Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson.

With Roger Allen, Edith Ambros, Thomas Bauer, Johann Büssow, Ruth Davis, Ahmed El Shamsy, Maribel Fierro, Najam Haider, Konrad Hirschler, Nico Kaptein, Alexander Knysh, Corinne Lefèvre, Scott Levi, Roman Loimeier, Daniela Meneghini, Negin Nabavi, M'hamed Oualdi, D. Fairchild Ruggles, Ignacio Sánchez, and Ayman Shihadeh.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World and reflects the great diversity of current scholarship. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

Subscriptions: see brill.com

Ḥabāʾib in Southeast Asia

(1,820 words)

Author(s): Alatas, Ismail Fajrie
Ḥabāʾib (Ar. sing. ḥabīb; Indonesian sing. habib), which literally means the “beloveds,” is an honorific used to address and refer to the descendants of the Prophet Muḥammad ( sāda) in the Ḥaḍramawt valley of southern Arabia, Southeast Asia, and the Swahili coast of East Africa. In particular, the term is used to refer to the Bā ʿAlawī (Children of ʿAlawī), that is, a sāda lineage that traces its descent to ʿAlawī b. ʿUbaydallāh (d. at the beginning of the fifth/eleventh century), whose grandfather, Aḥmad b. ʿĪsā (d. 345/956) is said to have first migrated …
Date: 2020-12-18

Ḥabash al-Ḥāsib al-Marwazī

(1,661 words)

Author(s): Samsó, Julio
Abū Jaʿfar Aḥmad b. ʿAbdallāh Ḥabash al-Ḥāsib al-Marwazī (fl. third/ninth century) was a brilliant mathematician (the name al-Ḥāsib means “the calculator”) and astronomer active during the period of the great blossoming of the sciences under the patronage of the ʿAbbāsids. Born in Merv, he lived in Baghdad, Damascus, and Samarrāʾ (sometime after the founding of the city in 221/836) during the reigns of the ʿAbbāsid caliphs al-Maʾmūn (198–218/813–33) and al-Muʿtaṣim (218–27/833–42). According to Ibn al-Nadīm ( al-Fihrist, 275), he lived to an age of more than a hundred, …
Date: 2020-12-18

Ḥabīballāh Khān

(1,339 words)

Author(s): Nölle-Karimi, Christine
Ḥabīballāh (Ḥabībullāh) Khān (1872–1919) was son of the amīr ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (r. 1880–1901) and a slave girl from the court of Jahāndār Shāh, the mīr (amīr) of Badakhshān (r. 1864–9). He succeeded ʿAbd al-Raḥmān and ruled Afghanistan from 3 October 1901 to 20 February 1919, when he was assassinated at Kalla-gūsh, in Laghmān. Ḥabīballāh Khān inherited a functioning administrative and military system. His first official communications indicated the young amīr’s intention to continue the isolationist policies of his father: In order to shield his country from foreign…
Date: 2020-12-18

Ḥabīb b. Maslama al-Fihrī

(1,272 words)

Author(s): Lecker, Michael
Ḥabīb b. Maslama al-Fihrī, a brilliant general and close ally of the caliph Muʿāwiya, belonged to the Quraysh tribe, more precisely, to the Muḥārib b. Fihr branch of Quraysh. He played a major role in the conquest of the Jazīra and Armenia. His raids on Byzantine territory earned him the nickname Ḥabīb al-Rūm, “Ḥabīb of the Byzantines,” which can also be understood, ironically, as “the beloved one of the Byzantines.” The agreements of capitulation that he concluded with the people of Tiflīs (Tbilis…
Date: 2020-12-18


(726 words)

Author(s): Procházka-Eisl, Gisela
Habsi (Ḥabsī)/Hasbi (Ḥasbī), Gedizli or Geduzi (Gedūzī, “of Geduz”) was a pen name of an Ottoman poet (d. after 960/1553) whose real name, date of birth, and year of death are unknown. He was born in Geduz (Gediz), in the principality of Germiyan (Kütahya), where he received his medrese (madrasa) education. After moving to Istanbul, where his elder brother, the better-known poet Keşfi (Keşfī), had been living for years, he first wrote poems under the pen name Habsi. The available biographical data introduce him as a tragic figure. Spending muc…
Date: 2020-12-18

Hacı Bayram-ı Veli

(2,959 words)

Author(s): Ocak, Ahmet Yaşar
Hacı Bayram-ı Veli (Ḥāccī Bayrām-ı Velī) (749?-833/1348?-1430) was the founder of the (Bayrāmī) tarika ( ṭarīqa, lit., “way,” i.e., Ṣūfī order), which inspired the later (Melāmī) order (formed shortly after Hacı Bayram’s death, and whose members have worn since the origin the normal clothes of their day, and are followers of the doctrine of the “oneness of being” (waḥdat al-wujūd) going back to the teachings of the famous mystic of Andalusian origin Ibn ʿArabī (d. 638/1240 in Damscus). There are no extant sources from his period that refer to him, and w…
Date: 2020-12-18

