Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

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Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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ʿAbd al-Hādī, ʿAwnī

(358 words)

Author(s): Damir-Geilsdorf, Sabine
ʿAwnī ʿAbd al-Hādī (1882 or 1889–1970) was a leading Palestinian political figure, pan-Arabist, and lawyer. He was born in Nablus into a well-known landowning family and was educated in Beirut, Istanbul, and Paris. He was a founding member of the Young Arab Society (al-Jamʿiyya al-ʿArabiyya al-Fatāt), which supported Arab unity and independence. He acted as adviser and private secretary to Fayṣal b. al-Ḥusayn when, in 1918–20, the latter stood at the head of the Arab Government (al-Ḥukūma al-ʿArab…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Hādī Shīrāzī

(595 words)

Author(s): Moussavi, Ahmad Kazemi
Ayatollah ʿAbd al-Hādī Shīrāzī (1887–1962) was a pious Shīʿī scholar who became a part of collective marjaʿiyya (the state of being models for setting a pattern of behaviour for their followers) in 1961. He was born in Samarra (Iraq) into a religious Iranian family and educated in the Shīʿa seminaries of Samarra and Najaf where, in addition to studying the traditional fields of sharīʿa law and Islamic legal methodology (uṣūl al-fiqh), he was educated in other subjects, including logic and history (Tehrānī, Nuqabā, 3/1, 1252). Amongst his teachers were three prominent Shīʿī marjaʿs whos…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Ḥafīẓ b. al-Ḥasan

(1,193 words)

Author(s): El Ayadi, Mohammed
ʿAbd al-Ḥafīẓ b. al-Ḥasan (d. 1937) was the nineteenth ʿAlawī sultan of Morocco (r. 1908–12). His date of birth is disputed. A son of Sulṭān Ḥasan I (r. 1873–94) and al-ʿĀliya, a daughter of the governor Ṣalāḥ b. al-Ghāzī, he was also known as Mawlāy ʿAbd al-Ḥafīẓ or Mawlāy Ḥafīẓ. He acceded to the throne after his half-brother Mawlāy ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (r. 1894–1908) was deposed. After a reign of only four years, however, he himself was forced to abdicate in favour of his other half-brother, Mawlāy Yūsuf (r. 1912–27). Before becoming sultan, ʿAbd al-Ḥafīẓ was a vice-regent ( khalīfa), first of T…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm

(789 words)

Author(s): d'Hubert, Thibaut
ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm (c. 1008–80/1600–70) was born in the village of Bābūpūr, in the kingdom of Bhulua, in present-day southeastern Bangladesh. With Ālāol (fl. 1061–82/1651–71), he was one of the most prolific writers of premodern Bengali literature. We have little material with which to reconstruct his biography (Sultana, 20–50). He was a rural scholar versed in Persian literature, who translated several texts into Bengali. ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm’s oeuvre is a window on the religious life of eastern Bengal duri…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm, Khalīfa

(297 words)

Author(s): Masud, Muhammad Khalid
Khalīfa ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm (1895–1959) was born into a Kashmiri family in Lahore. He adopted his father’s title as master craftsman in Cashmere shawls (Khalīfa). With an MA in philosophy from St Stephen’s College, Delhi, and a PhD in philosophy from Heidelberg University (1925), Khalīfa served in different positions, including professor and chairman of the Department of Philosophy of Usmania University, Hyderabad (1925–43 and 1943–9), and principal and director of education for Jammū and Kashmir (1943–…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd-i Lāhawrī

(461 words)

Author(s): Baburi, Saqib
Shaykh ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd-i Lāhawrī (d. 1064/1654) is best remembered for his definitive version of the official regnal chronicle for the Indo-Timūrid (Mughal) emperor Shāh Jahān I (r. 1037–68/1628–57), entitled Pādshāh-nāma (“Book of emperors”). According to the scant biographical details in his chronicle’s first prolegomenon (every Pādshāh-nāma volume had its own prolegomenon), ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd was born and raised in Lahore—hence his nisba, Lāhawrī—but he retired to Patna (in Bihār), whence he was brought to imperial attention by the provincial governor, Abū Ṭ…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd al-Kātib

(1,941 words)

Author(s): al-Qāḍī, Wadād
Abū Yaḥyā (or Abū Ghālib) ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd b. Yaḥyā b. Saʿd (or Saʿīd) al-Kātib al-ʿĀmirī (c. 69–132/c. 688–750) was one of the earliest epistolographers in Arabic, to whom tradition attributed the foundation of Arabic literary prose. A third-generation Muslim of non-Arab, probably Persian, extraction, he was probably born in al-Anbār. He seems to have been educated in Kufa, to have worked as a teacher and an itinerant tutor, and then to have been employed as a secretary (kātib) in the central administration of the Umayyad government in Damascus, probably before the death …
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Bābā-yi Urdū

