Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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ʿAbbāsī, Shaykh

(480 words)

Author(s): Farhad, Massumeh
Shaykh ʿAbbāsī was an eleventh/seventeenth-century Ṣafavid painter who introduced a new hybrid style, inspired largely by Indian pictorial conventions. His works are dated between 1057/1647 and 1095/1684 and are often signed in minute characters with the phrase bahā girift chu gardīd Shaykh ʿAbbāsī, “it [or he] achieved worth because he became Shaykh ʿAbbāsī.” According to Robert Skelton (ʿAbbāsī, Šayk̲, EIr, 87–8), the signature implies that he and/or his work gained value because his patron ʿAbbās II (r. 1052–77/1642–66) allowed him to use the nisba “ʿAbbāsī” (indicating his…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbbās Mīrzā

(1,982 words)

Author(s): Werner, Christoph
Nāyib al-Salṭana ʿAbbās Mīrzā (1203–49/1789–1833) was the fourth son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shāh Qājār (r. 1797–1834). He was heir apparent (valī ʿahd) to the Qājār throne of Iran and, as governor of Azerbaijan, played a leading role in the two Russo-Persian wars in the Caucasus (1804–13 and 1826–8). With his ministers Mīrzā ʿĪsā Buzurg (d. 1822) and Mīrzā Abū l-Qāsim Qāʾim Maqām (d. 1835), he is credited with making the first efforts at reform and modernisation in Iran. He was born in Navā (in Māzandarān) on 4 Dhū l-Ḥijja 1203/26 August 1789 and died in Mashhad on 10 Jumada II 1249/25 October 1833. ʿAbbā…
Date: 2019-11-11

Abbasquluağa Bakıxanov

(496 words)

Author(s): Heß, Michael R.
Abbasquluağa Bakıxanov (Qüdsi) (b. 3 July 1794, d. mid-December 1846 N.S.) was a Russian officer and diplomat and an Azerbaijani poet, writer, and translator. Abbasqulu’s father, Mirzə Məhəmməd II, was one of the last  khans of Baku. An ally of the Russians from 1803, he assumed the partially Russianised name Bakıxanov. In 1820, he joined the Russian diplomatic and military service and became an adviser on local affairs and translator. His highest military rank was colonel. In 1831, Bakıxanov fell out with the Russian commander-in-chief, G. V. Rozen, and quit the servi…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbbās Sarwānī

(707 words)

Author(s): Kolff, Dirk H. A.
ʿAbbās Sarwānī was an Afghan historian in Mughal India. He was a member of a Sarwānī Afghan family which had settled in the town of Banūr, in the sarkār of Sirhind, after receiving two thousand bīghās of land as a maintenance grant during the reign of Bahlūl Lodī. Islām Shāh Sūr renewed the grant to shaykh ʿAlī, ʿAbbās’s father; but in 987/1579 the land was reappropriated by the state. ʿAbbās subsequently entered the service of Sayyid Ḥamīd, a scholarly officer of Akbar; and it was on this latter’s instance that, in 990/1582, he wrote his Tuḥfa-yi Akbar Shāhī, generally known as the Tārīkh-i She…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbbūd, Mārūn

(373 words)

Author(s): Ruocco, Monica
Mārūn ʿAbbūd (1886–1962), Lebanese literary critic, writer, and poet, was born on 9 February 1886 in ʿAyn Kifāʿ. At the time of his death, he was considered one of the foremost intellectuals of his time. After a religious education—his parents had hoped he would undertake an ecclesiastical career—he continued his studies at the Madrasat al-Ḥikma in Beirut, which provided a milieu more favourable to his literary aspirations. He taught from 1907 to 1957, first at the Université Saint-Joseph and the Collège des Frères Maristes of Be…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbd al-Aḥad Nūrī Sīvāsī

(400 words)

Author(s): Clayer, Nathalie
ʿ Abd al-ʿAḥad Nūrī Sīvāsī (d. in 1061/1650–1), born in Sivas (Sīwās) in central Anatolia in 1003/1594–5 or 1013/1604–5, was son of the muftī of Sivas and nephew of the famous Khalwatī (Halveti) shaykh ʿAbd al-Majīd Sīvāsī (1563–1639), who had been invited by Sulṭān Meḥmed III (1003–12/1595–1603) to the Ottoman capital. He accompanied his uncle to Istanbul, where he studied religious sciences. His uncle initiated him into the Khalwatī ṭarīqa (mystical “way”), founded in Baku by Yaḥya Shirwānī (d. around 864/1460). After receiving the khilāfet (investiture diploma), he was sent …
Date: 2019-11-11

Abdalan-ı Rum, historical

(1,704 words)

