Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

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Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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ʿAbbās b. Abī l-Futūḥ

(1,386 words)

Author(s): Walker, Paul E.
ʿAbbās b. Abī l-Futūḥ b. Tamīm b. Muʿizz b. Bādīs al-Ṣinhājī (d. 549/1154) was wazīr for slightly more than a year, 548–9/1153–4, first under the Fāṭimid caliph al-Ẓāfir (r. 544-9/1149-54), then briefly under his successor, al-Fāʾiz (r. 549-55/1154-60). His father, Abū l-Futūḥ, had been a ranking member of the Zīrid royal family but was suspected of involvement in an attempted assassination of the ruler, his brother Yaḥyā. He was imprisoned, along with his wife, Bullāra, ʿAbbās’s mother, in the Maghrib from 5…
Date: 2020-06-10

al-ʿAbbās b. al-Aḥnaf

(1,252 words)

Author(s): Enderwitz, Susanne
Abū l-Faḍl al-ʿAbbās b. al-Aḥnaf (c. 133–92/750–807) was an author of love poetry in early ʿAbbāsid Iraq. His family belonged to the Arab clan of Ḥanīfa, from the district of Basra, but had emigrated toKhurāsān. His father was buried in Basra in 150/767, when al-ʿAbbās was about seventeen—as we can infer from the report that he died before his sixtieth birthday—perhaps indicating that the family had returned to Iraq, where they owned several houses. We do not know much about the social and material …
Date: 2020-06-10

al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAmr al-Ghanawī

(574 words)

Author(s): Canard, Marius | revised by, ¨ | Gordon, Matthew S.
Al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAmr al-Ghanawī (fl. end of the third century/ninth century) was an ʿAbbāsid commander and governor. The sources say nothing directly about his origins, although Yāqūt describes a “Qaṣr al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAmr al-Ghanawī” (4:359–60), located between Naṣībīn and Sinjār, which lie in Diyār Rabīʿa. He first appears in historical accounts on campaign in 286/899, against tribesmen of the Banū Shaybān in al-Anbār, during the reign of the caliph al-Muʿtaḍid (r. 279–89/892–902), then later against other Arab tribal forces in southern Iraq. The sources know al-ʿAbbās best in re…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbās b. Firnās

(716 words)

Author(s): Garulo, Teresa
Abū l-Qāsim ʿAbbās b. Firnās b. Wardūs (d. 274/887) was an Andalusī poet and astrologer at the Umayyad court of Córdoba. All of the available biographical information about him derives from al-Muqtabis by Ibn Ḥayyān (d. 469/1076), in which he is described as a mawlā (client) of the Umayyad family, of Berber ancestry, whose family was originally settled in the district of Tākurunnā (Ronda, Málaga), although the poet and anthologist ʿUbāda b. Māʾ al-Samāʾ (d. 421/1030) claims that he was a muwallad (an Arabised native Hispano-Roman). ʿAbbās b. Firnās studied in Córdoba, where …
Date: 2020-08-13

ʿAbbās b. al-Ḥusayn al-Shīrāzī

(534 words)

Author(s): Hachmeier, Klaus
Abū l-Faḍl ʿAbbās b. al-Ḥusayn al-Shīrāzī (b. 303/915–6, d. 363/973–4) was a leading official and wazīr under the Būyid amīrs Muʿizz al-Dawla and ʿIzz al-Dawla Bakhtīyār in Baghdad. Born in Shīrāz, he was in the entourage of Muʿizz al-Dawla (r. 320–56/932–67) when the latter took Baghdad in 334/945–6. His fortunes rose under the wazīr al-Muhallabī, whose daughter he married in 349/960–1. After al-Muhallabī’s death in Shaʿbān 352/August 963, Abū l-Faḍl and Abū l-Faraj Muḥammad b. al-ʿAbbās b. Fasānjus (d. after 366/977) were jointly charged with th…
Date: 2020-06-10

al-ʿAbbās b. al-Maʾmūn

(935 words)

Author(s): Turner, John P.
Al-ʿAbbās b. al-Maʾmūn (d. 223/838) was the son of the caliph al-Maʾmūn (r. 198–218/813–33) and his concubine, Sundus. It is unclear whether he was ever formally designated heir apparent, but he was positioned to make a claim on the throne when his father died in 218/833. He first appears in al-Ṭabarī, who reports al-Maʾmūn’s reaction to the news of the death of the caliph al-Amīn (r. 193–8/809–13) (3:1065). In 213/828 al-Maʾmūn made al-ʿAbbās governor of the provinces adjoining the Byzantine Empi…
Date: 2020-06-10

al-ʿAbbās b. Mirdās

(526 words)

