounded by an aura of legend and fantasy, like those of the prophet Muḥammad h…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān

(766 words)

Author(s): Borrut, Antoine
ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān (d. 132/749–50) was a son of the caliph ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān (r. 65–86/685–705) and of an umm walad (a slave bearing her master’s child). As he was reportedly twenty-seven years old in 86/705, he was probably born in about 60/680. He first appears in the sources as a general in charge of a military campaign against the Byzantines that led to the capture of Qālīqalā (Erzurum) in 81/700–1. The following year, he was sent with his uncle Muḥammad b. Marwān (d. 101/719–20) to assist a…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib

(811 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib (fl. sixth century C.E.) of the Banū Hāshim clan of the Quraysh was the father of the prophet Muḥammad, who was his only child. ʿAbdallāh's mother was Fāṭima bt. ʿAmr of the Banū Makhzūm clan of the Quraysh. According to some reports ʿAbdallāh was born in the twenty-fourth year of the reign of Kisrā Anūshirwān (r. 531–79 C.E.). He married Āmina, and, according to the earliest reports, he died when she was pregnant with Muḥammad. He died in Yathrib (Medina), while he was staying with the relations of his fat…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAlawī al-Ḥaddād

(2,562 words)

Author(s): Alatas, Ismail Fajrie
ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAlawī al-Ḥaddād (1044–1132/1634–1720) is arguably the most famous Ṣūfī master and scholar of Ḥaḍramawt and of the ʿAlawiyya ṭarīqa, a Ṣūfī order (lit. “path”) first articulated by Muḥammad b. ʿAlī Bā ʿAlawī, who was also known as al-Faqīh al-Muqaddam (“The Foremost Scholar”, a title illustrating his paramount spiritual position in the ṭarīqa) (d. 653/1255). Motivated by a drive to reform society, he successfully reshaped the order from its earlier emphasis on individual devotional efforts into a set of moral and ethical guidelines fo…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAlī

(700 words)

Author(s): Lassner, Jacob
ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbdallāh b. al-ʿAbbās (d. 147/764) was the great-grandson of the Prophet's paternal uncle al-ʿAbbās, the progenitor of the ʿAbbāsid dynasty that was to rule the Islamic realm from 132/750 to 656/1258. Around the turn of the second/eighth century, ʿAbdallāh and his brothers, together with their nephews Abū l-ʿAbbās and Abū Jaʿfar, undertook to overthrow the existing Umayyad regime and restore the Prophet's house (ahl al-bayt) to its rightful place at the head of the Islamic community (umma). With the clandestine phase of the struggle against the Umayyad …
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. ʿĀmir

(478 words)

Author(s): Morony, Michael G.
ʿAbdallāh b. ʿĀmir b. Kurayz (b. 4/626, d. between 57/678 and 59/80) was governor of Basra from 29/649–50 to 35/656 and from 41/661 to 44/664. A member of the ʿAbd Shams clan of Quraysh, he was born in Mecca in 4/626. His maternal cousin, the caliph ʿUthmān (r. 23-35/644-56), appointed him governor of Basra in 29/649–50. He completed the conquest of Fārs, taking Iṣṭakhr, Darābjird, and Jūr (Fīrūzābād), occupied part of Kirmān in 30/650, and invaded Khurāsān in 31/651–2, where he took Nīshāpūr, Nas…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAwn

(400 words)

Author(s): Mourad, Suleiman A.
ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAwn b. Arṭabān al-Muzanī (c. 66–151/686–768) was a prominent proto-Sunnī traditionist from Basra and is considered one of the founding fathers of Sunnī Islam. Reports suggest that he was born in the year 66/686, though the date might be later, given the many attempts in early Islam to push back a figure’s date of birth in order to validate his transmission of ḥadīth from individuals he otherwise could not have met. Ibn ʿAwn’s education began in his hometown of Basra, with notable scholars such as the semi-legendary al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī (d. 110/728…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. Ḥanẓala

(570 words)