Author(s): Beldiceanu, Irène
Abdalan-ı Rum (Ott. Turk. Abdālān-i Rūm, mod. Turk. Rum Abdallarıi, “Abdals of Rum”), is a compound term consisting of the word abdal/abdāl (with the Persian plural suffix -ān ) and the geographical name Rum (Rūm, referring to Anatolia in general and to an Ottoman province in northeastern Anatolia that included Çorum, Tokat, and Sivas). The term was made famous by the historian Aşıkpaşazade (ʿĀşıqpaşazāde) (d. after 896/1491, or, less likely, 908/1502) and was widely used for dervishes and Anatolian and even Rumelian Ṣūfīs…
Date: 2019-11-11

Abdalan-ı Rum, literature

(1,231 words)

Author(s): Heß, Michael R.
Abdalan-ı Rum (Abdālān-ı Rūm, from the Tu. sing.  abdal) refers to “dervishes” coming from Rum, the former Roman territories of Anatolia. They are historical figures who lived from the seventh/thirteenth century until about the end of the ninth/fifteenth century. The  literature about them is often legendary. Of the few of their literary works that have been preserved, most are posthumously recorded hagiographies or utterances only ascribed to individual figures. Much of this literature was apparently handed down orally for some tim…
Date: 2019-11-11


(517 words)

Author(s): Farah, Caesar E.
ʿAbdalī (pl. ʿAbādila) is the tribe of Khawlān b. ʿAmr b. al-Khāf b. Quḍāʿa, which consists of two principal clans, Sallāmī and ʿUzaybī. The ʿAbdalīs became the pre-eminent tribe of South Yemen, centred at Laḥj in the territory of Aden, which they dominated from 1740, when they expelled the dawla who governed in the name of the imām of Ṣanʿāʾ, until World War I. The first chief and ruler of the area, ʿAbd al-Karīm Faḍl (r. 1915–47), adopted the title of sultan and erected a fort at Biʾr Aḥmad. In the early nineteenth century the tribe controlled the k…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAbbās

(7,558 words)

Author(s): Gilliot, Claude
Abū l-ʿAbbās ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAbbās b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib b. Hāshim b. ʿAbd Manāf al-Qurashī al-Hāshimī (d. c. 68/687–8), known usually as Ibn ʿAbbās, was a paternal cousin and a Companion of the Prophet. 1. The life of Ibn ʿAbbās. The making of a Companion—between history and myth The sources tell us much about Ibn ʿAbbās, both historical and mythical. Given the importance attributed to his contribution to religious science, the period of his birth and childhood is surrounded by an aura of legend and fantasy, like those of the prophet Muḥammad h…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān

(765 words)

Author(s): Borrut, Antoine
ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān (d. 132/749–50) was a son of the caliph ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān (65–86/685–705) and of an umm walad (a slave bearing her master’s child). As he was reportedly twenty-seven years old in 86/705, he was probably born in about 60/680. He first appears in the sources as a general in charge of a military campaign against the Byzantines that led to the capture of Qālīqalā (Erzurum) in 81/700–1. The following year, he was sent with his uncle Muḥammad b. Marwān (d. 101/719–20) to assist al-…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib

(811 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib (fl. sixth century C.E.) of the Banū Hāshim clan of the Quraysh was the father of the prophet Muḥammad, who was his only child. ʿAbdallāh's mother was Fāṭima bt. ʿAmr of the Banū Makhzūm clan of the Quraysh. According to some reports ʿAbdallāh was born in the twenty-fourth year of the reign of Kisrā Anūshirwān (r. 531–79 C.E.). He married Āmina, and, according to the earliest reports, he died when she was pregnant with Muḥammad. He died in Yathrib (Medina), while he was staying with the relations of his fat…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAlawī al-Ḥaddād

(2,562 words)

Author(s): Alatas, Ismail Fajrie
ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAlawī al-Ḥaddād (1044–1132/1634–1720) is arguably the most famous Ṣūfī master and scholar of Ḥaḍramawt and of the ʿAlawiyya ṭarīqa, a Ṣūfī order (lit. “path”) first articulated by Muḥammad b. ʿAlī Bā ʿAlawī, who was also known as al-Faqīh al-Muqaddam (“The Foremost Scholar”, a title illustrating his paramount spiritual position in the ṭarīqa) (d. 653/1255). Motivated by a drive to reform society, he successfully reshaped the order from its earlier emphasis on individual devotional efforts into a set of moral and ethical guidelines fo…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAlī

(700 words)