Author(s): von Grunebaum, Gustav E. | Tamer, Georges
Al-ʿAbbās b. Mirdās b. Abī ʿĀmir (d. between 18/639 and 35/656), of Sulaym, was an Arabian poet of the mukhaḍramūn, the class of pagan poets who died after the proclamation of Islam. A sayyid in his tribe, he won renown as a warrior as well as a poet. The celebrated marāthī poet al-Khansāʾ is said to have been his mother or stepmother. His poetical achievements surpassed those of his brothers and sister, all of whom displayed literary talent. Impelled, so the story goes, by dream experiences or epiphanies in which his family idol, Ḍimār, announ…
Date: 2020-06-10

al-ʿAbbās b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī

(604 words)

Author(s): Bernheimer, Teresa
Al-ʿAbbās b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī (b. ʿAbdallāh b. al-ʿAbbās; d. 186/802) was the younger brother of the first two ʿAbbāsid caliphs, al-Saffāḥ (r. 132–6/749–54) and al-Manṣūr (r. 136–58/754–75). Al-ʿAbbās was a prominent figure in the early ʿAbbāsid period and played an important role in the establishment of ʿAbbāsid authority on the Byzantine frontier, helping to retake Malaṭya, a major frontier fort in eastern Anatolia, from the Byzantines in 139/756. He was appointed governor of al-Jazīra and the neighbouring frontier regions (al-thughūr) in 142/759 and led several summer ra…
Date: 2020-06-10

al-ʿAbbās b. al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik

(594 words)

Author(s): Blankinship, Khalid Yahya
Al-ʿAbbās b. al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik (d. 132/750) was a famous general of the Umayyad house. He was the eldest son of the caliph al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān (al-Walīd I, r. 86–96/705–15) and was perhaps born around 65–70/685–690. His career as a commander began alongside the premier Umayyad general, his uncle, Maslama b. ʿAbd al-Malik (d. 121/738) on a summer expedition of the campaign of 88/707 or that of 89/708. The expedition captured Ṭuwāna (Tyana) in Anatolia, setting al-ʿAbbās on his …
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbās Efendī

(796 words)

Author(s): Lawson, Todd
ʿAbbās Efendī (1844–1921), better known especially among Bahāʾīs as ʿAbd al-Bahāʾ (Servant of Bahāʾ), was the tireless and gifted exponent of the religion founded by his father, Bahāʾ Allāh. After his father's death in 1892, ʿAbbās became the leader of the religion, in accordance with his father's written instructions, viz., “Centre of the Covenant” ( markaz-i mīthāq). In Bahāʾī teachings, he is the “perfect exemplar” of the religious life. Born in Tehran, ʿAbbās Efendī assumed, at about the age of 18, the role of chief disciple and secretary to his father, who, …
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbās Ḥilmī I

(803 words)

Author(s): Cuno, Kenneth M.
ʿAbbās Ḥilmī I (1813–54) was viceroy (khedive) of Egypt from 1849 until his death. He was a son of Aḥmad Ṭūsūn Pasha (1783–1816) and a grandson of the founder of the khedival dynasty, Muḥammad ʿAlī Pasha (r. 1805–48), who concerned himself with his grandson’s education and appointed him to a number of military and administrative posts. His was the last generation of princes to receive a purely Ottoman education; younger princes had European tutors and learned French. In the Syrian campaign of 1831–3 h…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbās Ḥilmī II

(711 words)

Author(s): Gershoni, Israel
ʿAbbās Ḥilmī II (1874–1944), third and last khedive of Egypt, ruled the country from 1892 to 1914. ʿAbbās came to the throne at the age of 18 in January 1892 after his father, Khedive Tawfīq (r. 1879–92), died unexpectedly. Unlike his weak father, considered a puppet of British colonial rule, ʿAbbās strove to restore the original status of the khedive as sovereign ruler, patterned after the model established by his grandfather Ismāʿīl (r. 1863–79), and to assert Egypt's unique status as a semi-aut…
Date: 2020-06-10


(1,386 words)

Author(s): Floor, Willem
The ʿ abbāsī is a four- shāhī silver coin struck by the Ṣafavid ruler of Iran Shāh ʿAbbās I (r. 995–1038/1587–1629) in 995/1587, which dominated Iranian coinage until the middle of the twelfth/eighteenth century. (The shāhī is a Ṣafavid term for a coin equal to 50 dīnārs (golden coin, from Lat. denarius, first struck in 907/1501). The ʿabbāsī came to be known as shāhī-yi ʿabbāsī, or just ʿabbāsī. Two types were struck, one of 120 grains and another of 144 grains, or 1.66 and 2 mithqāl, an Arabic “weight,” originally set at about 4.25 grams, but varying in later periods from less…
Date: 2020-06-10