Author(s): Hasson, Isaac
Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ʿAbdallāh b. Ḥanẓala b. Abī ʿĀmir al-Anṣārī (d. 63/683) was one of the most prominent leaders of the revolt in Medina in 63/683 against the second Umayyad caliph, Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya (r. 60–4/680–3). Born in Medina, ʿAbdallāh was seven years old when the prophet Muḥammad died. ʿAbdallāh is also known as Ibn al-Ghasīl, a name derived from an incident concerning his father, a Companion, who was killed at Uḥud in an impure state; after the Prophet saw the angels washing him, he gave him the honorific Ghasīl al-malāʾika, “washed by the angels” ( “fa-qāla rasūlu l-Lāhi inna ṣāḥ…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. al-Ḥasan

(517 words)

Author(s): Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali
ʿAbdallāh b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib (d. 144/762 or 145/763), known as ʿAbdallāh al-Maḥḍ, was the great-grandson of ʿAlī and shaykh of the Hāshimites in general and the ʿAlids in particular at the beginning of the ʿAbbāsid era. His mother was Fāṭima, the daughter of al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib. Sources say that, based on his descent and his position, the Umayyad caliphs treated him with the utmost respect, as did the first ʿAbbāsid caliph, Abū l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ (r. 132–6/750–4). The situation bega…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. al-Ḥusayn

(514 words)

Author(s): Wilson, Mary C.
ʿAbdallāh b. al-Ḥusayn (1882–1951), amīr of Transjordan and king of Jordan, was the second son of Sharīf Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī and Sharīfa ʿAbdiyya bt. ʿAbdallāh. 1. Personal The family takes the name “Hashemite,” as they trace their lineage to the Prophet's great-grandfather Hāshim. ʿAbdallāh was born in Mecca and lived in Istanbul from 1893 to 1908. He returned to Mecca in 1908 when his father was appointed Sharīf of Mecca by Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II. He was educated by private tutors in Mecca in recitation of the Qurʾān, readi…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh Bihbihānī

(1,174 words)

Author(s): Martin, Vanessa
Sayyid ʿAbdallāh Bihbihānī (b. 1260/1844 or 1845, d. 1328/1910), was one of two mujtahids (high-ranking members of the ʿulamāʾ) of Iran's consitutional revolution during the reign of the Qājār Shah Muẓaffar al-Dīn (r. 1896–1907). The other was Sayyid Muḥammad Ṭabāṭabāʾī (1842–1920), who led the popular Iranian movement that brought about the request for an ʿadālatkhāna (“house of justice”) in December 1905–January 1906 and the establishment of the first majlis (“assembly”) in August 1906. By contrast with Ṭabāṭabāʾī, who was a dedicated reformist, Bihbihānī was …
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. Jaʿfar b. Abī Ṭālib

(558 words)

Author(s): Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali
ʿAbdallāh b. Jaʿfar b. Abī Ṭālib (d. between 80/699–700 and 90/708–9) was a son of the famous Jaʿfar (d. 8/629), who was the older brother by ten years of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib and a hero in nascent Islam. According to the tradition of the Prophet, ʿAbdallāh's father was also called Jaʿfar “with the two wings” ( dhū l-janāḥayn) or Jaʿfar “the flying” ( al-ṭayyār), because, according to a Prophetic ḥadīth, in paradise Jaʿfar would have two wings in place of his two hands (or arms), which had been severed during the battle of Muʾta, in 8/629. ʿAbdallāh purportedly was the eldest of the eight sons…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. Jaḥsh

(312 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery | revised by, ¨ | Lang, Katherine H.
ʿAbdallāh b. Jaḥsh (d. 3/625) was a leader among the early Muslims who migrated with the prophet Muḥammad to Medina in the year 1/622. His sister Zaynab, who married the Prophet in the year 5/626 after her divorce from his adopted son Zayd b. Ḥāritha, was also part of this group. ʿAbdallāh b. Jaḥsh belonged to the Banū Asad b. Khuzayma and was a confederate (ḥalīf) of the Banū Umayya of Quraysh. His mother was Umayma bt. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib, the aunt of the Prophet. ʿAbdallāh’s two brothers, ʿUbaydallāh and Abū Aḥmad, took part in the migration of early Muslims …
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. Judʿān

(440 words)