Ḥaddād, Fuʾād

(626 words)

Author(s): Radwan, Noha
Fuʾād Ḥaddād (1927–85) was a poet who wrote in colloquial Egyptian Arabic. Born in Cairo to a Lebanese father, he was well versed in Classical Arabic and the colloquial traditions and was educated in French. He was instrumental in the birth of shiʿr al-ʿāmmiyya al-miṣriyya, a movement of poetry in the Egyptian colloquial dialect that veered away from the poetics of zajal, a traditional form of colloquial verse, and moved towards that of the contemporaneous modernist Arabic poetry. Ṣalāḥ Jāhīn (d. 1986), another pioneer of shiʿr al-ʿāmmiyya, whose first anthology was published in …
Date: 2020-12-18

Hadice Turhan Sultan

(1,052 words)

Author(s): Thys-Şenocak, Lucienne
Hadice Turhan Sultan (Khadīja ṭurkhān Sulṭān) (d. 10 Şaban (Shaʿbān) 1094/4 August 1683) was the favourite consort, or haseki (khāṣekī), of the Ottoman sultan İbrahim (İbrāhīm) I (r. 1049–58/1640–8) and the mother of Sultan Mehmed (Meḥmed) IV (r. 1058–99/1648–87). There are no records of her early life prior to entering the Ottoman harem, but she was most likely captured during a slave raid into the Russian steppes and entered the harem of Sultan İbrahim in 1049/1640, when she was approximately twelve years old. A…
Date: 2020-12-18

Hadım Süleyman Paşa

(683 words)

Author(s): Hathaway, Jane
Hadim Süleyman (Khādim Süleymān) Paşa (c. 861–954/1457–1547) was an Ottoman admiral and statesman under Sultan Süleyman (Süleymān) I (r. 926–74/1520–66). The sobriquet hadim ( khādim, literally, “servant”) indicates that he was a palace eunuch. Most available sources claim that he was Macar ( Mācār, Hungarian), although he would have been enslaved and castrated before the Ottoman absorption of southern Hungary in 948/1541. He may have been captured from forces allied with the Habsburg Empire during the conquests of Mehmed (Meḥmed) II (r.…
Date: 2020-12-18


(6,543 words)

Author(s): Pavlovitch, Pavel
Ḥadīth (Ar. lit., speech, narrative, pl. aḥādīth) is the technical term for Muslim Tradition about the exemplary practice of the prophet Muḥammad, enshrined in his words (aqwāl, sing. qawl) and deeds (afʿāl, sing. fiʿl) and his tacit approval (taqrīr) of his Companions’ words and deeds (for a more detailed nomenclature, see al-Ḥākim, Madkhal, 81). Ḥadīth is also each individual tradition about what the Prophet said, did, or tacitly approved. In contrast to the ontological status of the Qurʾān as God’s uncreated (qadīm) speech, ḥadīth—the substantive form of the adjective “new”…
Date: 2020-12-18

Ḥadīth commentary

(3,464 words)

Author(s): Blecher, Joel
Ḥadīth commentary (sharḥ al-ḥadīth, pl. shurūḥ al-ḥadīth, or, more rarely, tafsīr al-ḥadīth or taʾwīl al-ḥadīth) is the practice of interpreting a report or a collection of reports attributed to Muḥammad, his Companions, exemplars amongst the early generations of Muslims, or, for Shīʿīs, the Imāms. Construed broadly, the term could include any formal or informal oral or written gloss on a given ḥadīth. Narrowly defined, the practice of ḥadīth commentary refers to a cumulative and transregional tradition of line-by-line Muslim scholarly exegesis on individual ḥadīth and ḥadīth co…
Date: 2020-12-18

Ḥadīth criticism

(5,063 words)

Author(s): Pavlovitch, Pavel
In ḥadīth criticism the discipline of al-jarḥ wa-l-taʿdīl (impugning and accrediting) is aimed at evaluating the uprightness ( ʿadāla) of transmitters ( rijāl, lit. “men”) populating the chains of transmission ( isnād, pl. asānīd) of Muslim traditions ( ḥadīth, pl. aḥādīth). If the isnād is the genealogical tree of ḥadīth, then the evaluation of transmitters can be seen as an extension into the science of ḥadīth of the traditional genealogical pursuits of the Arabs, with added legal, theological, sectarian, political, literary, and ethnic concerns. Closely re…
Date: 2020-12-18

Ḥadīth, Ibāḍism

(2,237 words)

Author(s): Gaiser, Adam R.
Like other Muslims, Ibāḍīs have long employed ḥadīth (in the general sense of what was related about the Prophet and his community) in seeking to understand how Islam should be understood and practised (Wilkinson, Ibāḍism, 126). Up to the sixth/twelfth century, however, Ibāḍīs preserved attitudes towards ḥadīth that, on the one hand, remained closer to earlier Islamic approaches to it, but, on the other hand, increasingly diverged from Sunnī and later Shīʿī norms concerning ḥadīth. Since the sixth/twelfth century, Ibāḍīs have progressively adopted Sunnī standards for ḥadīth. This…
Date: 2020-12-18