(367 words)

Author(s): van Gelder, Geert Jan
Badr al-Din ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad al-ʿAbbāsī (869–963/1463–1556) was an Egyptian philologist and poet. He was born in Cairo and studied religious and philological sciences there (al-Suyūṭī was one of his teachers), as well as in Syria and Constantinople. Asked to teach ḥadīth in Constantinople, he would have preferred to return to Cairo but nevertheless settled in Constantinople after the Ottoman conquest of the Arab lands. Most of his reputedly many works, among them a commentary on al-Bukhārī’s Ṣaḥīḥ, are lost. Three have survived, two of them preserved …
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbās I

(2,715 words)

Author(s): Newman, Andrew J.
ʿAbbās I (r. 995–1038/1587–1629) was one of three sons of Muḥammad Khudābanda (d. 1003–5/1595–6) and the grandson of Ṭahmāsp I (r. 930–84/1524–76) and great-grandson of the first Ṣafavid ruler, Ismāʿīl I (r. 907–30/1501–24). Born in 978/1571, he is understood to have become shah in 995/1587, when leaders of two of the most important Kizilbāsh tribes swore allegiance to him, in preference to his father, who had become shah in 985/1577. ʿAbbās died in Māzandarān on 24 Jumāḍā I 1038/19 January 1629. Western historians often highlight the forceful personality of ʿAbbās, often st…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbāsid art and architecture

(6,616 words)

Author(s): Northedge, Alastair E.
ʿAbbāsid art and architecture was the visual culture of the ʿAbbāsid caliphate at its height (132–320/750–932). The architecture was mainly a Mesopotamian tradition of unfired and fired brick but also included other techniques and styles in Iran, Central Asia, and the Mediterranean. Nevertheless, the building types developed from the requirements of an Islamic society originating in the Arabian Peninsula. Decoration began to include styles from outside the Middle East, notably Central Asia, while c…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbāsid music

(2,793 words)

Author(s): Sawa, George Dimitri
ʿAbbāsid music was that of the ʿAbbāsid dynastic period (132–656/750–1258). Little is known of ʿAbbāsid musical repertoire save for an ʿ ūd (lute) exercise by the philosopher al-Kindī (d. after 256/870), in which the notation is expressed in terms of fingers and frets, and transcriptions in the later ʿAbbāsid era by Ṣafī al-Dīn al-Urmawī (d. 693/1294) of songs and pieces in which durations and pitches are given [Illustration 1]. 1. Notation Musical notation in the early ʿAbbāsid era was apparently precise yet rarely used. We know of only two anecdotes touching the …
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbāsid Revolution

(3,997 words)

Author(s): Daniel, Elton L.
ʿAbbāsid Revolution is the term used to describe the process that led to the fall of the Umayyads and the establishment of the ʿAbbāsid dynasty in the mid-second/eighth century. 1. The daʿwa Information about the origins and development of the ʿAbbāsid Revolution may be found in the usual corpus of classical Islamic historical texts, with the most important account still being that of al-Ṭabarī, although it can now be supplemented in important ways by texts that have been more recently edited and published, notably al-Balādhurī's Ansāb al-ashrāf (vol. 3, ed. ʿAbd al- ʿAzīz al-Dūr…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbās, Iḥsān

(971 words)

Author(s): al-Qāḍī, Wadād
Iḥsān ʿAbbās (1920–2003) was the most influential, prolific, and internationally recognised Arab educator and scholar of Arabic literature in the second half of the twentieth century. His works laid the foundation for the systematic study of Andalusian literature, the scientific editing of mediaeval Arabic manuscripts, the avant–garde understanding of literary criticism (especially of modern Arabic poetry), and the research–based translation of world literature. He was a member of several academi…
Date: 2020-06-10

ʿAbbās II

(1,836 words)

Author(s): Matthee, Rudolph P.
ʿAbbās II (r. 1052–77/1642–66) was the seventh ruler of the Ṣafavid dynasty. The eldest son of Shāh Ṣafī I (r. 1038–52/1629–42), he was originally named Sulṭān Muḥammad Mīrzā born in 1042/1633—most likely on January 1—ʿAbbās II succeeded his father upon the latter's premature death on 12 Ṣafar 1052/12 May 1642. The transition of power was peaceful. The stability needed for this nonviolent accession was secured through the payment of a large sum by way of wages in arrears to the military and a substantial tax reprieve to peasants. The killing of the shāh's four siblings and the executio…
Date: 2020-06-10
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