Author(s): Ibrahim, Mahmood A.
ʿAbdallāh b. Judʿān b. ʿAmr b. Kaʿb was a leading member of the Banū Taym clan of the Quraysh in Mecca during the last quarter of the sixth century C.E. References to him indicate that he died during the Jāhiliyya (pre-Islamic) period, before Muḥammad began to preach Islam. His name is frequently associated with two significant events in the history Mecca, events in which the prophet Muḥammad himself participated as a youth. The first is the ḥurūb al-fijār (“the Sacrilegious Wars”), fought sometime around 575 C.E. on the outskirts of Mecca between the Quraysh and its all…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. Khāzim

(586 words)

Author(s): Alajmi, Abdulhadi
ʿAbdallāh b. Khāzim b. Asmāʾ b. al-Ṣalṭ al-Sulamī (d. c. 73/692–3) was the governor of Khurāsān during the caliphate of ʿUthmān (r. 23–35/644–56). Islamic sources indicate that he met the prophet Muḥammad and thus might be considered a Companion, but it seems that he was not part of the inner circle. He became governor of Khurāsān after the province was conquered in 30–1/651 by ʿAbdallāh b. ʿĀmir b. Karīz, the governor of Basra. Upon defeating the Turkish king Qārin, ʿAbdallāh b. Khāzim came to ru…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. Maymūn

(1,587 words)

Author(s): Daftary, Farhad
ʿAbdallāh b. Maymūn (d. second half of the second/eighth century) was a companion of Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq (d. 148/765), and numerous ḥadīths of this Imām are reported on his authority, in the canonical collections of Imāmī ḥadīths (Ivanow, Alleged founder, 11–60). ʿAbdallāh’s father, Maymūn al-Qaddāḥ al-Makkī, a mawlā of the Banū Makhzūm and a resident of Mecca, was a disciple of the Imām Muḥammad al-Bāqir (d. c.114/732) and transmitted a few ḥadīths from him. ʿAbdallāh and his father may also have taken care of these ʿAlid Imāms’ properties in Mecca. In Imāmī Shīʿī sources, ʿAbdallāh b.…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. Muʿāwiya

(1,145 words)

Author(s): Borrut, Antoine
ʿAbdallāh b. Muʿāwiya (d. probably 131/748–9) was an ʿAlid rebel who advocated for the Hāshimite rights (i.e., the rights of the members of the ʿAbbāsid house and/or of their followers) to the caliphate, calling people to support al-riḍā min āl Muḥammad (an ambiguous “slogan” that can be paraphrased as: a call for the choice of a leader from the family of the Prophet with whom the Muslims would find satisfaction” Agha, xv). Ibn Muʿāwiya attracted many followers, including members of the ʿAbbāsid family (such as the future first two ʿA…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(713 words)

Author(s): Molina, Luis
ʿAbdallāh b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (r. 275–300/888–912) was the seventh Umayyad amīr of al-Andalus. His reign was a struggle for survival in the face of threats that, very early on, put in danger both his throne and the continued existence of the Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus. He was designated amīr in Ṣafar 275/June 888, after the sudden death of his brother al-Mundhir, who had been engaged in combat with the rebel ʿUmar b. Ḥafṣūn (d. 305/918). ʿAbdallāh’s reign coincided with rebel uprisings in all corners of the Iberian Peninsula and wi…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. Mūsā b. Nuṣayr

(431 words)

Author(s): Molina, Luis
ʿAbdallāh b. Mūsā b. Nuṣayr, the eldest son of Mūsā b. Nuṣayr (d. 98/716–7), the governor of Ifrīqiya (79–95/698–714) and conqueror of al-Andalus, is first mentioned in the chronicles as commander of a contingent that came from Egypt to reinforce Mūsā’s troops in the year 83/702. In 85/704 Mūsā planned an expedition by sea to attack various Mediterranean islands (it seems to have been Sicily that was attacked, although it is sometimes claimed that ʿAbdallāh also conquered Sardinia and Majorca). He announced that he himself would lead the ca…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. Muṭīʿ

(545 words)

