Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.



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ʿAbd al-Jabbār b. Aḥmad al-Hamadhānī

(5,450 words)

Author(s): Heemskerk, Margaretha T.
ʿAbd al-Jabbār b. Aḥmad al-Hamadhānī (c. 325–415/937–1024) was the leading theologian of the Bahshamī branch of the Basran Muʿtazila. His most important work is al-Mughnī fī abwāb al-tawḥīd wa-l-ʿadl, a twenty-volume work of which fourteen volumes have survived. This work is a systematic discussion of Muʿtazilī doctrine, in which he also presented the teachings of his Muʿtazilī masters and non-Muʿtazilī adversaries. This makes ʿAbd al-Jabbār an important source of information about the doctrine of the later Muʿtazila. 1. Biography Qāḍī l-quḍāt ʿImād al-Dīn Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAbd …
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Karīm

(665 words)

Author(s): Shackle, Christopher
ʿAbd al-Karīm of Bulŕī (d. 1032/1623), popularly known as Shāh Karīm—denoting his Sayyid status—was one of the earliest Sindhī Ṣūfī poets. He was born in 944/1538, into the important Sayyid lineage (that is, descended from the prophet Muḥammad) of Maťiārī, twenty-five kilometres north of Hyderabad. His enduring reputation in Sindh is due largely to his being both direct ancestor and poetic forerunner of his great-great-grandson, Shāh ʿAbd al-Laṭīf (d. 1165/1752), who is revered as the greatest of all Sindhī Ṣūfī poets. The verses (abyāt) of Shāh Karīm are especially interestin…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Karīm Kashmīrī

(755 words)

Author(s): Tucker, Ernest
ʿAbd al-Karīm Kashmīrī (d. 1198/1784) was an Indo-Persian chronicler of the Turkmen ruler Nādir Shāh (r. 1147–60/1736–47) and a traveller in India and the Middle East. Little is known of his early life, including the year of his birth, but we do know that he was living in Delhi when it was conquered by Nādir Shāh (r. 1148–60/1736–47), in 1151/1739. After the seizure of the city and the subjugation of the Mughal emperor Muḥammad Shāh (r. 1131–61/1719–48), ʿAbd al-Karīm Kashmīrī joined Nādir Shāh’s court as mutaṣaddī (supervisor of merchants). He remained in his entourage until 11…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Karīm Wāʿiẓ Emīr Efendī

(441 words)

Author(s): Clayer, Nathalie
ʿAbd al-Karīm Wāʾiz Emīr Efendi (d. 1016/1607–8) is known to have followed initially the path of the ʿilmiyye (religious scholars), before becoming a Ṣūfī master. According to Maḥmūd Hulvī ( Lemezāt-i Hulvī (ms. Millet Kütüphanesi, Istanbul, fds. Ali Emiri, Şer’iyye)), he was first initiated in the Khalwatiyya by, and became a disciple of, the famous shaykh Kurd Efendi. He became acquainted with some shaykhs when he went to Syria in 970/1562–3, accompanying Malāmī, a ʿālim and biographer (d. 1012/1604), whom he was serving at that time. From Syria he embarked on a ḥajj, during which ti…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Khāliq al-Ghijduwānī

(1,492 words)

Author(s): Paul, Jürgen
ʿAbd al-Khāliq b. ʿAbd al-Jamīl al-Ghijduwānī was a central seventh/thirteenth-century figure of the early Central Asian mystics called Khwājagān (lit. “venerable masters,” later to become the Naqshbandiyya); he came from Ghijduwān (as it is called today), on the northern fringes of the Bukharan oasis. Older sources have other variants of his name, including Ghujduwānī and Ghujdawānī. Khwājagānī narratives have the family coming from Malatya, in southeastern Anatolia, and claim for the family a promi…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Laṭīf

(2,245 words)

Author(s): Shackle, Christopher
ʿAbd al-Laṭīf of Bhit’ (1102–66/1690–1752), whose popular title “Shāh Laṭīf” denotes his sayyid status, was the greatest of all Sindhī Ṣūfī poets. He was the great-great-grandson of the poet Shāh ʿAbd al-Karīm (d. 1032/1623) and belonged to the same important sayyid lineage of Mat’iārī, twenty-five kilometres north of Hyderabad, in Lower Sindh. Little is known of Shāh Laṭīf’s life, apart from the scanty details recorded in the early Persian writings of the memorialist Mīr ʿAlī Sher Qāniʿ of Ťhat’t’a, the author of the Maqālāt al-shuʿarā (“Discourses of the poets,” 1174/1760, pp…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Laṭīf al-Baghdādī

(3,769 words)