Author(s): Lassner, Jacob
ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbdallāh b. al-ʿAbbās (d. 147/764) was the great-grandson of the Prophet's paternal uncle al-ʿAbbās, the progenitor of the ʿAbbāsid dynasty that was to rule the Islamic realm from 132/750 to 656/1258. Around the turn of the second/eighth century, ʿAbdallāh and his brothers, together with their nephews Abū l-ʿAbbās and Abū Jaʿfar, undertook to overthrow the existing Umayyad regime and restore the Prophet's house (ahl al-bayt) to its rightful place at the head of the Islamic community (umma). With the clandestine phase of the struggle against the Umayyad …
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbdallāh b. ʿĀmir

(478 words)

Author(s): Morony, Michael G.
ʿAbdallāh b. ʿĀmir b. Kurayz (b. 4/626, d. between 57/678 and 59/80) was governor of Basra from 29/649–50 to 35/656 and from 41/661 to 44/664. A member of the ʿAbd Shams clan of Quraysh, he was born in Mecca in 4/626. His maternal cousin, the caliph ʿUthmān (r. 23-35/644-56), appointed him governor of Basra in 29/649–50. He completed the conquest of Fārs, taking Iṣṭakhr, Darābjird, and Jūr (Fīrūzābād), occupied part of Kirmān in 30/650, and invaded Khurāsān in 31/651–2, where he took Nīshāpūr, Nas…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAwn

(400 words)

Author(s): Mourad, Suleiman A.
ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAwn b. Arṭabān al-Muzanī (c. 66–151/686–768) was a prominent proto-Sunnī traditionist from Basra and is considered one of the founding fathers of Sunnī Islam. Reports suggest that he was born in the year 66/686, though the date might be later, given the many attempts in early Islam to push back a figure’s date of birth in order to validate his transmission of ḥadīth from individuals he otherwise could not have met. Ibn ʿAwn’s education began in his hometown of Basra, with notable scholars such as the semi-legendary al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī (d. 110/728…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbdallāh b. Ḥanẓala

(570 words)

Author(s): Hasson, Isaac
Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ʿAbdallāh b. Ḥanẓala b. Abī ʿĀmir al-Anṣārī (d. 63/683) was one of the most prominent leaders of the revolt in Medina in 63/683 against the second Umayyad caliph, Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya (r. 60–4/680–3). Born in Medina, ʿAbdallāh was seven years old when the prophet Muḥammad died. ʿAbdallāh is also known as Ibn al-Ghasīl, a name derived from an incident concerning his father, a Companion, who was killed at Uḥud in an impure state; after the Prophet saw the angels washing him, he gave him the honorific Ghasīl al-malāʾika, “washed by the angels” ( “fa-qāla rasūlu l-Lāhi inna ṣāḥ…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbdallāh b. al-Ḥasan

(517 words)

Author(s): Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali
ʿAbdallāh b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib (d. 144/762 or 145/763), known as ʿAbdallāh al-Maḥḍ, was the great-grandson of ʿAlī and shaykh of the Hāshimites in general and the ʿAlids in particular at the beginning of the ʿAbbāsid era. His mother was Fāṭima, the daughter of al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib. Sources say that, based on his descent and his position, the Umayyad caliphs treated him with the utmost respect, as did the first ʿAbbāsid caliph, Abū l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ (r. 132–6/750–4). The situation bega…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbdallāh b. al-Ḥusayn

(514 words)

Author(s): Wilson, Mary C.
ʿAbdallāh b. al-Ḥusayn (1882–1951), amīr of Transjordan and king of Jordan, was the second son of Sharīf Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī and Sharīfa ʿAbdiyya bt. ʿAbdallāh. 1. Personal The family takes the name “Hashemite,” as they trace their lineage to the Prophet's great-grandfather Hāshim. ʿAbdallāh was born in Mecca and lived in Istanbul from 1893 to 1908. He returned to Mecca in 1908 when his father was appointed Sharīf of Mecca by Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II. He was educated by private tutors in Mecca in recitation of the Qurʾān, readi…
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAbdallāh Bihbihānī

(1,174 words)

Author(s): Martin, Vanessa
Sayyid ʿAbdallāh Bihbihānī (b. 1260/1844 or 1845, d. 1328/1910), was one of two mujtahids (high-ranking members of the ʿulamāʾ) of Iran's consitutional revolution during the reign of the Qājār Shah Muẓaffar al-Dīn (r. 1896–1907). The other was Sayyid Muḥammad Ṭabāṭabāʾī (1584–1918), who led the popular Iranian movement that brought about the request for an ʿadālatkhāna (“house of justice”) in December 1905–January 1906 and the establishment of the first majlis (“assembly”) in August 1906. By contrast with Ṭabāṭabāʾī, who was a dedicated reformist, Bihbihānī was …
Date: 2019-11-11
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