Author(s): Hasson, Isaac
ʿAbdallāh b. Muṭīʿ b. al-Aswad al-ʿAdawī al-Qurashī (d. 73/692) was one of the leaders of the revolt of Medina against the caliph Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya in 63/683. The Prophet changed his name from al-ʿĀṣī (“the disobedient”) b. al-ʿĀṣī to ʿAbdallāh and his father's name to Muṭīʿ. He took part in a Medinan delegation to Damascus and was received warmly by the caliph. On his return to Medina, however, he was one of the principal propagators of the accusations that Yazīd drank alcohol, that he did not pr…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. Rawāḥa

(458 words)

Author(s): Mirza, Sarah
ʿAbdallāh b. Rawāḥa (d. 8/629) was a member of the Banū l-Ḥārith clan of the Khazrajī tribe of Medina. At the second ʿAqaba meeting in the month of Dhū l-Ḥijja of the year prior to the Hijra/March of 622, when 72 men and 2 women pledged to defend the Prophet, he was among the twelve Khazrajīs chosen as leaders by his fellow Medinans. After the Hijra, he participated in the battles of Badr, Uḥud, al-Khandaq, al-Ḥudaybiya, and Khaybar. A zealous and outspoken defender of the prophet Muḥammad, his le…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. Sabaʾ

(1,503 words)

Author(s): Lewinstein, Keith
ʿAbdallāh b. Sabaʾ, sometimes known as Ibn al-Sawdāʾ, is remembered as a heresiarch who promoted extremist teachings about ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib. One set of historical traditions ascribes to him a key role in provoking the dissension which led up to the murder of the caliph ʿUthmān (r. 23–35/644–56) and the First Civil War; the heresiographical literature, by contrast, paints him as the founder of extremist Shīʿism (ghulūw). In both types of material, he is described as a Jewish convert from Yemen who sought to undermine Islam through the introduction of foreign id…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. Salām

(688 words)

Author(s): Lecker, Michael
ʿAbdallāh b. Salām (d. in 43/663 in Medina) was a former Jew named al-Ḥusayn who became a Companion of the prophet Muḥammad. Muḥammad gave him the name ʿAbdallāh upon his conversion. Accounts that are transmitted on the authority of ʿAbdallāh or which are about him were transmitted mainly by his sons Yūsuf and Muḥammad and others of his descendants and family members. One of them was his great-great-grandson Muḥammad b. Ḥamza b. Muḥammad b. Yūsuf b. ʿAbdallāh b. Salām al-Isrāʾīlī, a ḥadīth transmitter who lived in Medina and was among the teachers of Maʿmar b. Rāshid (d. 153…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. Ṭāhir

(847 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. Edmund
ʿAbdallāh b. Ṭāhir (c. 182–230/798–845) was a son of the ʿAbbāsid general Ṭāhir Dhū l-Yamīnayn, governor of Khurāsān and the eastern lands of the caliphate for the seventeen years 213–30/828–45, the most illustrious of the Ṭāhirid line of governors there, and the outstanding patron of Arabic culture and literature of his time in the Iranian lands. The Ṭāhirid family were originally of Iranian mawlā stock and had risen in the service of the first ʿAbbāsid caliphs. ʿAbdallāh early distinguished himself at the side of his father in military campaigns during th…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. Ubayy

(647 words)

Author(s): Lecker, Michael
ʿAbdallāh b. Ubayy (d. 9/631) (also simply Ibn Ubayy) was a leader of the Khazraj tribe and a political rival of the prophet Muḥammad. Muslim accounts of his conduct are, as one might expect, generally hostile to him. Ibn Ubayy belonged to the tribe of Khazraj, more specifically to the Ḥublā division of the Banū ʿAwf b. al-Khazraj. The other section of the ʿAwf b. al-Khazraj, the Qawāqila, was led by the younger and aspiring ʿUbāda b. al-Ṣāmit. Ibn Ubayy and ʿUbāda were both literate, which associates them with the Jews of Medina, because literacy was taught at the Jewish school called the bayt a…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(597 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
ʿAbdallāh b. ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (d. 132/749–50), the son of the Umayyad caliph ʿUmar II (r. 99–101/717–20), does not appear in the historical sources until the third fitna (civil war), when he became a key supporter of Yazīd III b. al-Walīd (d. 126/744). Al-Ṭabarī reports that Yazīd named him governor of Iraq in 126/744, after having removed Manṣūr b. Jumhūr, who had alienated his subjects. Ibn ʿAsākir mentions that ʿAbdallāh b. ʿUmar was first appointed as governor of Basra, replacing Jarīr b. Yazīd, and was later giv…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb

(1,133 words)

Author(s): Görke, Andreas
ʿAbdallāh b. ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb (d. 73/693) was a Companion and brother-in-law of the Prophet Muḥammad and one of the most important transmitters of his sayings. He is often referred to simply as Ibn ʿUmar. ʿAbdallāh b. ʿUmar was born c. 610 C.E., the first son of the caliph-to-be ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb and Zaynab bt. Maẓʿūn. He converted to Islam at an early age, together with his parents, and was about eleven when his family moved to Medina. He was too young to fight at Badr and Uḥud but took part in the Battle of the Trench (al-…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. Wahb

(625 words)

Author(s): Lewinstein, Keith
ʿAbdallāh b. Wahb al-Rāsibī was a prominent leader among those pietists who broke with ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib during the First Civil War over ʿAlī’s agreement to arbitrate at the battle of Ṣiffīn (37/657). This group, known as the muḥakkima for its slogan “There is no judgement but God’s judgement” (lā ḥukm illā li-llāh), is widely understood to be the earliest manifestation of the Khārijī movement, and Ibn Wahb is identified in later Ibāḍī tradition as the first Khārijī Imām. (More precisely, he appears in the classical Ibāḍī typology as a provisional Imām of Defense, imām al-difāʿ, charged wi…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh b. al-Zubayr

(2,329 words)

Author(s): Campbell, Sandra
ʿAbdallāh b. al-Zubayr, a son of the famous Companions al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām and Asmāʾ bt. Abī Bakr, was the first child born to the Muslim community in Medina after the hijra, in 2/624. He played a key role in the Second Civil War or fitna (strife), ruling from Mecca for approximately nine years as caliph before being killed by Umayyad forces in 72–3/691–2. This part of the Second Civil War is often referred to in Arabic sources as “the fitna of Ibn al-Zubayr.” 1. Family ties and early experience Genealogical connections are crucial to understanding Ibn al-Zubayr's later career. A…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh, Mīrzā

(443 words)

Author(s): Blum, Stephen
Mīrzā ʿAbdallāh (d. 1918) was the most influential Persian musician of his era and a master performer on the tār and sitār. He is credited with having codified the essential melodic resources of Persian traditional (sunnatī) music in a sequence (radīf) that he taught to many students. After the premature death of their father, the eminent court musician, ʿAlī Akbar Farāhānī, Mīrzā ʿAbdallāh and his younger brother, Ḥusayn Qulī (1853–1916), became pupils of their cousin and stepfather, Āqā Ghulām Ḥusayn, who was reportedly reluctant to…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh, Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm

(540 words)

Author(s): Hafez, Sabry
Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm ʿAbdallāh (1913–70) was a prominent Egyptian romantic novelist of the mid-twentieth century. He was born in a small village in the western Nile Delta and moved to Cairo to study Arabic at university. He graduated in 1935, returned home, and started his career as an Arabic-language teacher before moving back to Cairo in 1951 to work for the Majmaʿ al-Lugha al-ʿArabiyya, the Arabic Language Academy (ALA), where he remained until his death in 1970. ʿAbdallāh started writing as early as 1937 under the influence of Muṣṭafā Luṭfī al-Manfalūṭī (1872–1924)…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh Pasha

(611 words)

Author(s): Philipp, Thomas
ʿAbdallāh Pasha was the Ottoman governor of Sidon (Ṣaydā) (r. 1820–32) and the son of his predecessor Sulaymān Pasha al-ʿĀdil (r. 1805–19), who in turn was a mamlūk of Aḥmad Pasha al-Jazzār (r. 1776–1804). They resided in Acre (ʿAkkā). Against the wishes of high-ranking mamlūks, Sulaymān Pasha's wazīr, Ḥaim Farḥī, a member of the influential Damascus-based Jewish banking family of Farḥī, pushed successfully for the appointment of eighteen-year-old ʿAbdallāh, whom he believed he could control, to the governorship of Sidon. As during his fathe…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh Shaṭṭār

(990 words)