Author(s): Joosse, N. Peter
Muwaffaq al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Laṭīf b. Yūsuf al-Baghdādī (557–629/1162–1231) was an Arabic polymath, with a specific interest in grammar, medicine, and philosophy. He was born in his grandfather’s house on a street in Baghdad called Darb al-fālūdhaj (“Sweetmeats Alley”; Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa, 2:202) in Rabīʿ I 557/March 1162. However, the Baghdad into which ʿAbd al-Laṭīf was born and raised was no longer the intellectual, political, and scientific centre of the Islamic world that it had been during its heyday in the third/ninth century. Whe…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Laṭīf, Bahādur

(800 words)

Author(s): Roy, Asim
The life and work of the popular public figure Nawwāb Bahādur ʿAbd al-Laṭīf (1828–93) in British-ruled Bengal spanned various domains of profession, education, politics, and religion. ʿAbd al-Laṭīf was born in Faridpur into a family who claimed Arab origin and had settled in eastern Bengal in the eleventh/seventeenth century as landholders during Mughal rule. His father, a pleader in the Central Civil Court in Calcutta, ensured that his son received a mixed liberal English and Islamic education in the Dacca…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Majīd al-Khānī

(1,077 words)

Author(s): Weismann, Itzchak
ʿAbd al-Majīd b. Muḥammad al-Khānī (1847–1901) was a scion of the leading local Naqshbandī family in nineteenth-century Damascus (the Naqshbandī Ṣūfī order was founded in Bukhara by Bahāʾ al-Dīn, d. 791/1389). ʿAbd al-Majīd was initiated into the path by his grandfather, Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh al-Khānī (1798–1862), the foremost Syrian disciple of the orthodox activist shaykh Khālid al-Kūrdī. Khālid (1776–1827) had brought the Naqshbandī-Mujaddidī path from India—where it was founded by Shaykh Aḥmad Sirhindī (c. 971–1034/1564–1624), known posthumously as the “Renovator (mujad…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Malik b. Ḥabīb

(903 words)

Author(s): Muranyi, Miklos
Abū Marwān ʿAbd al-Malik b. Ḥabīb (b. Rabīʿ) b. Sulaymān b. Hārūn al-Sulamī al-Ilbīrī al-Qurṭubī (c. 174–238/790–853) was one of the foremost jurists (faqīh) and ḥadīth experts (muḥaddith) in third/ninth-century al-Andalus. His earliest teachers include Ṣaʿṣaʿa b. Sallām (d. c.180–92/796–807), who followed the teaching of al-Awzāʿī, as well as the first followers of the Mālikī-Medinan school of law: al-Ghāzī b. Qays (d. c.199/814), the transmitter (rāwī) of Mālik's al-Muwaṭṭaʾ, and his contemporary, Ziyād b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (d. c.199/814), known as Shabaṭūn, who …
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Malik b. Qaṭan al-Fihrī

(674 words)

Author(s): Molina, Luis
ʿAbd al-Malik b. Qaṭan al-Fihrī(d. 123/741) was a governor (wālī) of al-Andalus, during whose rule the Syrian junds (troops) of Balj b. Bishr (124/742) entered the Iberian peninsula. In his youth, ʿAbd al-Malik took part in the battle of al-Ḥarra (63/683) on the side of Medina. After that we find him in 113/731–2 leading a military expedition against Sicily, having been sent by the governor of Ifrīqiya, ʿUbayda b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (d. after 114/432) who, the following year, appointed him wālī of al-Andalus to replace ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ghāfiqī. On his arrival Ibn…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Malik b. Ṣāliḥ

(723 words)

Author(s): Cobb, Paul M.
ʿAbd al-Malik b. Ṣāliḥ was a cousin of the caliphs al-Saffāḥ (r. 132–6/749–54) and al-Manṣūr (r. 136–58/754–75). His brothers and their families, known collectively as the Banū Ṣāliḥ, were pillars of the early ʿAbbāsid government until the Fourth Civil War, and they remained influential and wealthy notables even afterward, particularly in northern Syria. ʿAbd al-Malik served the caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd (r. 170–93/786–809) as governor of Medina and Egypt and led a few of the summer campaigns against …
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Malik al-Muẓaffar

(880 words)

Author(s): Ávila, María Luisa
ʿAbd al-Malik b. Muḥammad b. Abī ʿĀmir al-Muẓaffar (364–399/975–1008) was the son of al-Manṣūr b. Abī ʿĀmir and al-Dhalfāʾ, a slave of Christian origin, and succeeded his father on 27 Ramaḍān 392/10 August 1002 as ḥājib (chamberlain) of the Umayyad caliph of al-Andalus, Hishām II (r. 366–99/976–1009 and 400–3/1010–1013); he continued in that post until his death. ʿAbd al-Malik followed the political path trod by his father: he ruled al-Andalus with absolute power, and maintained the legitimate caliph merely as a figurehead. At the beginning of his rul…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Muʾmin al-Dimyāṭī

(778 words)