(624 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Tariq
ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Bābā-yi Urdū, born in Hapar (U.P., India) on 20 August 1870, died in Karachi on 16 of August 1961. He is known for having promoted the use of Urdu in all domains of the state and society in pre-partition India and Pakistan. He also contributed to Urdu linguistics, lexicography, literary studies, and the study of the Deccan's variety of Urdu ( Dakanī). After graduating from the Mohammedan Anglo Arabic College at Aligarh in 1894, he served in several bureaucratic and educational institutions in the state if Hyderabad, retiring as the principal of…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Dihlavī

(2,446 words)

Author(s): Kugle, Scott
ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Muḥaddith Dihlavī (958–1052/1551–1642) was an Indian scholar and Ṣūfī who revived ḥadīth studies in India and rendered Ṣūfī biographies into elegant prose. He wrote approximately sixty books in Arabic and Persian, many of which have been published in the original or in Urdu translation. He composed Persian verse under the takhalluṣ (pen name) Ḥaqqī (“Truthful”). Born in Delhi, he died there at the age of ninety-four, on 21 Rabīʿ I 1052/19 June 1642. 1. Scholarly and Ṣūfī training As a child, he was initiated into the Qādirī order by his father, Shaykh Sayf al-D…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Ḥayy Ḥasanī

(490 words)

Author(s): Gaborieau, Marc
ʿAbd al-Ḥayy Ḥasanī (1869–1923), an Indian encyclopaedist, was born in Rae Bareilly (Rāʾe Barelī, in the present Indian state of Uttar Pradesh), into a lineage of Ḥasanī sayyids (tracing their genealogy back to Ḥasan, grandson of the Prohpet), who were Ṣūfīs and scholars, including the famous reformer Sayyid Aḥmad Barelwī (d. 1831). From 1881 to 1893, Ḥasanī was an itinerant student in Allāhābād; in Bhopal; in the Farangī Maḥall school in Lucknow; again in Bhopal (where he studied ḥadīth with Ḥusayn b. Muḥsin Yaminī and, though remaining a Ḥanafī, built connections with t…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Ḥayy al-Laknawī

(664 words)

Author(s): Würsch, Renate
Mawlānā Abū l-Ḥasanāt ʿAbd al-Ḥayy b. ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm b. Amīnallāh al-Laknawī (26 Dhū l-Qaʿda 1264–29 Rabīʿ I 1304/24 October 1848–26 December 1886) was an eminent Indian theologian and legal scholar. He was born at Banda, in Uttar Pradesh, into the distinguished Farangī Maḥall family from Lucknow, which claims descent, through the Ḥanbalī scholar and Ṣūfī poet al-Anṣārī (d. 481/1089), from Abū Ayyūb Khālid al-Anṣārī (d. c. 52/672), host of the prophet Muḥammad at Medina. ʿAbd al-Ḥayy studied, with his father Mawlawī ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm (d. 1285/1868), a renowned teacher and …
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Ḥayy, Ṣāliḥ

(379 words)

Author(s): Lagrange, Frédéric
Ṣāliḥ ʿAbd al-Ḥayy (1896–1962) was an Egyptian singer, born in Cairo, nephew of the famed vocalist ʿAbd al-Ḥayy Ḥilmī (d. 1911). An efendi like his uncle, endowed with a moving and powerful voice, he began a major recording career after the Great War, interpreting the learned repertoire (mainly dawrs and mawwāls ) to which he added popular ṭaqṭūqas dealing with the social evolution of Egyptian society, some of which are still famous to this day, such as Abūha rāḍi (“Her father agrees,” Yūnus al-Qāḍī/Zakariyyā Aḥmad, c. 1927), in which a prospective husband blames a judge …
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Ḥusayn Mūnis ʿAlī Shāh

(1,385 words)

Author(s): van den Bos, Matthijs E. W.
Ḥājj Mīrzā ʿAbd al-Ḥusayn Dhū l-Riyāsatayn Mūnis ʿAlī Shāh, born 13 Rabīʿ al-Awwal 1290/11 May 1873 (Ādamiyyat, Dānishmandān, 575) in Shiraz (Humāyūnī, 233), was a spiritual master in the Dhū l-Riyāsatayn order (a group of people who congregate together, mostly under a contemporary spiritual leader) of the Niʿmatallāhiyya Ṣūfī path (a line of succession and a spiritual tendency). The latter, historically influential in Central Asia and India but today mostly in Iran, with significant groups in western Europe, go…
Date: 2019-11-11


(658 words)