Author(s): Kugle, Scott
ʿAbdallāh Shaṭṭār (d. 890/1485) propagated a new Ṣūfī community, the Shaṭṭāriyya, which became influential in tenth/sixteenth-century South Asia. His followers encouraged synthesis with Hindu ideals in music, literature and Yogic devotions. 1. Life Nicknamed Shaṭṭār (swift-paced) and given the title “Shāh” (king), he lived in the vicinity of Samarqand and was the khalīfa of Shaykh Muḥammad ʿĀrif in the ʿIshqiyya (not Muḥammad ʿĀshiq, as reported in Niẓāmī). The ʿIshqiyya is a Ṣūfī ṭarīqa in Central Asia that goes back to the Khalwātī order with links to Najm al-Dīn …
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh Ṣūfī Shaṭṭārī

(845 words)

Author(s): Kugle, Scott
ʿAbdallāh Ṣūfī Shaṭṭārī (d. 1010/1601) was a ḥadīth scholar and a Ṣūfī in the Shaṭṭāriyya order, which was introduced into India by Shāh ʿAbdallāh Shaṭṭār (d. 890/1485 in Mandu). ʿAbdallāh Ṣūfī Shaṭṭārī helped establish a vibrant connection between the centre of Shaṭṭārī Ṣūfī activity in Gujarat and the holy cities in Arabia, and he wrote seven works on mysticism. 1. Life ʿAbdallāh Ṣūfī Shaṭṭārī was born in 904/1498 in Sandīla, a town in present–day Uttar Pradesh, and he joined a Ṣūfī order at age nine—apparently the Chishtiyya (founded in Chisht, a small…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh al-Taʿīshī

(1,317 words)

Author(s): Kramer, Robert S.
ʿAbdallāh b. Muḥammad al-Taʿīshī (1846–99) was ruler of the Mahdist state in Sudan from 1885 until the Anglo-Egyptian conquest in 1898. He was the successor to Muḥammad Aḥmad al-Mahdī. His name was pronounced ʿAbdullāhi and he was generally known as “al-Khalīfa” (from khalīfat al-mahdī, “successor to the Mahdī”). His family origins are obscure, though his grandfather ʿAlī al-Karrār likely migrated east from the central Sudanic region before marrying a woman of the Taʿāʾisha cattle-breeding Arabs (Baqqāra) of southern Darfur. His father, …
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh al-Tulanbī

(416 words)

Author(s): Würsch, Renate
ʿAbdallāh b. Ilāhdād al-ʿUthmānī al-Tulanbī al-Multānī thumma al-Dihlawī (d. 922/1516–7) was an Indian scholar, who played a significant role in the development of the rational sciences in the madrasa curriculum in Delhi. As his name suggests, al-Tulanbī was born in Tulanba, or Talamba, a town northeast of the city of Multān. He first studied in his native country and then moved to ʿIrāq al-ʿajam (northwestern Iran) to complete his education as a pupil of ʿAbdallāh al-Yazdī, concentrating on logic and philosophy (ḥikma). Upon his return home, he began to teach there, but pol…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdallāh, Yaḥyā l-Ṭāhir

(526 words)

Author(s): Hamarneh, Walid
Yaḥyā l-Ṭāhir ʿAbdallāh (1938–81), an Egyptian novelist and short–story writer, was born in the town of Karnak in Upper Egypt. A friend of the poets Amal Dunqul (d. 1983) and ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Abnūdī (b. 1938), he began writing in 1961. In 1964 he moved to Cairo, where he soon became a celebrity. He died on 10 April 1981, in a car accident. During his lifetime, ʿAbdallāh published four volumes of short stories and three novels; a further collection of short stories and one long story were published posthumously. The work that most critics consider his masterpiece is the novella al-Ṭawq wa-l-i…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbdān, Abū Muḥammad

(950 words)

Author(s): Madelung, Wilferd
Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdān (d. 286/899) was a pre-Faṭimid Ismāʿīlī dāʿī active in the rural district (sawād) of Kufa. Al-Masʿūdī gives his father's name as al-Rabīṭ, but this is most likely a slur meaning “the pimp.” According to the late account of al-Kāshānīʿs Zubdat al-tawārīkh, he came from a village in the sawād. However, in a quotation from the well-informed early account of Akhū Muḥsin he is called al-Ahwāzī. While it is not impossible that this nisba was added to his name through confusion with a well-known Sunnī traditionist, ʿAbdān al-Ahwāzī, it seems more likely th…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Amawī