Author(s): Sayeed, Asma
ʿAbd al-Muʾmin b. Khalaf b. Abī al-Ḥasan b. Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūnī al-Shāfiʿī al-Dimyāṭī (613–705/1217–1306) was born on the island of Tūna, near the northeastern Egyptian provinces of Tinnīs and Damietta. He was a leading Shāfiʿī ḥadīth scholar, whom biographers consistently praise for his discerning, critical engagement with ḥadīth, his accomplishments in other areas of Islamic learning, and his exemplary moral character. Ibn Ḥajar al-Asqalānī adds that he was extraordinarily good-looking. Unusually, al-Dimyāṭī’s career as a ḥadīth scholar began in his twenties, after…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Muqtadir

(482 words)

Author(s): Würsch, Renate
ʿAbd al-Muqtadir b. Maḥmūd b. Sulaymān al-Shurayḥī al-Kindī, al-Qāḍī Minhāj al-Dīn b. al-Qāḍī Rukn al-Dīn al-Thānaysarī (d. 26 Muḥarram 791/25 January 1389) was an Indian scholar and the author of a lāmiyya (poem rhyming in the letter lām) in praise of the prophet Muḥammad. He was from a family of Yemeni origin, which traced its descent back to Shurayḥ b. al-Ḥārith al-Kindī (d. between 76/695–6 and 80/699–700), a judge in Kufa who was from the generation of the successors of the Prophet's Companions. Born in Thanesar, he grew up in…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib b. Hāshim

(1,452 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib b. Hāshim was father of ʿAbdallāh and grandfather of the prophet Muḥammad. He is said to have died at the age of 82 or 110 or 120, when Muḥammad was eight years old. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib was born in Yathrib (Medina) to Salmā bt. ʿAmr of the Khazraj, who was married to Hāshim b. ʿAbd Manāf of the Quraysh. Reportedly she had married him on the condition that she give birth to his children only among her own relatives. After the birth of his son, Hāshim left him with his mother until he w…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Nabī

(519 words)

Author(s): Streusand, Douglas E.
Shaykh ʿAbd al-Nabī (d. 991/1583) was a leading ʿālim (religious scholar) of Akbar’s reign (963–1014/1556–1605), who was significant in both culture and politics. As the grandson of the celebrated Shaykh ʿAbd al-Quddūs Gangūhī Chishtī (d. 944/1537), ʿAbd al-Nabī belonged to one of the most important families of the ʿulamaʾ, the group that dominated Indo-Muslim cultural life under the Afghan dynasties. Although he did not reject Ṣūfism entirely, ʿAbd al-Nabī made his career in legal (sharʿī) studies. He specialised in ḥadīth, which he studied in Mecca, under traditionists s…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Nabī Qazvīnī

(851 words)

Author(s): Losensky, Paul E.
ʿAbd al-Nabī Qazvīnī Fakhr al-Zamānī (b. 988/1580, d. after 1041/1631–2) was a Persian anthologist, biographer, storyteller, and poet. ʿAbd al-Nabī’s father, Khalaf Bayg (d. 1001/1592–3), was a merchant in Qazvīn but retired to a life of religious devotion after a pilgrimage to Mecca. ʿAbd al-Nabī, however, took his literary aspirations and honorific, Fakhr al-Zamānī, from his highly cultured maternal grandfather, Fakhr al-Zamān, who served as a judge in Qazvīn during the reign of Tahmāsp I (r. 93…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbdorauf Fitrat

(742 words)

Author(s): Hitchins, Keith
ʿAbdorauf Fitrat  (ʿAbd al- Raʾūf Fitrat) (b. 1886, Bukhara; d. c.1938) was a social critic, political figure, journalist, playwright, and literary historian in the Emirate of Bukhara and in the new Uzbekistan of the 1920s and 1930s. He was perhaps the most prominent writer and theorist among the Jadids, the Muslim reformers of Central Asia. After studying at Mīr-i ʿArab madrasa in Bukhara he attended the University of Istanbul from 1909 to 1913, where he came under the influence of the Young Turk movement. His works from this period, written in Persian,…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Qādir, Amīr

(2,027 words)

Author(s): McDougall, James
Amīr ʿAbd al-Qādir b. Muḥyī l-Dīn al-Ḥasanī (1808–83) was an Algerian leader of resistance to the French conquest in 1832–47, and a state-builder, scholar, and mystical thinker. He was born in 1223/1808, or according to some sources, 1222/1807, at Guetna ta‘ Oued el-Hammam (the qayṭna, “little settlement,” of Wādī l-Ḥammām) near Mascara (al-Muʿaskar), in what is today western Algeria. His father, Muḥyī l-Dīn b. Muṣṭafā, was the regional head of the Qādiriyya ṭarīqa (Ṣūfī brotherhood), and, because the family claimed the status of sharīfs by virtue of descent from the prophet M…
Date: 2019-11-11
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