Ḥadīth qudsī

(3,643 words)

Author(s): Graham, William A.
Ḥadīth qudsī (plur. aḥādīth qudsiyya, lit., holy tradition; also ḥadīth ilāhī, ḥadīth rabbānī, plur. aḥādīth ilāhiyya/rabbāniyya, lit., divine tradition; khabar, report, plur. akhbār, sometimes used instead of ḥadīth) designates a direct-discourse statement ascribed to God—hence the preferred translation “divine saying”—that is not from the Qurʾān but is reported normally in ḥadīth format, with supporting isnād (chain of transmitters), on the authority of the prophet Muḥammad. A divine saying is distinguished formally from a Qurʾānic revelation and…
Date: 2020-12-18

Hadiyya (Ethiopia)

(673 words)

Author(s): Braukämper, Ulrich
The Hadiyya of Ethiopia was a political entity belonging to the Muslim federation of Adal and inhabiting a large territory in southeastern Ethiopia between the seventh/thirteenth and the tenth/sixteenth centuries. The Hadiyya consisted of Cushitic- and Semitic-speaking ethnic groups who shared several cultural features, such as a strong Islamic influence and an agropastoralist economy. The groups that are presently labelled Hadiyya proper are part of the Highland East Cushitic cluster and are relat…
Date: 2020-12-18

Ḥaḍra in Ṣūfism

(1,050 words)

Author(s): Waugh, Earle H.
Ḥaḍra in Ṣūfism is generally translated as Presence—that is, it is capitalised to indicate the divine locus of the Ṣūfī’s mystical goal. The word also refers to the culminating moment in the sacred conclave of the Ṣūfī order (Ar. ṭarīqa, lit., way), in which the devotees go through a transcending experience. Meanings associated with the word therefore range from the theological implications of the mystical encounter to the socially cohesive experience of attending to spiritual realities with other like-minded seekers. It was given it…
Date: 2020-12-18

Ḥaḍramī diaspora in Southeast Asia

(1,105 words)

Author(s): Abushouk, Ahmed Ibrahim
Members of the Arab Ḥaḍramī diaspora in Southeast Asia, particularly those who settled in the Malay world, originally migrated from Ḥaḍramawt in southern Yemen, where they were influenced by push factors such as poverty, drought, and political disturbance, and pull factors, such as trading opportunities and Islamic missionary work in Southeast Asia. Their settlement and incorporation into and coexistence with new host societies occurred during three historical periods, the pre-colonial, colonial, and po…
Date: 2020-12-18


(3,923 words)

Author(s): de Fouchécour, Charles-Henri
Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad Ḥāfiẓ was a Persian lyric poet who lived in Shiraz from about 715/1315 to 792/1390. He is widely known for his Dīvān, a collection of five hundred poems. His work crowns four centuries of Persian poetry. Lyric poetry, far removed from any sort of literality, allowed him to convey his exceptional experience of love: “It was love that taught me to speak” ( Dīvān, 53, 4; all references in this article are to vol. 1 of the 1983 Khānlarī edition; the ghazal number is followed by the couplet number). This resulted from his seduction by a beloved one who “pillage…
Date: 2020-12-18

Hafiz İsmail Paşa

(954 words)

Author(s): Yeşil, Fatih
Hafiz İsmail (Ḥāfiẓ Ismāʿīl) Paşa (1171–1222/1758–1807) was an Ottoman statesman, grand vizier, and grand admiral. He was born in Istanbul, the son of a bostancı ( bostānci, gardeners of the imperial palaces), and grew up in the Bostancı Corps (Bostānci Ocak), where he became hasekiağası (khāṣekīāghāsı) on 12 Safer (Ṣafar) 1212/6 August 1797. On 18 Safer 1213/1 August 1798/, he was promoted to the post of bostancıbaşı ( bostānci başı, head of the Bostancı Corps), where he drew the attention of Selim (Selīm) III (r. 1203–22/1789–1807), and on 19 Recep (Rajab) 1219…
Date: 2020-12-18

al-Ḥāfiẓ li-Dīn Allāh

(979 words)

Author(s): Walker, Paul E.
Al-Ḥāfiẓ li-Dīn Allāh Abū l-Maymūn ʿAbd al-Majīd was the eleventh caliph of the Fāṭimid line (r. 297–567/909–1171). Born in ʿAsqalān in 467/1074 or 468/1075 to a son of the caliph al-Mustanṣir (r. 427–87/1036–94), he was the oldest surviving male in the royal family in 524/1130, when his cousin and predecessor, al-Āmir, was assassinated. Absent a clear heir to the throne—the infant son al-Ṭayyib, whose birth had been announced earlier, seems to have left the picture—authorities in the palace decla…
Date: 2020-12-18
▲   Back to top   ▲