(363 words)

Author(s): Hoffman, Valerie J.
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Amawī (1250–1314/1838–96) was a Shāfiʿī scholar, Qādirī Ṣūfī shaykh, and adviser to the sultans of Zanzibar. Born and raised in Barawa, Somalia, he moved to Zanzibar in his early teens to study with Somali scholar Muhyī l-Dīn al-Qaḥṭānī (c. 1788–1869), the chief Shāfiʿī qāḍī of Zanzibar. Al-Amawī was appointed judge in Kilwa in 1266/1849–50 at age sixteen and soon transferred to Zanzibar, where he served until the early 1890s, when his son Burhān took the position. Al-Amawī wrote on theology, law, Ṣūfism, grammar, rhetoric…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Ḥajjāj b. ʿAbd al-Malik

(601 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Ḥajjāj b. ʿAbd al-Malik (d. 126/744) was an Umayyad prince who was married to a daughter of the caliph Hishām b. ʿAbd al-Malik (d. 125/743). Al-Ṣafadī and Ibn ʿAsākir report that his mother was Rayṭa bt. ʿUbaydallāh b. ʿAbdallāh, making him a half-brother to the first ʿAbbāsid caliph Abū l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ (d. 136/754). Other sources note only that his mother was an umm walad. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Ḥajjāj is seldom mentioned in historical sources before he became involved in the third fitna, in which he supported the efforts of Yazīd b. al-Walīd (Yazīd III, re…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Marwān

(471 words)

Author(s): Blankinship, Khalid Yahya
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Marwān b. al-Ḥakam (d. 86/705) was the son of the Umayyad caliph Marwān I (d. 65/685) by a Kalbī mother and was a half-brother of the caliph ʿAbd al-Malik (d. 86/705). He was an heir to the caliphate and served as governor of the province of Egypt and North Africa, the latter position granted to him by his father on 1 Rajab 65/11 February 685. When ʿAbd al-Malik became caliph shortly thereafter, he required the loyal service of ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz until the counter-caliph Ibn al-Zubayr was finally eliminated in 73/692. During his governorship, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz consolidated his h…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Mūsā b. Nuṣayr

(503 words)

Author(s): Viguera Molins, Maria Jésus
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Mūsā b. Nuṣayr (d. 97/716) was the son of Mūsā b. Nuṣayr, the governor of Ifrīqiya and conqueror of Iberia, from Ramaḍān 93/June 712. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz collaborated with its father in the expeditions in al-Andalus, took Seville, and soon directed several campaigns in southern and eastern al-Andalus, where he signed the treaty with the Visigothic count Theodemir (Tudmir, d. 125/743), in Rajab 94/April 713, under which Theodemir retained his dominion over the territories of Orihuela, Balan…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik

(401 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik (d. 110/728–9) served his father caliph al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān (al-Walīd I, r. 86–96/705–15) in a variety of capacities. He campaigned against the Byzantines on at least two occasions, in 91/709 and 94/713. He led the pilgrimage in 93/712 and possibly in 94/713. He also served as his father’s governor of Damascus and of Qinnasrīn. These appointments are consistent with al-Walīd’s attempt to name ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz as his successor. Al-Walīd’s hopes in…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Dihlawī

(1,948 words)

Author(s): Masud, Muhammad Khalid
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Dihlawī (1159–1239/1746–1824), a son and successor of the great Indian scholar and reformer Shāh Walī Allāh (1114/1703–1175/1762), is known for his religious scholarship and for continuing Walī Allāh's reconciliatory efforts among various Muslim groups in Delhi. Rizvi refutes the commonly held view that ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz was Walī Allāh's eldest son, and affirms that this was Mawlawī Muḥammad (d. 1208/1793), born by Walī Allāh's first wife. After the death of his first wife, Shāh Walī All…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Mahdawī

(1,335 words)