Author(s): Shackle, Christopher
ʿAbdī was the preferred poetic signature of Mawlawī ʿAbdallāh (fl. 1050/1640), in his Panjābī verse treatises (risāle), which are vernacular expositions of topics in Ḥanafī fiqh. Born in Malka Hāṇs, in Sāhīwāl District (in present-day Pakistan), ʿAbdī spent most of his life in Lahore. Little else is known of his life (Kushta, 59–62), apart from the brief hagiographical memoir appended by Muḥammad Bakhsh (d. 1907) to his Sayf al-mulūk of 1279/1863 (verses 9188–9233), which depicts him as a legal scholar living humbly as a shepherd before being directed in a visio…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbdī Bābā

(432 words)

Author(s): Clayer, Nathalie
ʿAbdī Bābā (d. at the beginning of the nineteenth century) founded the tekke (convent) of the Khalwatī-Ḥayatī Ṣūfī order in Štip—his native city —in the second half of the twelfth/eighteenth century. He was responsible for the diffusion of the order in the Štip region. (The Khalwatiyya is a Ṣūfī order founded in mediaeval Herat). His descendants wrote, in a typescript entitled Ecdadımızın Mensup Olduğu Hânikayı Halvetiyül Hayatî Tarikatının Tarihini yazıyor (It describes the history of the path of the lodge Khalwatī-Ḥayatī which belonged to our ancestors), that h…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbdī Bukhārī

(556 words)

Author(s): Zand, Michael
ʿAbdallāh Khwāja b. Mukhtār Khwāja ʿAbdī Bukhārī (early 1860s–1921/2), was a Central Asian poet and compiler of tadhkira (literary biography, lit. “memoirs”), who wrote in Tajik. ʿAbdī spent the first two decades of his life in provincial towns across the emirate of Bukhārā, where his father served as a qāḍī and a raʾīs. At the age of twenty, he enrolled in a madrasa in his native town of Bukhārā. In the early 1900s, he worked as a mudarris (teacher) in a minor Bukhāran madrasa; then, from the early 1910s until his death in 1921–2, he served as a qādī in the Chārjūy wilāyat of the emirate. Of his Tadh…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Ilāh

(231 words)

Author(s): Sluglett, Peter
ʿAbd al-Ilāh (1913–58), regent of Iraq from 1939 to 1953, was the son of King ʿAlī of the Ḥijāz and the grandson of Sharīf Ḥusayn of Mecca. He became regent (al-waṣī) after his cousin King Ghāzī died unexpectedly in 1939, leaving as heir a four-year-old son, Fayṣal II, who came of age in 1953. ʿAbd al-Ilāh and Nūrī al-Saʿīd together came to embody many of the shortcomings of the ancien régime. He and Nūrī fled to Jordan in April 1941 when the pro-Axis Rashīd ʿAlī al-Gaylānī came to power. ʿAbd al-Ilāh and Nūrī both supported the renegotiation of th…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbdī Shīrāzī

(1,325 words)

Author(s): Losensky, Paul E.
Khwāja Zayn al-Ābidīn ʿAlī ʿAbdī Shīrāzī (921–88/1515–80 or 1581), known as ʿAbdī Beg or Nowīdī, was a Persian poet, historian, and administrator. 1. Life and times Contemporaries left few records of ʿAbdī's life and works, and after his death, he virtually disappeared from literary history. ʿAbdī himself, however, made numerous autobiographical asides in the course of his own writings, and as his literary legacy has been recovered in recent decades, his editors (A. Raḥīmūf , ed., Majnūn va Laylī, iii–xvi, and ʿA. Nawāʾī, ed., in ʿAbdī Bayg, Takmilat al-akhbar, 9–12) have assembled…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Jabbār b. ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī

(591 words)

Author(s): Ohlander, Erik S.
ʿAbd al-Jabbār b. ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī [or al-Jīlī], Jamāl al-Dīn (or Sirāj al-Dīn) Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (or Abū l-Faraj) (d. 575/1180), was one of the many sons of the famous Ḥanbalite jurist, preacher, and Ṣūfī from Baghdad and eponym of the Qādiriyya order, ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī (d. 561/1166). Although he is usually mentioned in lists of the more noteworthy progeny from among the twenty-seven sons and twenty-two daughters born to ʿAbd al-Qādir, such as that furnished by his younger brother ʿAbd…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Jabbār b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(711 words)

Author(s): Daniel, Elton L.
ʿAbd al-Jabbār b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Azdī (d. 142/759–60) was the first governor of Khurāsān appointed directly by an ʿAbbāsid caliph. Prior to this, he had been one of the seventy missionaries (duʿāt) who formed the core of the ʿAbbāsid daʿwa in Khurāsān. He appeared in the Akhbār al-ʿAbbās (218, 221) as a representative from Abīward, most likely the home-town of his family (several of whose members figure in the history of the ʿAbbāsid revolution). After the outbreak of the revolt he was an officer in the army that invaded Jurjān, and he wa…
Date: 2019-11-11
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