Author(s): Gardiner, Noah
Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Abī Bakr al-Mahdawī (b. c.545/1150, d. 621/1224), a native of al-Mahdiyya, in Ifrīqiya, was, by the early decades of the seventh/thirteenth century, a leading Ṣūfī shaykh (master) in the city of Tunis (in modern-day Tunisia). He was a disciple of Abū Madyan (d. between 588/1192 and 594/1198), the foremost shaykh of North Africa in the latter half of the sixth/twelfth century, as well as of the surgeon and saint (walī) Abū ʿAbdallāh Ibn Khamīs al-Kinānī (d. c.590/1194), known as al-Jarrāḥ (“The wound dresser”) or al-Murābiṭ (“The steadfast…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbd al-Bāqī, Shaykh

(353 words)

Author(s): Clayer, Nathalie
Shaykh ʿAbd al-Bāqī (d. 1193/1779 or 1194/1780) was a Ṣūfī shaykh and later muftī in Ottoman-ruled Morea (modern-day Peloponnese). He was the youngest son of Shaykh Yaḥyā Sharaf al-Dīn Moravī (d. 1184/1770–71), who participated, along with a group of Khalwatī-Jarrāḥī dervishes, in the Ottoman campaign of Morea (1127/1715) and was appointed shaykh in a tekke (monastic complex) newly built there, in the fortress of Anabolu (Nauplion). ʿAbd al-Bāqī was initiated by his father into the rules of the ṭarīqa (order), and in 1145/1732–3 he was appointed head of a zāwiya—lit. “nook (of a bui…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbd al-Bārī

(814 words)

Author(s): Robinson, Francis
ʿAbd al-Bārī (1878-1926) was one of the leading ʿulamāʾ in the Muslim politics of British India in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Born 14 January 1878 into the Farangī Maḥall family of Lucknow, he was powerfully conscious of its achievements: in embedding Iranian scholarship in the maʿqūlāt sciences (logic, philosophy, theology, and mathematics) in northern India; in spreading their own Dars-i Niẓāmī curriculum (the madrasa teaching curriculum developed by Mullā Niẓām al-Dīn of Farangī Maḥall, d. 1748) through the subcontinent; and in resisting I…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbd al-Bāsiṭ ʿAbd al-Ṣamad

(628 words)

Author(s): Nelson, Kristina
ʿAbd al-Bāsiṭ Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Ṣamad Salīm Dāwud (1927–88) is the best known Egyptian Qurʾān reciter outside of Egypt, as he travelled extensively, visiting Muslim communities worldwide as a reciter, teacher, and judge of recitation competitions. His recordings are still the basis of the recitation curriculum in Indonesia, where students memorise his melodies as part of their training. He is known for his light, high voice and for his ability to sing long phrases in a single breath. Born in the administrative district of Armant in Upper Egypt, a region that produced many…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbd al-Ghaffār Khān

(1,200 words)

Author(s): Leake, Elisabeth
ʿAbd al-Ghaffār Khān (1890–1988), a Pathan (Paťhān) leader and politician, was a leading figure in the Indian independence movement, who was known also as Bādshāh Khān ( khān of khāns) or the “Frontier Gandhi” for his devotion to non-violence. He was born in the village of ʿUthmānzay Charsada, in the Peshawar district of what became, in 1901, the North-West Frontier Province of colonial India (and later Pakistan). His father was a wealthy khān (landowner), who ensured that ʿAbd al-Ghāffar was well educated, first at a local village school and then at the English-lan…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbd al-Ghafūr of Swāt

(1,336 words)

Author(s): Sultan-i-Rome, Dr.
ʿ Abd al-Ghafūr, the Akhūnd of Swāt (1794–1877), was born at Jabrai, in Upper Swāt, now in Khyber Pukhtūnkhwa, Pakistan ( akhūnd is a common term for a cleric in Iran, Azerbaijan, and parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan; the term was also applied locally to a person who looked after a mosque). Beginning life as a herd-boy, he resolved, at the age of eighteen, to devote himself to a religious life. In pursuit of religious education and spiritual attainment he sojourned in various places. He settled finally on the bank of the Indus, near Bekā, where he dwelt for twelve years in a zūz-khāna (camel-tho…
Date: 2020-06-10
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